This chapter demonstrates a priori sample size determination strategies presented in previous chapters. Specifically, for each procedure, minimum sample size are estimated with power analysis and confidence intervals (CIs). Free software, including GPower, commercial software, and web-based calculators are used to demonstrate the range of resources available for estimating minimum sample size. Sample sizes based on power analysis and CIs should be considered within the context of ethical and cost-related issues. Procedures demonstrated include difference between two means, difference between two proportions, odds ratio, relative risk, chi square, ANOVA, correlation, regression, logistic regression, structural equation modeling, and multilevel analysis.
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