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Evangelizing the SouthA Social History of Church and State in Early America$

Monica Najar

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195309003

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309003.001.0001

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(p.169) Appendix

(p.169) Appendix

Source:
Evangelizing the South
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Tables A3A9 and 3.1 are based on discipline cases of specific charges in 78 churches in Virginia (25 churches), North Carolina (18 churches), Kentucky (18 churches), and Tennessee (19 churches). The earliest Virginia church minutes included here begin in 1766, the North Carolina minutes in 1772, the Kentucky minutes in 1786, and the Tennessee minutes in 1785, though most Tennessee records date from after 1794. These tables do not include unspecified charges of disorder, misconduct, or dispute; they also do not include nonattendance and not hearing the church, charges that were often leveled at the end of an unsatisfactory disciplinary proceeding and therefore can mask the primary offense. (p.170)

Table A.1. Membership Numbers of Sample Churches by Sex and Race

Church

State

Date of Rolla

Total

White Men

White Women

Black Men

Black Women

Unknown

Chesterfield

Va.

1773

20

7 (35.0%)

12 (60.0%)

0

1 (5.0%)

0

Albemarle

Va.

1799

129

23 (17.8%)

33 (25.6%)

33 (25.6%)

40 (31.0%)

0

Broad Run

Va.

1801–1816

97

18 (18.6%)

28 (28.9%)

24 (24.7%)

27 (27.8%)

0

Hartwood

Va.

1806–?

136

32 (23.5%)

51 (37.5%)

27 (19.9%)

20 (14.7%)

6 (4.4%)

Providence

Ky.

1781

43

16 (37.2%)

25 (58.1%)

0

0

2 (4.7%)

Severn's Valley

Ky.

1796

41

16 (39.0%)

23 (56.1%)

1 (2.4%)

0

1 (2.4%)

Marble Creek

Ky.

1800–?

154

45 (29.2%)

61 (39.6%)

18 (11.7%)

30 (19.5%)

0

Burks Branch

Ky.

1801–1815

150

54 (36.0%)

88 (58.7%)

2 (1.3%)

6 (4.0%)

0

Flat Rock

N.C.

1796

89

29 (32.6%)

56 (62.9%)

2 (2.2%)

2 (2.2%)

0

Yeopim

N.C.

1798

85

33 (38.8%)

40 (47.1%)

5 (5.9%)

5 (5.9%)

2 (2.4%)

Wheeleys

N.C.

1807

155

54 (34.8%)

81 (52.3%)

9 (5.8%)

11 (7.1%)

0

Bent Creek

N.C.

1817

71

31 (43.7%)

37 (52.1%)

2 (2.8%)

0

1 (1.4%)

Red River

Tenn.

1791–1803

99

41 (41.4%)

57 (57.6%)

0

1 (1.0%)

0

Dixon's Creek

Tenn.

1805

81

36 (44.4%)

32 (39.5%)

3 (3.7%)

8 (9.9%)

2 (2.5%)

Mill Creek (Davidson Co.)

Tenn.

1797

102

26 (25.5%)

36 (35.3%)

19 (18.6%)

18 (17.6%)

3 (2.9%)

Spring Creek

Tenn.

1814

52

20 (38.5%)

31 (59.6%)

0

0

1 (1.9%)

Total

1504

481 (32.0%)

691 (45.9%)

145 (9.6%)

169 (11.2%)

18 (1.2%)

Sources: Membership lists drawn from each churchbook.

aSome membership lists identified the individuals currently in the church. Other lists were cumulative, adding the name of each newly admitted member; these lists then show how many members were admitted in a particular time period but not the number of members in the church at any one time. Those latter lists are marked here with a span of years and when the list was concluded, if known.

(p.171)

Table A.2. Membership Changes over Time in Sample Churches

Church

State

Date of Rolla

Total

White Men

White Women

Black Men

Black Women

Unknown

Albemarle

Va.

1773

48

25 (52.1%)

21 (43.8%)

1 (2.0%)

1 (2.0%)

0

Albemarle

Va.

1799

129

23 (17.8%)

33 (25.6%)

33 (25.6%)

40 (31.0%)

0

Broad Run

Va.

1762–1801

217

87 (40.0%)

95 (43.8%)

13 (6.0%)

21 (9.7%)

1 (0.5%)

Broad Run

Va.

1801–1816

97

18 (18.6%)

28 (28.9%)

24 (24.7%)

27 (27.8%)

0

Marble Creek

Ky.

1787

19

11 (57.9%)

8 (42.1%)

0

0

0

Marble Creek

Ky.

1787–1800

126

46 (36.5%)

57 (45.2%)

8 (6.3%)

15 (11.9%)

0

Marble Creek

Ky.

1800–?

154

45 (29.2%)

61 (39.6%)

18 (11.7%)

30 (19.5%)

0

Red River

Tenn.

1791

16

8 (50.0%)

8 (50.0%)

0

0

0

Red River

Tenn.

1791–1803

99

41 (41.4%)

57 (57.6%)

0

1 (1.0%)

0

Red River

Tenn.

1803–1814

276

98 (35.5%)

153 (55.4%)

8 (2.9%)

17 (6.2%)

0

Sources: Membership lists drawn from each churchbook.

aSome membership lists identify the individuals currently in the church. Other lists were cumulative, adding the name of each newly admitted member; these lists then show how many members were admitted in a particular time period but not the number of members in the church at any one time. Those latter lists are marked here with a span of years and when the list was concluded, if known.

(p.172)

Table A.3. Charges Leveled in Disciplinary Cases, 1760–1815a

White Men

White Women

Slave Men

Slave Women

Other or Unclearb

Total

1760–1785

183 (57.7%)

85 (26.8%)

34 (10.7%)

5 (1.6%)

10 (3.2%)

317

1786–1800

540 (61.2%)

197 (22.3%)

83 (9.4%)

40 (4.5%)

23 (2.6%)

883

1801–1815

1668 (58.9%)

488 (17.2%)

371 (13.1%)

223 (7.9%)

83 (2.9%)

2833

Total

2391 (59.3%)

770 (19.1%)

488 (12.1%)

268 (6.7%)

116 (2.9%)

4033

Sources: Church Minutes of Abbott's Baptist Church; Albemarle Baptist Church; Bear Creek Baptist Church; Bent Creek Baptist Church; Bethel Hill Baptist Church; Bethlehem Baptist Church; Boar Swamp Baptist Church; Boone's Creek Baptist Church; Brashear's Creek Baptist Church; Broad Run Baptist Church; Brock's Gap Baptist Church; Bryan's Station Baptist Church; Buck Marsh Baptist Church; Burks Branch Baptist Church; Cashie Baptist Church; Chappawamsic Baptist Church; Cherokee Creek Baptist Church; Chesterfield Baptist Church; Church on the Twins; Cove Creek Baptist Church; Dandridge Baptist Church; Davis Baptist Church (published); Dixon Baptist Church (published); Dumplin Creek Baptist Church; Flat Rock Baptist Church; Forks of Elkhorn Baptist Church; Frying Pan Baptist Church; Garrison Fork Baptist Church; Goose Creek Baptist Church; Graves Creek Baptist Church; Great Cohary Baptist Church; Hartwood Baptist Church; Jersey Baptist Church; Little Beaver Creek Baptist Church; Lower Banister Baptist Church; Marble Creek Baptist Church; Matrimony Baptist; Meherrin Baptist Church; Mill Creek Baptist Church (Frederick County and Berkeley County, Va.); Mill Creek Baptist Church (Shenandoah County and Page County, Va); Mill Creek Baptist Church (Davidson County, Tenn.); Mill Swamp Baptist Church; Miller's Cove Baptist Church; Morattico Baptist Church; Mount Hermon Baptist Church; Mountain Island Baptist Church; Mount Olivet Baptist Church; Mount Tabor Church (published); New Hope Baptist Church; Newfound Baptist Church; Paw Paw Hollow Baptist Church; Providence Baptist Church (Clark County, Kent.); Providence Baptist Church (Davidson County, Tenn.); Red Banks Church; Red River Baptist Church (published); Reddies River Church; Salem Baptist Church; Saline Baptist Church; Sandy Creek Baptist Church; Severn's Valley Baptist Church; Shawnee Run Baptist Church (published); Sinking Creek Baptist Church; Six Mile Baptist Church; Smith's Creek Baptist Church; South Fork Baptist Church; South Quay Baptist Church; Spring Creek Baptist Church; Tate's Creek Baptist Church; Tomahawk Baptist Church; Tom's Creek Baptist Church; Upper King and Queen Baptist Church; Waller's Baptist Church; Waterlick Baptist Church; Well's Chapel Baptist Church; Wheeley's Primitive Baptist Church; Wilson Creek Primitive Baptist Church; Yeopim Baptist Church; and Zoar Baptist Church.

aThis table demonstrates the accusations leveled against church members, not the number of accused. Some individuals had multiple offenses charged to them.

bThis category includes very small numbers of free blacks. It also includes individuals whose race, status, or sex cannot be identified due to poor handwriting, incomplete references, unusual naming practices, or when white members in the church had a surname that matched a slave member's name (e.g., Brother Thomas).

(p.173)

Table A.4. Thirty Most Common Charges and the Accused

Charge

Total

White Men

White Women

Slave Men

Slave Women

Other or Unknown

1. Drinking to excess

800

682 (85.3%)

36 (4.5%)

55 (6.9%)

9 (1.1%)

18 (2.3%)

2. Lying

252

92 (36.5%)

67 (26.6%)

46 (18.3%)

41 (16.3%)

6 (2.4%)

3. Fighting

198

166 (83.8%)

3 (1.5%)

20 (10.1%)

7 (3.5%)

2 (1.0%)

4. Ill languagea

181

119 (65.7%)

51 (28.2%)

3 (1.7%)

7 (3.9%)

1 (0.6%)

5. Mistreating spouse or family memberb

155

63 (40.6%)

49 (31.6%)

19 (12.3%)

12 (7.7%)

12 (7.7%)

6. Adulteryc

137

14 (10.2%)

17 (12.4%)

55 (40.1%)

43 (31.4%)

8 (5.8%)

7. Theft

136

22 (16.2%)

11 (8.1%)

64 (47.1%)

30 (22.1%)

9 (6.6%)

8. Fornicationd

133

23 (17.3%)

75 (56.4%)

12 (9.0%)

22 (16.5%)

1 (0.8%)

9. Withdrawing from church or schisme

121

62 (51.2%)

32 (26.4%)

10 (8.3%)

11 (9.1%)

6 (5.0%)

9. Swearing

121

82 (67.8%)

8 (6.6%)

17 (14%)

8 (6.6%)

6 (5.0%)

11. Criticizing church or minister

101

68 (67.3%)

22 (21.8%)

8 (7.9%)

1 (1.0%)

2 (2.0%)

12. Gaming or gamblingf

89

81 (91.0%)

2 (2.2%)

6 (6.7%)

0

0

12. Violating church disciplinary rulesg

89

58 (65.2%)

30 (33.7%)

1 (1.1%)

0

0

14. General sexual misconducth

88

28 (31.8%)

25 (28.4%)

19 (21.6%)

10 (11.4%)

6 (6.8%)

15. Keeping bad or worldly company (outside of the home)i

85

54 (63.5%)

25 (29.4%)

2 (2.4%)

0

4 (4.7%)

16. Participating in dancing, balls or dancing schoolsj

84

36 (42.9%)

35 (41.7%)

4 (4.8%)

6 (7.1%)

3 (3.6%)

17. Moving without letter of dismissal

83

40 (48.2%)

37 (44.6%)

1 (1.2%)

3 (3.6%)

2 (2.4%)

18. Anger

82

66 (80.5%)

12 (14.6%)

1 (1.2%)

2 (2.4%)

1 (1.2%)

19. Not properly governing home and familyk

71

46 (64.8%)

24 (33.8%)

1 (1.4%)

0

0

20. Joined or communed with another faith

69

22 (31.9%)

44 (63.8%)

0

2 (2.9%)

1 (1.4%)

21. Misconduct related to land, money, or property

64

56 (87.5%)

7 (10.9%)

0

0

1 (1.6%)

22. Misconduct in trade or contract

56

46 (82.1%)

6 (10.7%)

4 (7.1%)

0

0

23. Slanderl

51

27 (52.9%)

17 (33.3%)

5 (9.8%)

1 (2.0%)

1 (2.0%)

24. Not paying debtsm

50

45 (90.0%)

4 (8.0%)

0

0

1 (2.0%)

25. Breaking the Sabbath

41

33 (80.5%)

2 (4.9%)

5 (12.2%)

0

1 (2.4%)

26. Making false accusationsn

41

24 (58.5%)

9 (22.0%)

4 (9.8%)

2 (4.9%)

2 (4.9%)

27. Assault

40

29 (72.5%)

6 (15.0%)

2 (5%)

0

3 (7.5%)

28. Bigamy

40

5 (12.5%)

7 (17.5%)

15 (37.5%)

8 (20.0%)

5 (12.5%)

29. Fraud

40

36 (90.0%)

2 (5.0%)

0

0

2 (5.0%)

30. Running away

39

0

0

28 (71.8%)

11 (28.2%)

0

Total

3537

2125 (60.1%)

665 (18.8%)

407 (11.5%)

236 (6.7%)

104 (2.9%)

Sources: See sources for Table A.3

aIncludes bad language; ill words; rough language; speaking harshly; murmurs; speaking out of the way; speaking reproachfully of member; disorderly speaking; unbecoming talk; talking more than becomes a Christian; talking too free; and insults. This category does not include allegations of profane language or blasphemy, which Baptists considered more serious offenses.

bIncludes such charges as abused son's wife; disorderly conduct to wife and family; irregular conduct to wife; misconduct to mother; unbecoming conduct to husband; jealous of husband; left husband's bed; refusing subjection to husband; desertion; and whipped wife.

cAdultery was a different charge than fornication and indicated that at least one of the participants was married.

dFornication (which includes the charge of bastardy) often was leveled against individuals who subsequently married but had a child before nine months had elapsed.

eRefers to individuals accused of leaving the church in anger or spirit of defiance, requesting excommunication, or declaring nonfellowship with the church. In this table, criticizing the church or minister and joining another faith are counted separately.

fIncludes attending a shooting match or horse race; offering to bet; playing cards; playing fives; and pitching dollars.

gIncludes charges of not taking gospel steps; going to law; reporting members’ misbehavior outside the church; hard spirit in dispute with a member; and refusing reconciliation with a disciplined member.

hIncludes all charges of sexual misconduct that did not explicitly include sexual relations, including acting too great with a certain woman; too familiar with a woman, not his wife; making too free with a married man; whispering to a young man; kissing; and whoring.

iIncludes charges of attending unbecoming gatherings; attending a frolick; going out with soldiers; belonging to the Freemasons or other worldly societies; going to a play or racing party; and mixing with the world. It does not include attending balls (see number 16) or having bad company in one's home (see number 19).

jIncludes those who sent their children (usually their daughters) to balls or dancing schools.

kIncludes not governing children; neglecting family worship; and allowing disorder such as dancing, fiddling, gambling, “riots,” or a disorderly corn shuck in their homes.

lSee also making false accusations (number 26).

mDoes not include charges of not paying church assessments or tithes.

nWhile this is similar to slander, Baptists leveled this charge against those who tried to initiate church disciplinary procedures without just cause.

(p.174) (p.175)

Table A.5. Outcome of All Charges by Sex, Race, and Status, 1760–1815

Sex/Race

Acquitted

Gave Satisfaction & Restored

Admonished & Restored

Censured or Suspended

Expelled or Excommunicated

Other/Uncleara

Total

White Men

109 (4.6%)

704 (29.4%)

65 (2.7%)

343 (14.3%)

1064 (44.5%)

106 (4.4%)

2391

White Women

33 (4.3%)

112 (14.5%)

21 (2.7%)

114 (14.8%)

459 (59.6%)

31 (4.0%)

770

Slave Men

12 (2.5%)

43 (8.8%)

12 (2.5%)

52 (10.7%)

352 (72.1%)

17 (3.5%)

488

Slave Women

6 (2.2%)

12 (4.5%)

10 (3.7%)

16 (6.0%)

213 (79.5%)

11 (4.1%)

268

Free Black Men

0

1 (11.1%)

0

0

6 (66.7%)

2 (22.2%)

9

Free Black Women

1 (20%)

0

0

0

4 (80.0%)

0

5

Unknown

3 (2.9%)

15 (14.7%)

3 (2.9%)

10 (9.8%)

64 (62.7%)

7 (6.9%)

102

Total

164 (4.1%)

887 (22.0%)

111 (2.8%)

535 (13.3%)

2162 (53.6%)

174 (4.3%)

4033

Sources: See sources for Table A.3

aThis includes cases when charges were not mentioned again, cases which were not completed by the church because the accused died or moved to another church (where the matter would be completed), and cases in which the church records were incomplete.

(p.176)

Table A.6. Outcome of Discipline: Patterns across Time

Acquitted

Gave Satisfaction & Restored

Admonished & Restored

Censured or Suspended

Expelled or Excommunicated

Other or Unclear

Total

1765–1785

White Men

3 (1.6%)

14 (7.7%)

4 (2.2%)

72 (39.3%)

89 (48.6%)

1 (0.5%)

183

White Women

2 (2.4%)

4 (4.7%)

2 (2.4%)

26 (30.6%)

49 (57.6%)

2 (2.4%)

85

Slave Men

0

1 (2.9%)

0

12 (35.3%)

21 (61.8%)

0

34

Slave Women

0

0

0

1 (20.0%)

4 (80.0%)

0

5

Other or Unknown

0

1 (10.0%)

0

1 (10.0%)

8 (80.0%)

0

10

Total

5 (1.6%)

20 (6.3%)

6 (1.9%)

112 (35.3%)

171 (53.9%)

3 (0.9%)

317

1786–1800

White Men

23 (4.3%)

158 (29.3%)

14 (2.6%)

78 (14.4%)

236 (43.7%)

31 (5.7%)

540

White Women

9 (4.6%)

32 (16.2%)

12 (6.1%)

30 (15.2%)

102 (51.8%)

12 (6.1%)

197

Slave Men

3 (3.6%)

14 (16.9%)

2 (2.4%)

17 (20.5%)

43 (51.8%)

4 (4.8%)

83

Slave Women

3 (7.5%)

0

0

4 (10.0%)

30 (75.0%)

3 (7.5%)

40

Other or Unknown

1 (4.3%)

0

0

3 (13.0%)

16 (69.6%)

3 (13%)

23

Total

39 (4.4%)

204 (23.1%)

28 (3.2%)

132 (14.9%)

427 (48.4%)

53 (6.0%)

883

1801–1815

White Men

83 (5.0%)

532 (31.9%)

47 (2.8%)

193 (11.6%)

739 (44.3%)

74 (4.4%)

1668

White Women

22 (4.5%)

76 (15.6%)

7 (1.4%)

58 (11.9%)

308 (63.1%)

17 (3.5%)

488

Slave Men

9 (2.4%)

28 (7.5%)

10 (2.7%)

23 (6.2%)

288 (77.6%)

13 (3.5%)

371

Slave Women

3 (1.3%)

12 (5.4%)

10 (4.5%)

11 (4.9%)

179 (80.3%)

8 (3.6%)

223

Other or Unknown

3 (3.6%)

15 (18.1%)

3 (3.6%)

6 (7.2%)

50 (60.2%)

6 (7.2%)

83

Total

120 (4.2%)

663 (23.4%)

77 (2.7%)

291 (10.3%)

1564 (55.2%)

118 (4.2%)

2833

Sources: See sources for Table A.3

(p.177)

Table A.7. Excommunication Numbers and Rates of Ten Most Common Charges

Charge

All Groups

White Men

White Women

Slave Men

Slave Women

Other or Unknown

1. Drinking

331 (41.3%)

269 (39.4%)

16 (44.4%)

31 (56.4%)

5 (55.6%)

10 (55.6%)

2. Lying

169 (67.1%)

50 (54.3%)

43 (64.2%)

38 (82.6%)

33 (80.5%)

5 (83.3%)

3. Fighting

81 (40.9%)

68 (41.0%)

2 (66.7%)

8 (40.0%)

3 (42.9%)

0

4. Ill language

79 (43.6%)

47 (39.5%)

26 (51.0%)

1 (33.3%)

5 (71.4%)

0

5. Mistreating spouse or family member

92 (59.4%)

32 (50.8%)

25 (51.0%)

14 (73.7%)

11 (91.7%)

10 (83.3%)

6. Adultery

126 (92.0%)

11 (78.6%)

17 (100%)

50 (90.9%)

40 (93.0%)

8 (100%)

7. Theft

96 (70.6%)

12 (54.5%)

4 (36.4%)

52 (81.3%)

19 (63.3%)

9 (100%)

8. Fornication

113 (85.0%)

17 (73.9%)

63 (84.0%)

12 (100%)

20 (90.9%)

1 (100%)

9. Withdrawing from church or schism

103 (85.1%)

49 (79.0%)

28 (87.5%)

10 (100%)

11 (100%)

5 (83.3%)

10. Swearing

81 (66.9%)

54 (65.9%)

2 (25.0%)

13 (76.5%)

7 (87.5%)

5 (83.3%)

Total

1271 (56.9%) (N = 2234)

609 (46.0%) (N = 1325)

226 (64.8%) (N = 349)

229 (76.1%) (N = 301)

154 (81.1%) (N = 190)

53 (76.8%) (N = 69)

Total [excluding drinking]

940 (65.6%) (N =1434 )

340 (52.9%) (N = 643)

210 (67.0%) (N = 313)

198 (80.5%) (N = 246)

149 (82.3%) (N = 181)

43 (84.3%) (N = 51)

Sources: See sources for Table A.3

Note: For overall numbers of charges in each category and types of accusations included in each category, see Table A.4

(p.178)

Table A.8. Charges concerning Families and Households (except Slaves)

Charge

White Men

White Women

Slave Men

Slave Women

Other or Unknown

Total

Adultery

13 (9.6%)

17 (12.5%)

55 (40.4%)

43 (31.6%)

8 (5.9%)

136

Fornication

23 (17.3%)

75 (56.4%)

12 (9.0%)

22 (16.5%)

1 (0.8%)

133

Desertion of spouse or family

9 (17.3%)

14 (26.9%)

15 (28.8%)

7 (13.5%)

7 (13.5%)

52

Allowing revelry or disorder in the house or family

34 (66.7%)

16 (31.4%)

1 (2.0%)

0

0

51

Bigamy

5 (12.5%)

7 (17.5%)

15 (37.5%)

8 (20.0%)

5 (12.5%)

40

Not governing or raising children properlya

19 (57.6%)

14 (42.4%)

0

0

0

33

General disorderly conduct to family membersb

13 (41.9%)

14 (45.2%)

0

4 (12.9%)

0

31

Fighting with spouse or marital discord

10 (40.0%)

8 (32.0%)

2 (8.0%)

1 (4.0%)

4 (16.0%)

25

Spousal abuse

19 (95.0%)

0

1 (5.0%)

0

0

20

Unlawful or inappropriate marriagec

4 (30.8%)

6 (46.2%)

1 (7.7%)

2 (15.4%)

0

13

Assaulting or abusing a family memberd

9 (64.3%)

4 (28.6%)

1 (7.1%)

0

0

14

Disobedience to a family membere

2 (28.6%)

5 (71.4%)

0

0

0

7

Ill language to a family member

2 (40.0%)

3 (60.0%)

0

0

0

5

Neglecting family worship

4 (80.0%)

1 (20.0%)

0

0

0

5

Breaking Marriage Engagement

2 (100%)

0

0

0

0

2

Total

168 (29.6%)

184 (32.6%)

103 (18.1%)

87 (15.4%)

25 (4.4%)

567

Sources: See sources for Table A.3

Note: This table takes a closer look at charges concerning families and households. To do so, it breaks apart some previously used categories and creates new categories.

aIncludes accusations of allowing children to go to dancing school or balls; not exercising authority over children; and allowing them to be baptized as infants.

bIncludes charges of mistreatment that do not explicitly include physical assault, including ill treatment of spouse; mistreating father; lying to mother; being jealous of husband; and unbecoming conduct to spouse.

cIncludes charges of marrying a close relative (brother's widow, half sister's son, uncle's wife); marrying too quickly (eight days after meeting); and marrying without notifying husband of pregnancy. It does not include bigamy, which is listed separately.

dIncludes abusing one's children or children bound to one; abusing daughter‐in‐law; striking father‐in‐law; and attempting to kill wife and children. It does not include spousal abuse, which is listed separately.

eIncludes disobedience to parents; disobedience to father; and rejecting husband's authority. Five of the six cases regarding women concerned their relationships to their husbands.

(p.179)

Table A.9. Charges between Whites and Blacks

Charge

White Men

White Women

Slave Men

Slave Women

Total

Conflict with church relating to slaverya

27 (46.6%)

19 (32.8%)

8 (13.8%)

4 (6.9%)

58

Running away

0

0

28 (71.8%)

11 (28.2%)

39

Disobedienceb

0

0

26 (78.8%)

7 (21.2%)

33

General disorderly conduct to whites or blacksc

4 (14.8%)

5 (18.5%)

10 (37.0%)

8 (29.6%)

27

Mistreatment of whites or blacksd

6 (50.0%)

4 (33.3%)

1 (8.3%)

1 (8.3%)

12

Ill language or insolence to whites or blacks

1 (14.3%)

0

2 (28.6%)

4 (57.1%)

7

Interracial sex

5 (71.4%)

0

0

2 (28.6%)

7

Physical assaulte

3 (60.0%)

0

2 (40.0%)

0

5

Illicit trading with whites or blacks

2 (50.0%)

2 (50.0%)

0

0

4

Lying to whites or blacks

0

1 (33.3%)

0

2 (66.7%)

3

Neglects work or laziness

0

0

1 (33.3%)

2 (66.7%)

3

Not taking gospel stepsf

1 (50.0%)

1 (50.0%)

0

0

2

False accusation of whites or blacks

0

0

0

2 (100%)

2

Harboring a slave

1 (100%)

0

0

0

1

Wants to sit in church with whites or blacks

1 (100%)

0

0

0

1

Total

51 (25.0%)

32 (15.7%)

78 (38.2%)

43 (21.1%)

204

Sources: See sources for Table A.3.

Note: This table examines how churches judged (or did not judge) the behavior of slaves and owners to one another in cases where race was explicitly mentioned. To do so, it breaks apart some previously used categories and creates new categories. There may be, and no doubt are, additional charges that concern master‐slave relationships but were not designated as such in the churchbooks (e.g., thirty‐five slaves were accused of ill language or swearing, but only four of those cases indicated it was to or about a white person). Also, this table does not include all of the discipline leveled against slaves or slave owners.

aIncludes charges of challenging a decision of the church (regarding the preaching of emancipation or slave titles); withdrawing from the church over slavery; and supporting the black members in schism. In the conflicts of 1805‐1808, a few churches (such as South Fork) identified members as withdrawn but did not indicate subsequent discipline; those cases are not included here.

bWhites were occasionally charged with disobedience. Some white women were accused of disobedience to a particular person or persons (parents or husbands), and both white men and white women were charged with “disobedience,” presumably referring to the church in regard to some other disciplinary matter. For this category, I have assumed that all disobedience charges leveled against slaves referred to owners or overseers, unless explicitly designated otherwise.

cIncludes charges of being disorderly; quarreling; being willing to leave for old master; and allowing roguery.

dIncludes charges of mistreatment outside of explicit mention of physical assault, such as denying contact with child; selling husband from wife; and churchbooks’ own designation of “mistreatment.”

eIncludes only charges that specify physical assault, such as burning, whipping, and fighting.

fAll members were required to use the gospel method of discipline, which required the intervention and mediation of the church.

(p.180)