An evolutionary exploration of victimization demands a more inclusive definition of victimization. This chapter argues that the genetic relatives, romantic partners, and close allies of the primary victims of exploitative or violent strategies also incur costs and can be considered secondary victims. Primary victims of crime share genes with all of their living genetic relatives. Because natural selection operates through the differential replication of genes, costs to genetic fitness resulting from the victimization of a family member are shared across all of the person's genetic relatives. Because a victim's closer genetic relatives share more copies of the victim's genes, the costs that they incur are greater than those endured by more distant genetic relatives. Spouses and close social allies can also be secondary victims, incurring costs as a result of loss of investment or protection, and perhaps by gaining a reputation of being vulnerable to exploitation. It is hypothesized that selection fashioned adaptations in both primary and secondary victims to prevent or stanch the costs of victimization.
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