Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Literacy and MotheringHow Women’s Schooling Changes the Lives of the World's Children$

Robert A. LeVine, Sarah LeVine, Beatrice Schnell-Anzola, Meredith L. Rowe, and Emily Dexter

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780195309829

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309829.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.169) Appendix B Additional Tables

(p.169) Appendix B Additional Tables

Source:
Literacy and Mothering
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Table B.1 Additional Demographic Information

Site and Dates

Sample

Adult SES1 Mean (SD)

Adult SES Range

Childhood SES2 Mean (SD)

Childhood SES Range

Mean Number of Children Living (SD)

Range of Number of Children Living

Mexico3:

Tilzapotla

1989–1990

78

4.2 (2.6)

0–7

1.2 (0.7)

0–2

3.2 (1.9)4

1–10

Nepal:

Urban5

1996–1998

86

2.03 (1.28)

0–4

0.92 (0.64)

0–2

2.4 (1.0)

1–7

Rural

1996–1998

81

0.88 (0.98)

0–4

0.99 (0.54)

0–2

2.7 (0.9)

1–7

Venezuela:

Caracas

1992–1995

161

2.01 (1.10)

0–4

6.15 (3.58)

0–16

2.4 (1.5)

1–9

Zambia:

Ndola

1990–1992

157

8.44 (2.17)

6–15

2.24

(2.52)

0–12

N/A

N/A

Nepal UNICEF

482

2.5

(1.6)

0–7

0.23

(0.53)

0–2

N/A

N/A

(p.170)

Table B.2 Regression Models Predicting Comprehension of Radio (Listening) and Print Health-Related Messages and Health Narrative Organization on the Basis of Maternal Schooling and Socioeconomic Controls, with and without Literacy Skills, Venezuela

β-Coefficient

(Standard Error)

Predictors

Listening Comprehension

(n = 161)

Print

Comprehension

(n = 132)

Health Narrative Organization

(n = 157)

First Model

(1)

Final Model

(2)

First Model

(3)

Final Model

(4)

First Model

(5)

Final

Model

(6)

Intercept

–0.33

(0.74)

0.95

(0.74)

0.32

(0.83)

0.83

(0.83)

1.89***

(0.55)

2.67***

(0.58)

Maternal schooling

0.13*

(0.05)

–0.02

(0.05)

0.09

(0.06)

0.01

(0.06)

0.12***

(0.03)

0.05

(0.04)

Childhood SES

–0.01

(0.04)

–0.03

(0.04)

0.03

(0.04)

0.02

(0.04)

–0.001

(0.03)

–0.01

(0.03)

Current SES

–0.19

(0.13)

–0.19

(0.12)

–0.18

(0.12)

–0.17

(0.12)

0.11

(0.09)

0.12

(0.08)

Maternal age

–0.01

(0.02)

–0.01

(0.02)

–0.03

(0.02)

–0.03

(0.02)

–0.01

(0.01)

–0.01

(0.01)

Illness severity

0.21**

(0.07)

0.17*

(0.07)

Literacy composite

0.61***

(0.13)

0.36**

(0.01)

0.31***

(0.09)

R 2 statistic

0.065

0.187

0.075

0.124

0.182

0.241

*p 〈.05; **p 〈.01; ***p 〈.001.

(p.171)

Table B.3 Regression Models Predicting Comprehension of Radio and Printed Health Messages on the Basis of Maternal Schooling and Socioeconomic Controls, with and without Literacy Skills, Lalitpur District, Nepal

β-Coefficient

(Standard Error)

Predictors

Auditory Radio Messages

(n = 167)

Visual Print Messages

(n = 107)

First Model

Final Model

First Model

Final Model6

Intercept

0.12

(1.03)

1.56

(0.95)

–0.63

(1.34)

0.87

(1.23)

Maternal schooling

0.26***

(0.04)

0.06

(0.05)

0.33***

(0.06)

0.13

(0.07)

Childhood SES

0.58*

(0.28)

0.42

(0.25)

0.61

(0.35)

0.46

(0.32)

Age

–0.07*

(0.03)

–0.07*

(0.03)

–0.06

(0.04)

–0.05

(0.04)

Current SES

–0.32

(0.16)

–0.44**

(0.15)

–0.16

(0.20)

–0.27

(0.18)

Husband’s schooling

0.08

(0.05)

0.05

(0.05)

–0.02

(0.07)

–0.07

(0.07)

Urban/rural dummy

–0.28

(0.37)

0.04

(0.33)

–0.67

(0.52)

–0.41

(0.47)

Literacy composite

1.11***

(0.18)

1.08***

(0.21)

R2 statistic (error df)

.4039

(160)

.5230

(159)

.3908

(100)

.5175

(97)

p 〈.10; *p 〈.05; **p 〈.01; ***p 〈.001.

(p.172)

Table B.4 Parameter Estimates, Approximate p Values, and Goodness-of-Fit Statistics for Fitted Logistic Regression Models Describing the Probability That a Woman Gives an Organized Narrative as a Function of Her Education and Literacy Skills Controlling for Background Variables, Nepal (n = 159)7

Predictors

Organized/Disorganized Narrative

First Model

Final Model

Intercept

–1.66

–.81

Maternal schooling

.19**

.09

Urban/rural dummy

–.76

–.63

Age

.08

.08

Current SES

.43

.39

Childhood SES

–.07

–.18

Husband’s schooling

–.06

–.08

Literacy composite

.73*

X 2 statistic

156.40

150.55

Change X 2

27.19

33.04

Pseudo R 2

.148

.180

p 〈.10; *p 〈.05; **p 〈.01; p 〈.001.

Note: Change X 2 refers to change from a baseline model with no predictors where X 2 = 183.598

(p.173)

Table B.5 Regression Model Predicting the Number of Idea Units from Jeevan Jal on the Basis of Maternal Schooling and Literacy Skills Controlling for Age and SES for Patan and Godavari Separately

Predictors

B-Coefficient

(Standard Error)

Oral Rehydration Salt task (ORS)

Patan (Urban)

(n=86)

Godavari (Rural)

(n=81)

First Model

Final Model

First Model

Final Model

Intercept

7.17***

(1.38)

7.28***

(1.36)

1.11

(1.77)

2.24

(1.64)

Maternal Schooling

0.27***

(0.06)

0.19**

(0.07)

0.31***

(0.06)

0.15*

(0.07)

Age

–0.12**

(0.04)

–0.11**

(0.04)

–0.05

(0.05)

–0.05

(0.05)

Childhood

SES

–0.01

(0.29)

–0.09

(0.29)

0.14

(0.39)

0.10

(0.35)

Current

SES

–0.07

(0.19)

–0.09

(0.18)

–0.06

(0.22)

–0.25

(0.21)

Husband’s Schooling

–0.06

(0.05)

–0.07

(0.05)

0.11

(0.07)

0.10

(0.07)

Caste 19

Maharjan

–2.22***

(0.56)

–1.93**

(0.57)

n/a

n/a

Caste 2

Sakya

–1.17*

(0.53)

–0.75

(0.57)

n/a

n/a

Caste 3

Vajracarya/

Brahmin

–0.81

(0.56)

–0.55

(0.57)

n/a

n/a

Literacy Composite

0.44∼

(0.24)

0.94***

(0.24)

R2 stat.

(Error df)

.5740

(77)

.5931

(76)

.5420

(75)

.6224

(74)

∼ p 〈 .10; * p 〈 .05; ** p 〈 .01; *** p 〈 .001; n/a not applicable for this site

(p.174)

Table B.6 Regression Models Predicting Maternal Health Knowledge on the Basis of Schooling, Literacy Skills, Media Exposure, and Controls, UNICEF Nepal (n = 482)

Predictors

Health Knowledge

B (se)

First Model

Final Model

Intercept

–1.66*** (.13)

–1.56*** (.16)

Maternal schooling

.22*** (.02)

0.12*** (.02)

Household wealth

0.15*** (.04)

0.10* (.04)

District (Chitwan =1)

0.66*** (.13)

0.70*** (.12)

Literacy

.

0.36*** (.09)

Media

0.32*** (.08)

R 2 Statistic

.389

.434

*p〈.05; ***p〈.001

(p.175)

Table B-7. Regression Models Predicting Maternal Health Behavior on the Basis of Schooling, Literacy Skills, Media Exposure, Health Knowledge, and Controls, UNICEF Nepal (n = 480)

Health Behavior

B (se)

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4

Intercept

2.82***

(0.25)

2.87***

(0.27)

3.27***

(0.27)

3.36***

(0.27)

Mother’s Schooling

0.17***

(0.03)

0.09**

(0.03)

0.07*

(0.03)

0.07*

(0.03)

Husband Schooling

0.11***

(0.03)

0.09***

(0.03)

0.09***

(0.02)

0.08***

(0.02)

Household wealth

0.30***

(0.06)

0.28***

(0.05)

0.23***

(0.05)

0.23***

(0.05)

Caste (Brahmin/Chetri = 1)

0.59***

(0.17)

0.65***

(0.16)

0.64**

(0.16)

0.66**

(0.16)

Rural

-0.45*

(0.19)

-0.36∼

(0.19)

-0.43*

(0.19)

-0.42*

(0.19)

Literacy

0.28**

(0.11)

0.18∼

(0.11)

0.37**

(0.13)

Media

0.28**

(0.10)

0.20*

(0.09)

0.18*

(0.09)

Health knowledge

0.29***

(0.05)

0.29***

(0.05)

Caste x literacy interaction

-0.37*

(0.15)

R 2 Statistic

.496

.513

.541

.548

p〈.10; *p〈.05; **p〈.01; ***p〈.001

(p.176)

Table B.8 Predicting Venezuelan Maternal Communication (Composite of Word Tokens, Word Types, and Pointing Gestures) Based on Maternal Schooling, SES, and Maternal Noun Definition Score

Maternal Communication Composite

Model 1

Model 2

Intercept

Mother’s schooling

–3.66*

(1.25)

0.15*

(0.08)

–2.49*

(1.28)

0.02

(0.09)

Mother’s childhood SES

0.18*

(0.07)

0.11

(0.07)

Mother’s adult SES

–0.30

(0.24)

–0.29

(0.22)

Mother’s age

0.08*

(0.04)

0.04

(0.04)

Mother’s literacy

(noun definitions)

0.22*

(0.09)

R 2 statistic (%)

29.8

39.0

*p ≤.05.

(p.177)

Table B.9 Taxonomy of Models Examining the Effect of Maternal Schooling and Control Variables on Home Supports in Nepal (n = 164)

Home Literacy Supports

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4

Intercept

10.35***

(0.99)

3.88***

(0.78)

3.33***

(0.80)

2.09*

(1.03)

Child’s age

–1.50***

(0.42)

0.01

(0.30)

0.08

(0.29)

0.17

(0.30)

Child’s grade in school

0.71

(0.37)

–0.01***

(0.24)

–0.05

(0.24)

–0.22

(0.25)

Maternal schooling

0.74***

(0.05)

0.58***

(0.08)

0.51***

(0.09)

Maternal literacy

0.77**

(0.29)

0.83**

(0.30)

Father’s schooling

0.06

(0.08)

Wealth

0.07

(0.23)

Mother’s age

0.03

(0.05)

Patan (urban residence)

1.00

(0.59)

R 2

.07

.60

.62

.63

p 〈.10; *p 〈.05; **p 〈.01; ***p 〈.001.

(p.178)

Table B.10 NEPAL: Regression Models Predicting Nepalese Children’s Language and Literacy Composite Score on the Basis of Maternal Schooling, Maternal Literacy, Home Supports, and Control Variables (n = 164)

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4

Model 5

Model 6

Intercept

4.08***

(0.40)

2.96***

(0.46)

2.68***

(0.47)

1.95**

(0.59)

2.57***

(0.49)

1.88***

(0.60)

Child’s age

0.38*

(0.17)

0.64***

(0.18)

0.68***

(0.18)

0.74***

(0.18)

0.64***

(0.18)

0.69***

(0.18)

Child’s grade

0.59***

(0.15)

0.46**

(0.15)

0.44**

(0.14)

0.37*

(0.15)

0.46**

(0.14)

0.41**

(0.15)

Mother’s schooling

0.13***

(0.03)

0.05

(0.05)

–0.01

(0.05)

0.07

(0.05)

–0.00

(0.05)

Mother’s literacy

0.39*

(0.17)

0.36*

(0.18)

Home literacy supports

0.10*

(0.05)

0.09

(0.05)

Father’s schooling

0.04

(0.05)

0.05

(0.05)

Family wealth

0.22

(0.14)

0.25

(0.14)

Urban

0.23

(0.34)

0.03

(0.33)

R 2

.23

.31

.33

.35

.33

.35

p 〈.10; *p 〈.05; **p 〈.01; ***p 〈.001.

Notes:

(1.) Adult SES was calculated in the following manner for each country:

Mexico (Tilzapotla)—Composite of four pieces of information: (a) whether the woman currently resides in the elite central neighborhood of Centro (3 points), and whether her home was equipped with (b) running water (2 points), (c) a refrigerator (2 points), and (d) a television (1 point).

Nepal (urban and rural)—Composed of the following variables: husband’s schooling and ownership of selected home appliances (radio, television, Star cable television, motorcycle, gas stove).

Venezuela—Composed of the following variables: having health insurance, employment, crowding (number of people living in the home), source of water supply, and ownership of selected home appliances (video cassette recorder, automobile, refrigerator, washing machine).

(p.179)

Zambia—Husband’s schooling (highest grade completed) and ownership of selected consumer items. Points were assigned as follows: 1 = does not own, 2 = owns each of the following: radio, cassette recorder, bicycle; and 1 = does not own, 3 = owns each of the following: TV, stove, radio. SES score consisted of her total on these items with possible scores ranging from 6 (owns none of the items) to 15 (owns all of the items).

Nepal UNICEF—Composite measure of how many of the following items are in the household: electricity, iron, telephone, bicycle, motorcycle, toilet, and type of house (Kachchi = 0, Pakki = 1).

(2.) Childhood SES was calculated in the following manner for each country:

Mexico (Tilzapotla)—Composite representing two pieces of information: (a) whether the woman was born in Tilzapotla and (b) whether her own mother could read; 1 point was assigned for each benefit so the variable ranges from 0 to 2. Birth in Tilzapotla was chosen as a childhood SES measure because those born in Tilzapotla tend to be of higher SES than migrants who came from more rural areas, where there is widespread poverty and illiteracy and few public resources.

Nepal (urban and rural)—Women were asked whether their parents could read. Points were assigned as follows: 0 = neither of a woman’s parents could read, 1 = one of her parents could read, 2 = both of her parents could read.

Venezuela—Composed of the following variables: woman’s mother’s literacy (i.e., whether she could read and write), highest grade level attained by woman’s mother, whether woman lived with both mother and father before entering school, and whether woman lived with both parents during primary school.

Zambia—Woman’s mother’s school grade level achieved.

Nepal UNICEF—Mother’s parents had some education: 0 = neither; 2 = both.

(3.) Data from the Cuernavaca site in Mexico are not included in the above table because we did not assess literacy in that sample. In that sample mothers had an average of 2.5 living children (SD = 1.6; range 1–10). For more information on the Cuernavaca data see: LeVine et al. (1991, 2003

(4.) For Mexico, data are for “Children ever born.

(5.) In the urban Nepal sample we also controlled for caste, as the sample was not homogeneous, as it was in the rural Nepal sample