Although the term vihāra-pāla may not have been a confirmed word in Sanskrit, there are several available clues that assert the existence of the term. According to a certain passage which was used to look into the word karmadāna, it can be observed that vihāra-pāla was a term used to refer to those who guard and control the monastery gates, and those who announce what the community meeting was to be about. The vihāra-pāla is the one who is tasked to go around and individually ask a person's opinion in order to arrive at a consensus when certain decisions have to be made by the community. The chapter also illustrates how vihāra-pāla was found in Gāndhārī and Pāli literature, and how this term took two forms—viharavala and vyarivala—in Niya writings found in Central Asia.
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