Sex Differences in the Brain: What’s Old and What’s New?
The study of sex differences in the brain has a long, rich history and remains a vibrant and controversial topic that is central to the field of neuroscience both for its obvious relevance and its heuristic value. This chapter provides a brief historical perspective, largely by directing the reader to the many excellent reviews already available, while emphasizing emerging paradigm shifts in our view of the origin and functional significance of brain sex differences. It highlights two major new initiatives: the direct role of sex chromosome genes in determining brain sex differences, and, the novel theoretical view indicating that sometimes the sexes are striving to be the same. The chapter reviews 10 recent discoveries that have changed our thinking about sex differences in the brain.
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