New Immigrants, Rival Vanguards
This chapter explores competing definitions of “native” Hebrew identity claimed by two distinct social groups: a native generation that had been raised in the Zionist colonies and neighborhoods of the “first Aliya” and a group of immigrants who began arriving in 1903 and 1904, inaugurating what would become known as the “second Aliya.” Received initially with a mixed response from veteran Zionists, the *Labor‐Zionist immigrants among this new wave emerged as both partners and rivals in nationalizing the Yishuv. This rivalry contributed to the growth of a wide range of cultural activities, including the appearance of new celebrations, such as Passover fair in Rehovot, a symbol of Hebrew nativity; new rituals, such as pilgrimages to the graves of the Maccabees; and even the construction of “the first Hebrew city” of Tel Aviv. Many of those that would persist were, in the final analysis, syntheses of the cultural efforts of competing groups.
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