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Implicit Motives$
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Oliver Schultheiss and Joachim Brunstein

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780195335156

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335156.001.0001

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Properties of Motive-Specific Incentives

Properties of Motive-Specific Incentives

Chapter:
(p.245) Chapter 9 Properties of Motive-Specific Incentives
Source:
Implicit Motives
Author(s):

Steven J. Stanton

Julie L. Hall

Oliver C. Schultheiss

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195335156.003.0009

Implicit motives orient one’s attention toward motivational incentives and energize and select behaviors that facilitate incentive attainment. Yet, the exact qualities of these incentives were not rigorously explored until recently, and early research reports hindered the field by only offering vague references to what motivational incentives were. This chapter discusses and critiques major models of motive-specific incentives by McClelland and colleagues from the 1950s and 1980s as well as those by Schultheiss in the 2000s. Lastly, this chapter argues that nonverbal signals are the core implicit motivational incentives and presents a motivational field theory of motivational incentives proposing that facial expressions of emotion function as motive-specific incentives.

Keywords:   implicit and explicit motivation, facial expressions of emotion, affect, motivational incentives, motivational field theory

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