This chapter compares the ten post-communist members of the EU in terms of the dimensions detailed in the preceding chapters. To make the comparison intelligible, those dimensions are reorganized as follows: (1) the legislative framework pertaining to religion and religious life; (2) the powers and responsibilities assumed by the governmental agencies in charge of religious affairs; (3) the ease with which religious denominations gained official recognition from the state, and the differences among churches imposed upon by the authorities, the different tiers at which denominations could register, and the advantages resulting from such registration; and (4) the manner in which religious instruction was delivered in public schools. The aim is to understand more fully the ways in which church and state, religious and political actors have come together in these countries after the collapse of the communist regime, during their transition to democracy, and during the first years after they joined the EU. The chapter then identifies the areas of church-state relations that fall short of the “twin toleration” principle, with a view to identifying the cases where reforms are needed and to bring these countries closer to democratic standards.
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