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Paradise MislaidHow We Lost Heaven and How We Can Regain It$

Jeffrey Burton Russell

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195334586

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195334586.001.0001

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(p.195) Index

(p.195) Index

Source:
Paradise Mislaid
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Academia, 5, 113, 129–30, 139, 146–48
Activism, 118–19, 123, 147–48
Adam and Eve, 7–8
Adams, John (1735–1826), 56, 59
Adaptability and adjustment, 110–11
Addison, Joseph (1672–1719), 60–61, 169
Afterlife, 4, 80, 134, 155
Agnostic, word, 18, 94
Agnosticism, 43, 91, 95, 120, and passim
Albanese, Catherine, 171
Albee, Edward (1928–), 131
Albom, Mitch (1958–), 150
Alexander, Brooks (1936–), 182
Alighieri, Dante (1265–1321), 2, 11–12, 15, 17, 27, 32–34, 120, 122, 148, 154–55
“All honor, laud, and glory to Thee, Redeemer King,” 157
Allen, Prudence, R. S. M., 184
Allen, Woody (1935–), 149
Almond, Philip C., 164–65
Alphonsus Liguori (1696–1787), 81
Altizer, Thomas (1927–), 154, 183
Amato, Joseph, 181
America, idea of progress in, 59–60
Ancients and Moderns, dispute of, 32
Anderson, Pamela, 183
Angels, 4, 7, 25, 27, 32–34, 64, 89, 117, 143
Animals, 87, 155, 160
animal souls, 38–39, 74, 97
Anouilh, Jean (1910–1987), 131
Anthropic principle, 141–43
Antitheism, Antitheists, 18, 73
Aquinas, Thomas (1225–1274), 21, 29, 31, 35, 47–48, 122, 148
Arbib, Michael A. (1940–), and Mary B. Hesse (1924–), 151, 164, 166, 177, 180, 182, 184
Architecture and arts, 3, 11, 13, 20–21, 32, 77, 79, 123, 130, 134, 145, 159, 164
Ariès, Philippe (1914–1986), 117, 177
Aristarchus (c.220 BC), 33
Aristotle (384–322 BC), 19, 29–31, 34, 47, 90, 95
Arnold, Matthew (1822–1888), 101, 175
Assheton, William (1641–1711), 24, 165
Astronomy and astrophysics, 12, 21, 32–36, 81,141–44
Atheism, 1, 18, 26, 43, 143, and passim
Comte's rejection of, 72
as conventional wisdom, 55, 133–56
as crutch, 58
Enlightenment, 46–65
(p.196) Flew's rejection of, 140
Kant's rejection of, 65
in Spencer, 84
word, 18
Atoms, 26, 34, 79, 115, 141
Augustine (AD 354–430), 16, 28, 51, 53, 58, 117, 120, 122, 148, 153, 155
Awe, 60–61
Ayer, A. J. (1910–1989), 116, 177
Bacon, Francis (1561–1626), 19, 32, 37
Baden-Powell, Robert (1860–1937), 98
Bakunin, Mikhail (1814–1876), 73
Barbour, Ian (1923–), 177
Barfield, Owen (1898–1997), 140–41, 180
Barr, Stephen M., 151, 180, 182
Barrett, William (1913–1992), 170, 175, 177–79, 181
Barrow, John D. (1952–), 180
Barth, Karl (1886–1968), 122, 178
Barzun, Jacques (1907–), 73, 170, 172–74
Basri, Gibor B. (1951–), 164
Battson, Art, 180
Baumeister, Roy F., 167
Baxter, Richard (1615–1691), 25
Beatific Vision. see Vision of God
Beauty. see Esthetics
Becker, Carl (1873–1945), 166–169
Beckett, Samuel (1906–1989), 131, 149
Behaviorism, 111, 145
Behe, Michael (1952–), 139, 180
Being. see Ontology
Bellah, Robert (1927–), 134, 171, 179
Benedict XVI, Pope (2005–) [Joseph Ratzinger],98,155,183
Bentham, Jeremy (1748–1832), 56, 72
Bergson, Henri (1851–1941), 101
Berkeley, George (1685?–1753), 44
Berry, Wendell (1934–), 145, 179
Bertola, F., and U. Curri, 180
Bettelheim, Bruno (1903–1990), 175–76
Bible, 3, 9–10, 20–21, 23–24, 31–34, 37, 55, 64, 71, 105, 120, 126–27, 134, 137–38, 144, 154–55, 157, 159
allegorical reading of, 16
Barth on, 122
canon of, 123
eschatological reading of, 16
Darwin on, 91
Hebrew (Old Testament), 23, 51, 54, 57, 125–26, 157
as historical document, 24, 57, 73–74, 95, 99
metaphorical reading of, 16, and passim
moral reading of, 16
overt (“literal”) reading of, 16, 23, 35, 99, 128–29
rejection of, 50, and passim
traditional four levels of reading, 16, 23
truth of, vs. truth about, 57
Biblical Criticism,
Extreme, 124
“Higher” (Historical, Source, Form, Literary), 73–74, 95, 98, 105, 123–28
Moderate, 124, 127
textual, 74, 123, 125
Bingaman, Kirk A., 176
Biologist, biology, 88
Black, Edwin, 172
Blake, William (1757–1827), 78–79, 149, 171
Bodin, Jean (1530–1596), 158
Body-spirit dichotomy (body-soul dichotomy), 10, 22–25, 120, 125, 134
for Descartes, 37–38
Book of Life, at Judgment, 12, 23
Bostrom, Nick, 180
Bowler, Peter J., 172–74
Boyle, T. C. (1948–), 145
Brenner, Charles, 176
Breuer, Marcel Breuer (1902–1981), 145
British Association for the Advancement of Science, 90
Brooke, Rupert (1887–1915), 131–32
Browne, Janet, 173
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett (1806–1861), 80, 171
Bruno, Giordano (1548–1600), 34, 143
Buber, Martin (1878–1965), 120, 172, 178
(p.197) Budd, Susan, 95, 173–174
Buddhism, 4, 13, 51, 57, 96, 109, 129, 152, 158, 162
Buddle, Michael L. and John Wright, 178
Buechner, Frederick (1926), 145
Buffon, Comte de (1707–1788), 88
Bultmann, Rudolf (1884–1976), 125, 155
Bunch, Bryan, 180
Bunyan, John (1628–1688), 19–20, 27, 165–66
Burnet, Gilbert (1643–1715), 24–25
Burtt, Edwin Arthur (1892–1988), 166–67
Bury, John Bagnell (1861–1927), 169
Bynum, Caroline Walker (1941–),184
Cahagnet, Alphonse, 81
Calvin, John (1509–1564), 20, 47, 122, 148
Calvinism, 20, 24–25, 61, 63, 81, 109, 122
Campbell, Joseph (1904–1987), 79, 86, 109
Camus, Albert (1913–1960), 131, 177
Capitalism, 58, 76, 85, 118–19, 122, 139
word, 75
Capps, Donald, 176
Capote, Truman (1924–1984), 145
Carlson, Thomas (1965–), 147, 154, 175, 177–78, 181, 183
Carter, Brandon (1942–), 141
Carter, Stephen (1954–), 176, 181
Catholicism, Roman, 5, 19–24, 29–30, 33, 35, 61, 69, 81–82, 87, 120, 127, 130, 154–55
anti-Catholicism, 129, 151
and evolution, 98–99
impact of Higher Criticism on, 124–27
liberal, 122–23, 155
Causation and causality
in Aquinas, 10, 48
argument from, 47, 153
in Galileo, 36
in Hume, 48–49
Chambers, Robert (1865–1933), 89
Channing, William Ellery (1817–1901), 171
Charismatic movement, 128
Chitty, Susan, 171
Choice. see Free Will
Chomsky, Noam (1928–), 147
Christ, word, 8
Christianity, 111
ancient and medieval, 4
attack on by Communism, 75–76
attack on by Hume, 46–55
cosmology of, 29
definition of, 3, 51, 78, 113, 125–27, 152
despised by Nietzsche, 104
liberal, 55, 74, 87, 99–100, 109, 116, 153–55
urged to accommodate physicalism, 41, 73
Chronocentrism, 13
Cicero (106–43 BC), 32, 148
Cicovacki, Predrag, 168
City of God, 12, 27, 105, 112, 160
Claeys, Gregory, 172
Cleanthes (331–232 BC), 7
Cohn, Norman (1915–), 169, 171
Collins, James, 170
Collins, John J., 165
Conyers, A. J., 172
Communalism, 20, 25, 27, 72, 117–18
Communion of Saints, Community, 11–12, 20, 25, 27, 60, 82, 117
Communism, 75–76, 116–19, 122
word, 75
Competition, 84–85
Comte, Auguste (1798–1857), 59, 72–73, 94, 138, 170
Concepts, 2–3, 13–14, 51, 78, 88, 126–27, 151–52, and passim
Condorcet, Marquis de (1743–1794), 59, 67, 72
Consciousness, 32, 36–37, 46–48, 74, 79, 94, 98, 110–11
denied, 110–15, 135, 140, 145–47, 158, and passim
in Descartes, 36–38
in Fichte, 76
in Kant, 64–65
in Leibniz, 46
(p.198) Consumerism, 58, 133, 151
Contingency, argument from, 47
Conyers, A. J., 183
Copernican shift, 12, 17, 31, 30, 35, 43, 57, 83
Copernicus, Nicolas (1473–1543), 32–34
Cosmos, 21, 131, 158
anthropic principle of, 141–43
blocking of, 160–61
center of, 28, 33–35
one with or one without marvels and miracles, 55
origin of, 5–9, 144
purpose of, 142, and passim
wondering about itself, 160
See also Universe
Council of Trent (1545–1563), 22
Cowper, William (1731–1800), 62
Creationism, 9, 99–100, 140
Crutches, atheism and heaven as, 58
“Critical thought.” see Deconstruction
Cullmann, Oscar (1902–1999), 120, 178
Culverwel, Nathanael (d. 1651), 26, 166
Cusa, Nicholas of (1401–1464), 35
D’Alembert, Jean LeRond (1717–1783), 56
Daly, Mary (1928–), 18, 152, 182
Darrow, Clarence (1857–1938), 87
Darwin, Charles (1809–1882), 71, 78, 84–94, 107, 110, 135, 137, 173
and eugenics, 91–92
and evil, 91
and Lamarck, 90
and natural selection, 89–90
and Progress, 93
and race, 92–93
and religion, 91
and speciation, 89–94
Darwin, Francis (1848–1925), 173
Darwinism, 105
and creationism, 99–100
Neo-Darwinism, 92–94
word and definition, 87–88, 92, 99
See also Evolution
Dasein, 118
Dawkins, Richard (1941–), 71, 135–138, 170, 179
Death, 10, 20, 22–24, 63, 87, 117–18, 133
near-death experiences, 80
Death of God, 103–4, 154
Deconstruction, 104, 134, 146–48, 154
Delumeau, Jean, 165–67, 178
Dembski, William A. (1960–), 49, 168, 180
Democritus (460–371 BC). see Atoms
Demythologizing and remythologizing, 125
Denham, A. E., 184
Denis the Small (Dionysius Exiguus, c. AD 5th–6th), 77
Dennett, Daniel (1942–), 136–38, 146–47, 179, 181
Denton, Michael J., 180
Derrida, Jacques (1930–2004), 147, 156
Descartes, René (1596–1650), 21, 31, 37–38, 41, 46, 57, 61
“Descent,” word, 88, 93
Design (or Purpose), argument from, 47, 49, 65, 70–71, 75, 142
or lack of (crux of question), 91, 96–97, 142, 151
Lamarck on, 71
Paley and, 70–71
rejection of by physicalists, 70, 88, 95, 116, and passim
theists defensive about, 83
Develop and Development, words, 69
Development hypothesis, 83
Devil, 18–19, 25, 33, 45, 119
Dewey, John (1859–1952), 111
Dialectical Materialism, 75
Dick, Steven J., 181
Dickinson, Emily (1830–1886), 80
Diderot, Denis (1713–1784), 56–57, 169
Dillard, Annie (1945–), 145
Disenchantment, 43, 112, 167
Dispensationalism, 128, 149–50
Donne, John (1572–1631), 22–23, 25, 28, 148, 165–66
(p.199) Dooley, Brendan Maurice, 167
Dostoevsky, Fyodor (1821–1881), 80, 171
Dowbiggin, Ian, 172
Doxology, 17
Doyle, Arthur Conan (1859–1930), 80, 101
Drake equation, 143–44
Draper, John W. (1811–1882), 95, 174
Drees, Willem (1954–), 151, 182
Dunton, John (1659–1733), 25
Dupré, Louis, 167
Durkheim, Emile (1858–1917), 112–14, 176
Dwight, Timothy (1752–1817), 60, 169
Dworkin, Andrea (1946–2005), 18
Earth
not believed to be flat, 29
planet, 7, 9, 17, 33–35, 141–42
worshipped, 153
Eastern Orthodoxy, 5, 19, 23–24, 120, 124, 127, 145, 153
Education, 80–81, 92, 111, 129–30, 139, 144–45, 156
Edwards, Jonathan (1703–1758), 63
Egalitarianism, 78, 86, 149
Egology, 110
Einstein, Albert (1879–1955), 114, 177
Eliade, Mircea (1907–1986), 109, 125
Eliot, T. S. (1888–1965), 86, 130, 184
Elites, intellectual, 2, 15, 26, 55, 129–30, 143, 155, 157, and passim
Elizabeth I (1558–1603), 20, 53
Ellis, Havelock (1859–1939), 87
“Emergent Church,” 154
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–1882), 74, 80, 171
Empiricism, 35–36, 39–40, 46, 115, 142
Empyrean, 11, 17, 21
Encounter theology, 121–22
End of the world, 8–9, 24, 39, 43, 100, 128, 155
Engels, Friedrich (1820–1895), 74–75, 171
Enlightenment, The, 43–61
Entropy, 9, 116
Epistemology, 29–30, 76, 80
denied, 146–49
in Hume, 46–55
in Kant, 64–66
in Locke, 40
Erasmus (1466–1536), 32
Eschatology, 24, 36, 43
Essences. see Qualities and Quantities
Esthetics, 60, 78, 104, 110, 113, 131, 149, 158
in Kant, 66
Romantic, 77–80
Eternity, 10–11, 26, 61–62, 74, 97–99, 134
Ethics, 66, 78, 92, 104, 110, 116, 136, 146–49
Eucharist, 30
Eugenics, 86–87, 145
Evangelicalism, 128–29
Evil, 17, 74–75, 160
Bertrand Russell on, 115–16
Christian tradition on, 12
Darwin on, 91
Enlightenment views of, 44–56
evasion of problem of, 45, 49, 74–75, 140, 145
Existentialist views of, 118–19
Hobbes on, 37
Hume on, 49–50
Kant on, 66
Marxism and, 58
and monotheism, 45, 97
Moore on, 116
Nietzsche on, 104
physicalism and, 97–98
in Process Theology, 153
Evolution, 12, 83–97
Christian reactions to, 97–100
definitions of, 70, 87–88
and evolve, words, 69–70, 88
and Lamarck, 71
metaphysical, 70
physicalist, 70, 72, 88, 90–98, 139–141 and passim. See also Physicalism
and purpose. see Design
(p.200) scientific evolution (evolution science), 70, 88, 99–100, 139
and social Progress, 83–87, 92
theological (theo-evolution), 70, 88, 97–99, 116
varieties of, 70
See also Darwin, Darwinism
Existentialism, 64, 104, 117–19, 121
Extraterrestrials, 7, 34, 49, 51, 54, 80, 98, 141–44
“Facts,” 31, 46–47
Faith, 11, 39, 50, 96, 101, 120, 153
Farber, Paul Lawrence, 174
Feelings and Sentiments, 38–39, 66–67, 77–80, 100–101, 119
Feminism, 105, 152–53
Feudalism, 75–76
Feuerbach, Ludwig (1804–1872), 73, 75, 170
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814), 76
Fideism, 55
Fifth Lateran Council (1513), 22
First Vatican Council (1869–1870), 81, 98
Fischer, Klaus P. (1942–), 168, 170
Fitzgerald, Edward (1809–1883), 82, 172
Flammarion, Nicolas Camille (1842–1925), 81
Flew, Anthony (1923–), 140, 180
Fontenelle, Bernard de (1657–1757), 59, 143
Forsyth, James, 176
Foucault, Michel (1926–1984), 147
Frazer, Sir James (1854–1941), 86, 107, 109
Free will, 7–8, 10–11, 56, 66, 72, 77–78, 137, 154, 159
and animals, 38–39
in Existentialism, 117–119
for James, Nietzsche, and Schopenhauer, 77
and predestination, 8
Freneau, Philip (1752–1832), 59–60, 169
French Revolution, Decree on Supreme Being (1794), 56
Freud, Sigmund (1856–1939), 73, 105–9, 135
not physicalist, 108
and Oedipal revolt, 106–7
and religion, 105–9
Freudians, 105, 108–9, 127
Frykholm, Amy Johnson, 182
Fundamentalism, 128–29
Futuyma, Douglas (1942–), 135, 179
Gage, Matilda Joslyn (1826–1898), 18
Galaxy, galaxies, 9, 34–35, 98, 114–15, 141
Galilei, Galileo (1546–1642), 21, 33–36
Galton, Francis (1822–1911), 86
Gardner, Helen (1909–1986), 165
Gaudi, Antonio (1852–1926), 145
Genesis, Book of, 99. See also Bible
Genetics, 38, 85, 90, 135
Geology, 71, 76, 84, 88, 99
and geologist, words, 88
Gerhardt, Paul (1606–1676), 62
Ghosts, 80
Gibbon, Edward (1731–1794), 56, 59, 64
Gilson, Etienne (1884–1978), 170
Gimbutas, Marija (1921–1994), 152
Glory, 9, 11, 20, 22–23, 26–28, 39, 61, 82, 120, 133, 157
God
absolute and ordained powers of God, 29, 48–52
action of, for Existentialists, 118–19
allegedly disproved, 99, 137–38
classical concept of, 5–12
existence and subsistence of, 5–6, 65, 118, 154, 158
and gender usage, 5, 152–53, 157–58
as hypothesis, 70
immanence and transcendence of, 6, 41, 44
marginalized, 39–40, 50, and passim
as Mother, 157–58
as pal, 60–61
in space and time, 5–6, 16
“God gene,” 108, 137
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von (1749–1832), 80, 119, 177
(p.201) Golden Age, 32
Gould, Stephen Jay (1941–2002), 137, 151, 182
Grace, 26, 120, 159
Grant, Edward, 166
Grasse, Paul, 180
Gratitude, 5, 131–32, 145, 148, 157, 159–62
Gray, Asa (1810–1888), 85, 98
Great Chain of Being, 33–35, 49, 89
Greco-Romans, 13, 31–32, 58, 93, 115
Greeley, Andrew (1928–), 155, 184
Greene, Brian (1963–), 137, 181
Greene, John C., 172–73, 180–81
Greene, Graham (1904–1991), 130
Habermas, Gary, 180
Haeckel, Ernst (1834–1919), 87
Hall, Amy Lauren, 172–73
Hamann, Johann Georg (1730–1788), 171
Hamer, Dean H., 179
Harper, Charles, 96
Harrison, Peter, 168
Hartshorne, Charles (1897–2000), 153, 177, 183
Heaven
activity in, 12, 25, 60, 64, 82, 100, 134
anthropocentric, 10, 19, 33
as anti-Christian, 153–54
Bertrand Russell's scorn of, 116
for Bultmann, 125
caricatured, 1, 81, 101–2, 131–32, 138
classical Christian concept (tradition) of, 5–12, 61, 160–162, and passim
communal, 24–25, 27, 60, 81
concept of, 2–3
cozy, 60, 64, 80, 100–101, 122
decline of, passim
defined, 2–4, 14, 22, 41, 122, 155, 157, 160–61
dynamic, 6, 11, 82, 153, 157
egalitarian, 11, 91
external and internal history of, 3
family and friends in, 5, 60, 64, 80–81, 134
fragmentation of in twentieth century, 133–56
geography of, 12, 27–28, 122
heavens, physical, 35
intellectual, 5, 25, 82, 134
Kingdom of God, 43–44, 58, 73, 123, 155
Kingdom of Heaven, 11, 44, 125, 131
for Locke, 39
reality of, 5–6, 109–10, 119, 159–62
rejection of, 26, 44, 158, and passim
separated from physical universe, 21
social history of, 3
in space and time, 32, 41
as state of mind, 61
tensions in concept of, 10–12
theocentric, 5, 10, 19
word, 2
in world cultures, 1, 3–4, 13, 31, 47, 51, 57–59, 61, 96, 109, 120, 122, 129, 152, 154, 158–62
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831), 74, 170
Heidegger, Martin (1889–1976), 117–18, 177
Heilsgeschichte, 127
Hell, 4, 8, 18–19, 24, 26, 39, 56, 63–64, 66, 74, 81, 116
Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744–1803), 171
Herrick, James A., 182
Herschel, William (1738–1822), 21, 34
Hick, John (1922–), 154
Hierarchy, 19, 21
Higgs Field, 142
Himmelfarb, Gertrude (1922–), 172–74
Hinduism, 4, 57, 96, 109, 129, 162
“History,” replacing “God,” 76
Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679), 37
Holbach, Baron d’ (1723–1789), 56–57
Holton, Gerald James, 181
Holy Spirit, 2, 6, 31, 103, 106, 128, 148
Hominids, Homo sapiens, humans, 7, 35, 38–39, 88, 144
(p.202) Hope, 39, 54–55, 58, 132, 162
Hopkins, Gerard Manley (1844–1889), 98, 103, 174–75, 184
Hubble, Edwin (1889–1953), 114–15
Hugo, Victor (1802–1885), 80
Hume, David (1711–1776), 40, 46–55, 58, 60, 64–65, 71, 91, 124, 168–69
Husserl, Edmund (1859–1938), 119, 177
Hutton, James (1726–1797), 71, 88
Huxley, Aldous (1894–1963), 131
Huxley, Julian (1887–1975), 148
Huxley, Thomas H. (1825–1895), 85–86, 88, 90–91, 94–96
Huygens, Christiaan (1629–1695), 143
Hymns, 60–63
Hyperliteralism, 23–24, 33, 71, 96, 99, 137, 140–41, 144
Idealism, 44, 64, 74–75, 104
Ideas
as epiphenomena, 75, 113
real consequences of, 3, 13, 19
reification of, 76
Immortality
for Bacon, 37
for Dostoevsky, 80
for Emerson, 80
through fame, 44
and Feuerbach, 73
for Hegel, 74
rejection of, 73, and passim
and Resurrection, tension between, 10, 22–23, 102, 120, 134, 155
for Wordsworth, 79–80
Impey, Chris, 181
Incarnation, 2, 8, 26, 51, 77, 95, 122
Individual, individualism, 20, 23, 73, 77
in Nietzsche, 104
words, 73
Intelligent Design, 75, 94, 137–40
Isaiah, Book of, 23, 56
Islam, 3–4, 31, 58, 109, 127, 129, 152, 154, 162
Israel, Jonathan, 26, 43, 166–67, 169
James, William (1842–1910), 66, 73, 77, 103, 105, 120, 175
Jansenists, 20, 24, 81, 109
Jantzen, Grace, 183
Jaspers, Karl (1883–1969), 117, 177
Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826), 56, 148
Jenkins, Jerry B. (1949–), 149
Jenkins, Philip, 178, 182
Jerusalem, 12, 63
Jesus Christ, 8, 26, 33, 45, 51, 58, 62–63, 70, 95, 98, 104, 122, 125–28, 150, 154–55
“Historical Jesus” and “Theological Christ,” 74, 123–24
as mother, 158
not divine, 123, and passim
search for historical, 73–74
“Jesus Seminar,” 74, 125
John Paul II, Pope (1978–2005), 98, 154, 165
Johnson, Christopher Jay, and Marsha G. McGee, 163, 182
Johnson, Philip (1907–2005), 145
Johnson, Phillip (1940–), 139, 180
Jones, E. Fay (1921–2004), 145
Jonte-Pace, Diane, 176
Judaism, 3–4, 31, 47, 57, 59, 61, 120, 129, 162
Judgment, 153
fear of, 60, 64
Last, 22, 24, 58, 128
for Locke, 39
Jung, Carl G. (1875–1961), 79, 86, 109–10, 120, 176
Justice, 8–9, 11, 50, 64, 110, 113, 131, 145
Kafka, Franz (1883–1924), 131
Kant, Immanuel (1724–1804), 31, 60, 64–66, 76, 170–71
Categorical imperative for, 65
pure reason and practical reason in, 65–66
and will, 66
Kaufman, Gordon, 153–54, 183
Keller, Michael, 183
(p.203) Kelly, Joseph F., 168
Kemp, N. D. A., 172
Kennedy, Rick, 166–67, 169
Kent, J. H. S., 171
Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630), 33, 35–36, 143
Kierkegaard, Søren (1813–1855), 79
Kingsley, Charles (1819–1875), 80–81, 98, 172
Koestler, Arthur (1905–1983), 131
Kreitman, Norman, 164, 184
Kselman, Thomas A., 80, 170–71
Kuhn, Thomas (1922–1996), 41, 167
Küng, Hans (1928–), 155, 183
Lackey, Michael, 175
La Mettrie, Jacques Offray de (1709–1751), 56
LaHaye, Tim (1926–), 149
Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste (1744–1829), 71, 88
Laplace, Pierre Simon de (1749–1827), 70
Lasalle, Ferdinand (1825–1864), 73
Lasch, Christopher (1932–1994), 169
Latter-Day Saints (LDS, Mormons), 63, 100, 129
Law, 86, 134
natural law, 52, 91, 94, 110, 148
Le Corbusier, Edouard (1887–1965), 145
Leenhof, Frederik van (1647–1713), 25, 61
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716), 46, 57
Leon, Sharon M., 173
Lewis, C. S. (1898–1963), 130, 149, 182
Lewontin, Richard (1929–), 135, 179
Liberty, 3, 56, 58, 67, 84–85, 144
Life, scientific origins of, 97
Light, 17, 28, 34, 43, 61–62, 125
Lindberg, David C., 166–67, 174
Lindsey, Hal (1929–), 149, 182
Linguistics, 84, 115–17
Linnaean Society, 90
Literal, Literalism, terms, 15
See also Overt
“Literary Theory.” see Deconstruction
Livingstone, David N., 174
Livio, Mario, 181
Locke, John (1632–1704), 39–40, 46, 55, 65–66, 124, 148, 167
Logical Positivism, 115
Losick, Richard, 146
Lossky, Vladimir (1903–1958), 164
Love, 6–7, 11, 25, 60, 62, 64, 80, 84, 104, 113, 153–54, 156–62
Lovejoy, Arthur O. (1873–1962), 164, 173
Lowest common denominator, 154, 162
Lumsden, Douglas, 165
Luther, Martin (1483–1546), 10, 20, 39, 63, 122
Lutheranism, 30, 61
Lyell, Charles (1797–1875), 71, 88
Lynch, David (1946–), 149
Lyotard, Jean-François (1924–1998), 147
Macarthur, Kenneth C., 87
Majesty, 27, 60–61
Malebranche, Nicholas (1638–1715), 41
Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834), 75, 84, 89
Manuel, Frank, 56, 152, 167–69, 171, 182
Marion, Jean-Luc, 183
Maritain, Jacques (1882–1973), 120
Marsden, George, 129–30, 178
Marsak, Leonard (1924–), 110, 166, 170
Marx, Karl (1818–1863), 59, 74–76, 107, 112, 135, 171
Marxism, 58, 96, 105, 127, 129
Mary, 23
bodily Assumption of, 120
Mother of Christ, 19–20, 155
Materialism, materialist,
word, 13
See also physicalism
Mathematics, 31, 35–36, 41, 115, 135
Mavrodes, George, 183
Mayr, Ernst (1904–2005), 94
McDannell, Colleen, and Bernhard Lang, 19, 81–82, 165, 169–72, 174–75, 178
(p.204) McGee, J. Sears, 165
McGinn, Bernard, 165
McGrath, Alister, 166, 169
Mechanical views of cosmos, 37–40, 44, 56, 70–71, 79, 84, 89, 94, 101, 148
Meissner, W. W., 176
Mendel, Gregor (1822–1884), 90
Metaphor, 11–16, 155–162, and passim
and Bible, 125, and passim
definition of, 15
depth-metaphors, 15–16, 23, 120–21
devalued, 41, and passim
privatization of, 78–79, 149–50
Metaphysics, 31, 65, 72
defined, 31
denied, 47, 70, 84–86
Physicalist. see physicalism
Methodism, 61–62
Mill, John Stuart (1806–1873), 72–73, 103
Millenarian ideas, 24, 100, 128
Milton, John (1608–1674), 25–27, 166
Mind. see Consciousness
Miracles, 150
for Augustine, 51
bracketed, 124
Christianity based on, 50–51
definition of, 51–53
denied, 74, 95, 126, and passim
Hume's attack on, 50–55
for Locke, 39–40
“Missing link,” 87–88
Mitchell, W. J. T., 171
Monotheism, 3, 45, 47, 109
Montaigne, Michel de (1533–1592), 19, 32, 37
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis (1689–1755), 45
Monty Python, 149
Moody, Dwight L. (1837–1899), 81
Moore, G. E. (1873–1958), 115–16
More, Henry (1614–1687), 24–25, 165
Morrow, Lance, 168
Motion, argument from, 47–48
Mythology, 13, 74, 78, 86, 109, 125, 136, 154–55
National Academy of Sciences, on religion and evolution, 96
Natural philosophy, 21, 29, 35, 41, 64
becoming “science,” 28–29, 35–36, 44, 69
Natural selection, 84, 91–92
Natural theology, 36, 47
defined, 21, 26–27
Naturalism. see physicalism
Nature, 26, 28, 31, 35, 38, 72–73, 131, 134, 138
Mother Nature, 78, 86, 100, 102
redefined in 1662, 35, 162
word, 35, 78
Naeye, Robert, 181
Nazis, Hitler, 58, 66, 85–86, 104, 111, 118–19, 122, 146–47
near-death experiences. see Death
“Negative theology,” 121, 154. See also Nominalism; Ockham
Neiman, Susan, 168
Neo-orthodoxy, 122
Neopaganism, 150–51
Neoplatonism, 21, 49
New Age, 150–51
New Thought, 101
Newberg, Andrew, Eugene d’Aquili, and Vince Rause, 176
Newell, William Lloyd, 176
Newman, John Henry, Cardinal (1801–1890), 69, 98
Newman, Sharan, 81
Newton, Isaac (1642–1727), 34, 36, 40–41, 79
Newton, John (1725–1807), 62
Niebuhr, Reinhold (1892–1971), 120
Nietzsche, Friedrich (1844–1900), 66, 77, 96, 103–5, 117, 119, 175
Nihilism, 101–4
Nisbet, Robert (1913–1996), 113, 166, 169
Nominalism, 29, 48. See also Ockham
Noumena, 65
Novalis (Friedrich Leopold von Hardenburg, 1772–1801), 80
(p.205) “Now,” meaning of, 6
Number, The, 31
Numbers, Ronald L., 167, 173–74
Oakley, Francis (1931–), 166
“Objectivity,” “Objective reality,” 1, 112, 118–19
O’Connor, Flannery (1925–1964), 50, 130–31, 168, 178
Ockham, William of (1285–1347), 29, 48
Olson, Richard, 180
Ontology, 30, 47, 118. See also Great Chain of Being
Origen (c. AD 185–254), 16
Original sin, 7–8, 44–45, 83, 153
Orthodoxy, Eastern. see Eastern Orthodoxy
Orwell, George (1903–1950), 130–31, 178
Osiander, Andreas (1498–1552), 35
Osteophyte, disappearance of, 52–53
Ottenheimer, Martin, 173
Otto, Rudolf (1869–1937), 120
Overt meaning, 15–16, 21, 23, 96
Paganism, 17
Paleontology, 88, 92
Paley, William (1743–1805), 71
Palmer, Michael, 176
Panentheism, 44
Panikkar, Raimundo, 96
Pantheism, 18, 25, 39, 44, 74, 80, 98, 119, 153
and Whitehead, 153
word, 44
Paradise, 4, 12, 57, 63, 82–83, 97, 100
Parliament, 1650 Act of, 18
Parsons, Keith, 171
Pascal, Blaise (1623–1662), 35
Paterson, R. W. K., 151, 165, 175, 182
Patterson, Robert M., 172
Paul, Apostle and Saint, 2, 24, 39, 117, 125
Paul, Diane B., 172
Peace, 4, 25, 134
Peck, Scott (1936–), 145
Peirce, C. S. (1839–1914), 110, 117
Pelikan, Jaroslav (1923–), 163
Pentecostalism, 128
Perkins, William (1558–1602), 22, 27, 165
Permian Period, 76
Perpetua, 23
Peter, Saint, 12
Petrarch (1304–1374), 32
Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart (1844–1911), 100–101, 174
Phenomena, word, 31
Phenomenology, 119
Philosophes, 56–57
Philosophy, 3, 13, 32, 46–55, 72, 92, 115, 136, 155, and passim
Anglo-American (as opposed to Continental) philosophy, 46, 115–16, 119
compatibility with Christianity, 28
Physicalism, 13–14, 25, 30–32, 36–38, 41, 44–46, 69–70, 80, 82, and passim
in Bacon and Hobbes, 37
cognitive dissonance of, 54, 114, 147, 158–59
defined, 13, 70, 135
denied by Putnam, 152
and evolution. see Evolution
in Hume, 55
metaphysics of, 70, 84–92, 96, 100, 135–41
rejected by Romantics, 77
in social sciences, 112–14, and passim
in Spencer, 84–85, 96
twentieth-century, 134–56
Physics, 6, 14, 28, 33, 135, 143, 153
physics, physicists, words, 88
Pickering, W. S. F., 176
Pinter, Harold (1930–), 131
Pius IX, Pope (1846–1878), 81, 98
Pius XII, Pope (1939–1958), 98, 120, 127
Planck, Max (1858–1947), 114
Planets, 14, 21, 34, 141–44
Plantinga, Alvin (1932–), 3, 40, 51, 65, 124, 148, 158, 163, 167–68, 170, 176, 178, 181, 184
(p.206) Plato, Platonism, 10, 19, 21, 24, 30, 35, 38, 61, 104
Plekhanov, Georg Valentinovich (1856–1918), 75
Plenitude of forms, 98
Poetry, 3, 15, 77, 79, 161–62. See also under individual poets
Polanski, Roman (1933–), 149
Political Correctness and “right-thinking,” 58, 112, 123, 129–30, 136, 140, 146–48
Polkinghorne, John (1930–), 151–53, 180, 182–83
Pollock, Jackson (1912–1956), 130
Pontifical Biblical Commission of 1948, 127
Positivism, 72–73
Postman, Neil (1931–2003), 148, 179, 181
Postmodernism. see Deconstruction
Pragmatism, 64, 110–13
Praise, 10, 27
Presbyterians. see Calvinists
Price, George McReady (1870–1963), 99
Pride, 8
Prime mover, 43, 48, 97
Primum mobile, 21, 34
Principles, as opposed to opinions, 133–34, 148–49
Pringle-Pattison, A. Seth (1856–1931), 168
Process Theology, 6, 97, 119, 153
Progress, 28, 66, 69–70, 86, 149
ambiguity of, 70
for Augustine, 28, 58
Bertrand Russell's doubts about, 116
Christian view of, 59
for Comte, 72–73
for Condorcet, 59, 67
defined, 45–46, 57, 69
developmental, 57
Enlightenment, 45, 57–60
and eugenics. see Eugenics
and evolution, 83–101
Hume's disbelief in, 50
idea of in America. see America
ideology of, 83–89
for Kant, 66
for Liberal Christianity, 123
Marxist, 59
for Nietzsche, 103
physicalist, 69, 72, 92–93, and passim
providential, 57
and racism. see Racism
reversible or irreversible, 72, 94–95
for Rousseau, 67
secular and social, 69, 73, 84–88, 101, 148–49, and passim
of soul, 60. See also Latter-day Saints and Swedenborg
stages of, 59
theological (theo-evolution), 70, 88, 97–99, 102, 116
twentieth-century views of, 110–11
utopian, 57
word, 57–58, 69
“Progressive Christianity,” 50–51
Protestantism, 5, 19–28, 33, 35, 98, 120, 154
Impact of “Higher Criticism” on, 124–29
Liberal, 74, 99, 122–23. See also Christianity, liberal
Protestant ethic, 82, 112
Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1809–1865), 73
Psychology, 12–13, 44, 103, 105–10, 112–13, 145
Purgatory, 4, 20, 63, 81
Purpose. see Design
Putnam, Hilary (1926–), 13–14, 51, 135, 152, 164, 168, 179, 182
Quality and quantity, 29–31, 35–38, 40
Quantum mechanics, 114, 142–44
Racism, 59, 84–87, 91–92, 118, 130
Rahner, Karl (1904–1984), 120, 155, 183
Raleigh, Sir Walter (1554–1618), 21, 165
Ralls, Mark, 179
Randles, W. G. L., 165–66
(p.207) Ranft, Patricia, 184
Rapture, 128
Rationality, 31, 40, 49, 66
for Hume, 46–55
term, 31
Ratzinger, Joseph. see Benedict XVI
Rauschenbusch, Walter (1861–1918), 123, 178
Reasonableness and testimony, 31, 40, 53–54
Reductionism. see physicalism
Reformation, 19–26, 33, 117, 124
Reimarus, Hermann (1694–1768), 74
Reincarnation, 80, 134
Relativism, 36, 49, 66, 87, 104, 110, 114, 127, 140, 146–50, 153, 155, 160, and passim
Relativity, 114
Religion, 15, 103, 109, 155
attempts to find physical bases for, 80–81
for Freud, 105–9
for Marx and Engels, 75
and ritual, 113–14
and science, peace between, 96, 138, 143, 151, 156, 159
and Science, “war” between, 91, 95–96, 138, and passim
social study of, 44, 47, 112–14, 124
and subjectivity, 79
validity of (relative), 158
Renaissance, 32
Renan, Joseph Ernest (1823–1892), 73, 82, 170
Resurrection, 10, 20, 25, 39, 61–62, 98, 103, 128, 155
denied, 44, 50–51, 95, 153, and passim
Resurrection and Immortality, tension between. see Immortalty
Revealed theology, 26–27
Revelation, Book of, 11–12, 20, 27, 56, 78, 149
Reward and punishment, 8–9
Richard, Gaston, 176
Richards, I. A. (1893–1979), 116
Ricoeur, Paul (1913–2005), 156, 164, 177, 184
Rights, 3, 78, 85, 110, 148, 159
Rilke, Rainer Maria (1875–1926), 121, 178
Rizzuto, Ana Maria, 175–76
Roman emperors, 27
Romantic, Romanticism, words, 77
Romanticism, movement, 66–80, 104, 119
Rorty, Richard (1931–), 147
Rosen, Christine, 172
Rosenfield, Leonora, 167
Rouault, Georges (1871–1958), 130
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778), 56, 66–67, 77, 79
Rowe, Dorothy, 179
Rowe, Elizabeth Singer (1674–1737), 63, 169
Ruether, Rosemary R. (1936–), 152, 182
Rupp, Susanne, 165–66
Russell, Bertrand (1872–1970), 115–16, 119, 177
Russell, Jeffrey B. (1934–), 163–67, 171, 174–75, 184
Russell, Jennifer (1957–), 184
Saarinen, Eero (1910–1961), 145
Sade, Marquis de (1740–1814), 45
Sagan, Carl (1934–1996), 98, 137, 140, 143
Sayers, Dorothy (1893–1957), 130
Saint-Simon (Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de [1760–1825]), 75
Sankey, Ira D. (1840–1908), 81
Sartre, Jean-Paul (1905–1980), 117–19, 149, 177
Saussure, Ferdinand de (1857–1913), 116–17, 177
Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von (1759–1805), 72
Schleiermacher, Heinrich (1768–1834), 73, 170
Schlimmverbesserung, 45, 137
(p.208) Schönborn, Christoph, 174
Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788–1860), 77
Schweitzer, Albert (1875–1965), 74
Science, physical, 3, 9, 15, 29, 31, 35, 72–73
attacked by Deconstruction, 146
definition of, 96
popular misunderstandings of, 114–15
and religion. see Religion and Science
and scientist, words, 28–29, 36, 88
Scientific Revolution, 28
Sebold, Alice (1963–), 150
Sedgwick, Adam (1785–1873), 98
Semiotics, 117
SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), 49
Sex, 7–8, 60, 64, 73, 80, 90, 102, 106–7, 148
Shakespeare, William (1564–1616), 77, 164
Shanks, Niall, 180
Shermer, Michael (1954–), 168
Silk, Joseph, 181
Simeon, Saint (949–1022), 9
Skeptic, word, 18
Skepticism, religious, 18, 26, 39, 158, and passim
for Hume, 46–55
Skinner, B. F. (1904–1990), 145, 181
Smart, Ninian (1927–2001), 96
Smeeks, Hendrik, 61
Smith, Adam (1723–1790), 59
Smith, Joseph (1805–1844), 64, 100
“Social Darwinism,” 84
Social Gospel, 122–23
Social sciences, 111–14
Sociology, 3, 12,
and Comte, 72
European, 112–14
metaphysics of, 112–13
origin of, 72
of religion, 47, 108
Sokal, Alan (1955–), 181
Song, 27–28, 155
Soul, 10, 20, 22–26, 80, 97, 100, 155
Bertrand Russell denies, 116
Darwin on, 93
Denied. see Consciousness
for Descartes, 38–39
for Hegel, 74
for Hobbes, 37
identity of self in heaven, 120
meaning of, 10, 125
for Newton, 40
soul-sleep, 10, 22
and spirit, distinction, 10
for Alfred R. Wallace, 97
word, 10
Spacetime, 16, 32, 41, 153
Special Creation of humans, 38, 83, 92–93, 97, 99
Species, origin of, development of, extinction of. see Darwin
Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903), 84–86, 96, 101–2, 110, 115, 172
Spheres, 11, 21, 34, 36
Spinoza, Benedict de (1632–1677), 24, 57, 123
Spirit-body dichotomy. see Body-spirit dichotomy
Spiritualism, 80–81, 101
Stalin, Joseph (1879–1953), 67, 75, 85–86, 111, 118, 147
Stanford, Peter, 163
Stark, Rodney (1934–), 113–14, 163–64, 176, 179, 183
Statistics, 4–5, 133–34
Stein, Stephen J., 165
Strauss, David Friedrich (1808–1874), 73
Sublime, 11, 66, 77
Suffering. see Evil
Sullivan, Randall, 52, 168
Supernatural, 43, 51
Superstition, 72, 88, 97
“Survival of the fittest,” origin of phrase, 84–86, 172
Susanna (Book of Daniel), 23
Swinburne, Richard (1934–), 39, 163, 167
(p.209) Swedenborg, Emanuel (1688–1772), 63–64, 79, 100, 170
Symbol and “Symbolist compromise,” 15–16, 120
Symbolic logic, 115–17
Technology, 58, 72, 112–13, 137, 139, 144, 159
Teleology, 43, 58, 94
Templeton Foundation, 96
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord (1807–1892), 102, 175
“Textual studies.” see Deconstruction
Theodicy (effort to reconcile Deity with evil). see Evil
Theo-evolution. see Evolution, theological
Theology, 3, 11, 91, 144, 154–55, 159
despised and rejected, 44, 104, 136–37, and passim
Theosis, 11
Theotokos, 20
Third Republic, law against religion in education (1882), 81
Tillich, Paul (1886–1965), 120
Time, 6, 71, 83, 98–99
Tipler, Frank J., 180
Tkacz, Catherine Brown, 125, 165, 178
Tkacz, Michael W., 151, 182
Toland, John (1670–1722), 50
Tolkien, J. R. R. (1892–1973), 130
Toulmin, Stephen (1922–), 151, 164
Tracy, David (1939–), 155, 184
Tradition,
in concepts, 3–4, 39, 110, 146
Christian, 9, 55, 71, 105, 120, 124, 134, 154
Traducianism, 25
Traherne, Thomas (1637–1674), 25, 165
Transcendence, 31, 41, 104, 109, 133, 137
Transcendentalism, 101
Trinity, 2, 6, 11, 51, 123, 155
Truth as false, 110–11
Tugwell, Simon, O. P., 155, 163, 165, 183
Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques (1727–1781), 59
Twain, Mark (1835–1910), 101–2, 131, 175
Typology, 23, 125
Tyson, Neil deGrasse, and Donald Goldsmith, 180
Uniformitarianism, 41, 71, 88
Union with God, 5, 11, 134, 158–59
Universalism, 8, 25
Universe
age of, 141, 144
center of, 28–35, 114–15
creation of, 5–7, 9
multiple universes, 141–43
See also Cosmos
Utilitarianism, 56, 72–73, 84, 146
Vahanian, Gabriel (1927–), 179, 183
Van Biema, David, 179
Van den Bild, Antonie, 183
Van Inwagen, Peter, 183
Vaughan, Henry (1621–1695), 28, 61, 169
Vico, Giambattista (1688–1744), 37, 44, 119
Vision of God (Beatific Vision), 11, 20, 25, 27, 82
Vision literature, 12. See also Dante
Vitalism, 101
Voltaire (1694–1778), 45, 50, 56, 64, 79
Wallace, Alfred Russel (1823–1913), 84, 88–90, 93, 173
Wallace, B. Alan, 152, 182
Wallace, Anthony F. C. (1923–), 176
Waller, James, 167
Walls, Jerry, 2, 25, 159, 163, 166, 169, 177, 180, 184
Walter, Tony, 134, 146, 163, 172, 179, 181
Ward, Peter, and David Brownlee, 180
Warhol, Andy (1928–1987), 130
Watchmaker, 44, 71
Watson, John B. (1878–1958), 111, 176
Watson, John Richard, 169
Watts, Isaac (1674–1748), 62, 169
Waugh, Evelyn (1903–1966), 130
(p.210) Weaver, Richard M. (1910–1963), 164
Weber, Max (1864–1920), 105, 112, 167
Weikart, Richard, 172–73
Wesley, Charles (1707–1788), 62
Wesley, John (1703–1791), 39, 62
Westminster Confession of Faith (1647), 22
Wheelwright, Philip (1901–1970), 156, 176, 184
Whewell, William (1794–1866), 69, 71, 95, 174
Whitcomb, John C. and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood, 99
White, Andrew Dickson (1832–1918), 95, 174, 177
White, Roger M., 184
Whitehead, Alfred North (1861–1947), 13, 119, 153, 177, 183
Whitman, Walt (1819–1892), 73, 170
Wholly Other, 120, 122, 158
Wilberforce, Samuel (1805–1873), 90
Will to action or power, 118–19
Williams, Charles (1886–1945), 130
Wilson, Edward. O. (1929–), 135–37, 179
Witchcraft, 14, 18–19, 26, 150, 152
Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1889–1951), 115–16, 119, 177
Wolfe, Tom (1931–), 145
Woodward, Kenneth L., 178–79
World, term, 7
Wordsworth, William (1770–1850), 79–80, 171
Wright, Frank Lloyd (1867–1959), 145
Wuthnow, Robert, 182
Zaleski, Carol and Philip, 163, 166, 170, 174, 177–79, 182
Zeffirelli, Franco (1923–), 149
Zion, 12, 27