Theories of Musical Rhythm and Meter
This is the second of two introductory chapters, focusing on recent theories of musical rhythm and meter and their application to the Lied. Rhythm and meter are discussed from the complementary perspectives of notation, perception, and performance. Topics include metric hierarchies, entrainment, hypermeter, phrase rhythm, metric “dissonance” (including syncopation and hemiola), and qualities of motion and energy. Notes on Schubert's “Der Lindenbaum” and Brahms's “Das Mädchen spricht” illustrate the analytic methodologies, which are adapted in part from work by Harald Krebs. Richard Cohn's metric graphs provide a further perspective on metric states. Rhythmic layers in the piano are discussed together with those of the poetry and vocal lines, and all three are considered in relation to poetic and musical meaning.
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