Process of Cross-Cultural Instrument Development and Assessment
A research instrument is defined as a systematic and standardized tool for data collection. It includes all types of research questionnaires and standardized scales. There are three ways in cross-cultural research instrument development: adopting an existing instrument, adapting or modifying an existing instrument, and developing a new instrument. To develop a cross-culturally valid questionnaire or instrument, the concepts or constructs selected for the investigation must be clearly defined and bear the same meanings across the selected cultural groups. No good questionnaire can be developed without clear definitions. This is a matter of utmost importance for all levels of cultural comparative research and evaluation, whether it is a gender or racial/ethnic comparison within one society or across nations. Chapter 2 describes the process of cross-cultural instrument development, from formulating the research aims to the assessments of cross-cultural measurement properties.
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