Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis$

Gregory P. Cheplick and Stanley Faeth

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195308082

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195308082.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 February 2017

(p.193) References

(p.193) References

Source:
Ecology and Evolution of the Grass-Endophyte Symbiosis
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Aarssen, L. W. 2005. On size, fecundity, and fitness in competing plants. In Reproductive allocation in plants, eds. E. G. Reekie and F. A. Bazzaz, pp. 215–244. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Aarssen, L. W., and T. Keogh. 2002. Conundrums of competitive ability in plants: what to measure? Oikos 96:531–542.

Agee, C. S., and N. S. Hill. 1994. Ergovaline variability in Acremonium-infected tall fescue due to environment and plant genotype. Crop Science 34:221–226.

Agrawal, A. A. 2000. Overcompensation of plants in response to herbivory and the by-product benefits of mutualism. Trends in Plant Science 5:309–313.

Agrawal, A. A. 2004. Resistance and susceptibility of milkweed: competition, root herbivory, and plant genetic variation. Ecology 85:2118–2133.

Ahlholm, J. U., M. Helander, S. Lehtimäki, P. Wäli, and K. Saikkonen. 2002. Vertically transmitted fungal endophytes: different responses of host-parasite systems to environmental conditions. Oikos 99:173–183.

Amalric, C., H. Sallanon, F. Monnet, A. Hitmi, and A. Coudret. 1999. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in symbiotic and non-symbiotic ryegrass under water stress. Photosynthetica 37:107–112.

Anagnostakis, S. L. 2001. American chestnut sprout survival with biological control of the chestnut-blight fungus population. Forest Ecology and Management 152:225–233.

Anderson, L. L., and K. N. Paige. 2003. Multiple herbivores and coevolutionary interactions in an Ipomopsis hybrid swarm. Evolutionary Ecology 17:139–156.

Anzhi, R., G. Yubao, W. Wei, and W. Jinlong. 2006. Photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic products of endophyte-infected and endophyte-free Lolium perenne L. under drought stress conditions. Frontiers of Biology in China 1:168–173.

Arachevaleta, M., C. W. Bacon, C. S. Hoveland, and D. E. Radcliffe. 1989. Effect of the tall fescue endophyte on plant response to environmental stress. Agronomy Journal 81:83–90.

(p.194) Arachevaleta, M., C. W. Bacon, R. D. Plattner, C. S. Hoveland, and D. E. Radcliffe. 1992. Accumulation of ergopeptide alkaloids in symbiotic tall fescue grown under deficits of soil water and nitrogen fertilizer. Applied Environmental Microbiology 58:857–861.

Armas, C., R. Ordiales, and F. I. Pugnaire. 2004. Measuring plant interactions: a new comparative index. Ecology 85:2682–2686.

Armbruster, W. S., C. Pélabon, T. F. Hansen, and C. P. H. Mulder. 2004. Floral integration, modularity, and accuracy: distinguishing complex adaptations from genetic constraints. In Phenotypic integration: studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes, eds. M. Pigliucci and K. Preston, pp. 23–49. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Arnold, A. E., and F. Lutzoni. 2007. Diversity and host range of foliar fungal endophytes: Are tropical leaves biodiversity hotspots? Ecology 88:541–549.

Arnold, A. E., Z. Maynard, G. S. Gilbert, P. D. Coley, and T. A. Kursar. 2000. Are tropical endophytes hyperdiverse? Ecology Letters 3:267–274.

Arnold, A. E., L. C. Mejia, D. Kyllo, E. I. Rojas, Z. Maynard, N. Robbins, and E. A. Herre. 2003. Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:15649–15654.

Arroyo García, R., J. M. Martínez Zapater, B. García Criado, and I. Zabalgogeazcoa. 2002. Genetic structure of natural populations of the grass endophyte Epichloë festucae in semiarid grasslands. Molecular Ecology 11:355–364.

Asay, K. H., C. J. Nelson, and G. L. Horst. 1974. Genetic variability and net photosynthesis in tall fescue. Crop Science 14:571–574.

Assuero, S. G., C. Matthew, P. D. Kemp, G. C. M. Latch, D. J. Barker, and S. J. Haslett. 2000. Morphological and physiological effects of water deficit and endophyte infection on contrasting tall fescue cultivars. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 43:49–61.

Atsatt, P. R. 1988. Are vascular plants “inside-out” lichens? Ecology 69:17–23.

Bacon, C. W. 1993. Abiotic stress tolerances (moisture, nutrients) and photosynthesis in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:123–141.

Bacon, C. W., and N. S. Hill. 1996. Symptomless grass endophytes: products of coevolutionary symbioses and their roles in the ecological adaptations of grasses. In Endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants, eds. S. C. Redlin and L. M. Carris, pp. 155–178. St. Paul, MN: American Pathological Society Press.

Bacon, C. W., and N. S. Hill, eds. 1997. Neotyphodium/grass interactions. New York: Plenum Press.

Bacon, C. W., J. K. Porter, J. D. Robbins, and E. S. Luttrell. 1977. Epichloë typhina from toxic tall fescue grasses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 34:76–81.

Bacon, C. W., M. D. Richardson, and J. F. White, Jr. 1997. Modification and uses of endophyte-enhanced turfgrasses: a role for molecular technology. Crop Science 37:1415–1425.

Bacon, C. W., and J. F. White, Jr. 1994. Stains, media, and procedures for analyzing endophytes. In Biotechnology of endophytic fungi of grasses, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 47–56. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bailey, J. K., S. C. Wooley, R. L. Lindroth, and T. G. Whitham. 2006. Importance of species interactions to community heritability: a genetic basis to trophic-level interactions. Ecology Letters 9:78–85.

Ball, D. M., J. F. Pedersen, and G. D. Lacefield. 1993. The tall-fescue endophyte. American Scientist 81:370–379.

(p.195) Ball, O. J.-P., E. C. Bernard, and K. D. Gwinn. 1997. Effect of selected Neotyphodium lolii isolates on root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne marylandi) numbers in perennial ryegrass. In Proceedings of the 50th New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, ed. M. O'Callaghan, pp. 65–68. Hastings, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Protection Society.

Ball, O. J.-P., T. A. Coudron, B. A. Tapper, E. Davies, D. Trently, L. P. Bush, K. D. Gwinn, and A. J. Popay. 2006. Importance of host plant species, Neotyphodium endophyte isolate, and alkaloids on feeding by Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology 99:1462–1473.

Barbosa, P., P. Gross, and J. Kemper. 1991. Influence of plant allelochemicals on the tobacco hornworm and its parasitoid, Cotesia congregata. Ecology 72:1567–1575.

Barbosa, P., and D. K. Letourneau, eds. 1988. Novel aspects of insect-plant interactions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Barker, G. M. 1987. Mycorrhizal infection influences Acremonium-induced resistance to Argentine stem weevil. Proceedings of the New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference 40:199–203.

Barker, G. M., and P. J. Addison. 1996. Influence of clavipitaceous endophyte infection in ryegrass on development of the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biological Control 7:281–287.

Barker, G. M., and P. J. Addison. 1997. Clavicipitaceous endophytic infection in ryegrass influences attack rate of the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Euphorinae) in Listronotus bonariensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology 26:416–420.

Barrow, J., M. Lucero, I. Reyes-Vera, and K. Havstad. 2007. Endophytic fungi structurally integrated with leaves reveals a lichenous condition of C4 grasses. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant 43:65–70.

Bascompte, J., P. Jordano, and J. M. Olsen. 2006. Asymmetric coevolutionary networks facilitate biodiversity maintenance. Science 312:431–433.

Baskin, C. C., and J. M. Baskin. 1998. Ecology of seed dormancy and germination in grasses. In Population biology of grasses, ed. G. P. Cheplick, pp. 30–83. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bazely, D. R., J. P. Ball, M. Vicari, A. T. Tanentzap, M. Berenger, T. Radocevic, and S. Koh. 2007. Broad-scale geographic patterns in the distribution of vertically-transmitted, asexual endophytes in four naturally-occurring grasses in Sweden. Ecography 30:367–374.

Bazely, D. R., M. Vicari, S. Emmerich, L. Filip, D. Lin, and A. Inman. 1997. Interactions between herbivores and endophyte-infected Festuca rubra from the Scottish islands of St. Kilda, Benecula Rum. Journal of Ecology 34:847–860.

Bazzaz, F. A. 1996. Plants in changing environments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beddows, A. R. 1967. Biological flora of the British Isles: Lolium perenne L. Journal of Ecology 55:567–587.

Begon, M., C. R. Townsend, and J. L. Harper. 2006. Ecology: from individuals to ecosystems, 4th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Belanger, F. C. 1996. A rapid seedling screening method for determination of fungal endophyte viability. Crop Science 36:460–462.

Belesky, D. P., O. J. Devine, J. E. Pallas, Jr., and W. C. Stringer. 1987. Photosynthetic activity of tall fescue as influenced by fungal endophyte. Photosynthetica 21:82–87.

(p.196) Belesky, D. P., and J. M. Fedders. 1996. Does endophyte influence regrowth of tall fescue? Annals of Botany 78:499–505.

Belesky, D. P., and D. P. Malinowski. 2000. Abiotic stresses and morphological plasticity and chemical adaptations of Neotyphodium-infected tall fescue plants. In Microbial endophytes, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 455–485. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Belesky, D. P., W. C. Stringer, and N. S. Hill. 1989. Influence of endophyte and water regime upon tall fescue accessions. I. Growth characteristics. Annals of Botany 63:495–503.

Bernard, E. C., K. D. Gwinn, C. D. Pless, and C. D. Williver. 1997. Soil invertebrate species diversity and abundance in endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and N. S. Hill, pp. 125–135. New York: Plenum Press.

Bertoni, M. D., D. Cabral, N. Romero, and J. Dubcovsky. 1993. Endofitos fungicos en especies SudAmericanas de Festuca (Poaceae). Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 39:25–34.

Bhusari, S., L. B. Hearne, D. E. Spiers, W. R. Lamberson, and E. Antoniou. 2006. Effect of fescue toxicosis on hepatic gene expression in mice. Journal of Animal Science 84:1600–1612.

Boege, K., and R. J. Marquis. 2005. Facing herbivory as you grow up: the ontogeny of resistance in plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:441–446.

Boning, R. A., and T. L. Bultman. 1996. A test for constitutive and induced resistance by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to an insect herbivore: impact of the fungal endophyte, Acremonium coenophialum. American Midland Naturalist 136:328–335.

Bony, S., N. Pichon, C. Ravel, A. Durix, C. Balfourier, and J.-J. Guillaumin. 2001. The relationship between myotoxin synthesis in fungal endophytes of Lolium perenne. New Phytologist 152:125–137.

Boucher, D. H., S. James, and K. H. Keeler. 1982. The ecology of mutualism. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:315–347.

Bouton, J., and S. Easton. 2005. Endophytes in forage cultivars. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 327–340. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publications.

Bowers, M. D. 1990. Recycling plant natural products for insect defense. In Novel aspects of insect-plant relations, eds. P. Barbosa and D. Letourneau, pp. 273–311. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Bradshaw, A. D. 1959. Population differentiation in Agrostis tenuis Sibth. II. The incidence and significance of infection by Epichloe typhina. New Phytologist 58:310–315.

Braun, K., J. Romero, C. Liddell, and R. Creamer. 2003. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed. Mycological Research 107:980–988.

Breen, J. P. 1994. Acremonium endophyte interactions with enhanced plant resistance to insects. Annual Review of Entomology 39:401–423.

Brem, D., and A. Leuchtmann. 2001. Epichloë grass endophytes increase herbivore resistance in the woodland grass Brachypodium sylvaticum. Oecologia 126:522–530.

Brem, D., and A. Leuchtmann. 2002. Intraspecific competition of endophyte infected vs uninfected plants of two woodland grass species. Oikos 96:281–290.

Brem, D., and A. Leuchtmann. 2003. Molecular evidence for host-adapted races of the fungal endophyte Epichloë bromicola after presumed host shifts. Evolution 57:37–51.

(p.197) Brilman, L. A. 2005. Endophytes in turfgrass cultivars. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 341–349. Ames. IA: Blackwell Publications.

Briske, D. D., and J. D. Derner. 1998. Clonal biology of caespitose grasses. In Population biology of grasses, ed. G. P. Cheplick, pp. 106–135. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bronstein, J. L. 1994a. Conditional outcomes in mutualistic interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:214–217.

Bronstein, J. L. 1994b. Our current understanding of mutualism. Quarterly Review of Biology 69:31–51.

Bronstein, J. L. 2001. The costs of mutualism. American Zoologist 41:825–839.

Bronstein, J. L., W. G. Wilson, and W. F. Morris. 2003. Ecological dynamics of mutualist/antagonist communities. American Naturalist 162:S24–S39.

Brundrett, M. C. 2002. Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. New Phytologist 154:275–304.

Bucheli, E., and A. Leuchtmann. 1996. Evidence for genetic differentiation between choke-inducing and asymptomatic strains of the Epichloë grass endophyte from Brachypodium sylvaticum. Evolution 50:1879–1887.

Buchner, R. C., and L. P. Bush, eds. 1979. Tall fescue. Agronomy Series 20. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy.

Bultman, T. L., and G. D. Bell. 2003. Interaction between fungal endophytes and environmental stressors influences plant resistance to insects. Oikos 103:182–190.

Bultman, T. L., G. Bell, and W. D. Martin. 2004. A fungal endophyte mediates reversal of wound-induced resistance and constrains tolerance in a grass. Ecology 85:679–685.

Bultman T. L., K. L. Borowicz, R. M. Schneble, T. A. Coudron, R. J. Crowder, and L. P. Bush. 1997. Effect of a fungal endophyte and loline alkaloids on the growth and survival of two Euplectrus parasitoids. Oikos 78:170–176.

Bultman, T. L., and D. T. Ganey. 1995. Induced resistance to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) mediated by a fungal endophyte. Environmental Entomology 24:1196–1200.

Bultman, T. L., and A. Leuchtmann. 2003. A test of host specialization by insect vectors as a mechanism for reproductive isolation among entomophilous fungal species. Oikos 103:681–687.

Bultman T. L., M. R. McNeill, and S. L. Goldson. 2003. Isolate-dependent impacts of fungal endophytes in a multitrophic interaction. Oikos 102:491–496.

Bultman, T. L., J. F. White, Jr., T. I. Bowdish, A. M. Welch, and J. Johnston. 1995. Mutualistic transfer of Epichloë spermatia by Phorbia flies. Mycologia 87:182–189.

Bultman, T. L., C. Pulas, L. Grant, T. Bell, and T. J. Sullivan. 2006. Effects of fungal endophyte isolate on performance and preference of bird cherry-oat aphid Environmental Entomology 35:690–1695.

Burdon, J. J. 1987. Diseases and plant population biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burdon, J. J., and P. H. Thrall. 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns in coevolving plant and pathogen associations. American Naturalist 153:S15–S33.

Burdon, J. J., and P. H. Thrall. 2001. The demography and genetics of host-pathogen interactions. In Integrating ecology and evolution in a spatial context, eds. J. Silvertown and J. Antonovics, pp. 197–217. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Burpee, L. L., and J. H. Bouton. 1993. Effect of eradication of the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on epidemics of Rhizoctonia blight in tall fescue. Plant Disease 77:157–159.

(p.198) Busch, J. W., M. Neiman, and J. M. Koslow. 2004. Evidence for maintenance of sex by pathogens in plants. Evolution 58:2584–2590.

Bush, L. P., H. H. Wilkinson, and C. L. Schardl. 1997. Bioprotective alkaloids of grass-fungal endophyte symbioses. Plant Physiology 114:1–7.

Buwalda, J. G., and K. M. Goh. 1982. Host-fungus competition for carbon as a cause of growth depressions in vesicular-arbuscular perennial ryegrass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 14:103–106.

Cabral, D., M. J. Cafaro, B. Saidman, M. Lugo, P. V. Reddy, and J. F. White, Jr. 1999. Evidence supporting the occurrence of a new species of endophyte in some South American grasses. Mycologia 91:315–325.

Callaway, R. M., G. C. Thelen, A. Rodriquez, and W. E. Holben. 2004. Soil biota and exotic invasion. Nature 427:731.

Campbell, D. R. 2000. Experimental tests of sex-allocation theory in plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:227–232.

Cardinale, B. J., M. A. Palmer, and S. L. Collins. 2002. Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature 415:426–429.

Carlile, M. J., S. C. Watkinson, and G. W. Gooday. 2001. The fungi, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press.

Carrière, Y., A. Bouchard, S. Bourassa, and J. Brodeur. 1998. Effect of endophyte incidence in perennial ryegrass on distribution, host-choice, and performance of the hairy chinch bug (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 91:324–328.

Carroll, G. 1988. Fungal endophytes in stems and leaves: from latent pathogen to mutualistic symbiont. Ecology 69:2–9.

Carroll, G. C. 1991. Beyond pest deterrence. Alternative strategies and hidden costs of endophytic mutualisms in vascular plants. In Microbial ecology of leaves, eds. J. H. Andrews and S. S. Monano, pp. 358–375. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Chaneton, E. J., and M. Omacini. 2007. Bottom-up cascades induced by fungal endophytes in multitrophic systems. In Ecological communities: plant mediation in indirect interaction webs, eds. T. Ohgushi, T. P. Craig, and P. W. Price, pp. 164–187. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapin, F. S., III. 2003. Effects of plant traits on ecosystem and regional processes: a conceptual framework for predicting the consequences of global change. Annals of Botany 91:455–463.

Charnov, E. L. 1982. The theory of sex allocation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Chase, J. M., M. A. Leibold, A. L. Downing, and J. B. Shurin. 2000. The effects of productivity, herbivory, and plant species in grassland food webs. Ecology 81:2483–2497.

Cheplick, G. P. 1993a. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum). International Journal of Plant Sciences 154:134–143.

Cheplick, G. P. 1993b. Reproductive systems and sibling competition in plants. Plant Species Biology 8:131–139.

Cheplick, G. P. 1997a. Effects of endophytic fungi on the phenotypic plasticity of Lolium perenne (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 84:34–40.

Cheplick, G. P. 1997b. Responses to severe competitive stress in a clonal plant: differences between genotypes. Oikos 79:581–591.

(p.199) Cheplick, G. P. 1998a. Genotypic variation in the regrowth of Lolium perenne following clipping: effects of nutrients and endophytic fungi. Functional Ecology 12:176–184.

Cheplick, G. P. 1998b. Seed dispersal and seedling establishment in grass populations. In Population biology of grasses, ed. G. P. Cheplick, pp. 84–105. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cheplick, G. P. 2003. Evolutionary significance of genotypic variation in developmental reaction norms for a perennial grass under competitive stress. Evolutionary Ecology 17:175–196.

Cheplick, G. P. 2004a. Recovery from drought stress in Lolium perenne (Poaceae): Are fungal endophytes detrimental? American Journal of Botany 91:1960–1968.

Cheplick, G. P. 2004b. Symbiotic fungi and clonal plant physiology. New Phytologist 164: 413–415.

Cheplick, G. P. 2005. The allometry of reproductive allocation. In Reproductive allocation in plants, eds. E. G. Reekie and F. A. Bazzaz, pp. 97–128. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Cheplick, G. P. 2006. A modular approach to biomass allocation in an invasive annual (Microstegium vimineum; Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 93:539–545.

Cheplick, G. P. 2007. Costs of fungal endophyte infection in Lolium perenne genotypes from Eurasia and North Africa under extreme resource limitation. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60:202–210.

Cheplick, G. P. 2008. Host genotype overrides fungal endophyte infection in influencing tiller and spike production of Lolium perenne (Poaceae) in a common garden experiment. American Journal of Botany 95:1063–1071.

Cheplick, G. P., and R. Cho. 2003. Interactive effects of fungal endophyte infection and host genotype on growth and storage in Lolium perenne. New Phytologist 158:183–191.

Cheplick, G. P., and T. Chui. 2001. Effects of competitive stress on vegetative growth, storage, and regrowth after defoliation in Phleum pratense. Oikos 95:291–299.

Cheplick, G. P., and K. Clay. 1988. Acquired chemical defenses in grasses: the role of fungal endophytes. Oikos 52:309–318.

Cheplick, G. P., K. Clay, and S. Marks. 1989. Interactions between infection by endophytic fungi and nutrient limitation in the grasses Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea. New Phytologist 111:89–97.

Cheplick, G. P., A. Perera, and K. Koulouris. 2000. Effect of drought on the growth of Lolium perenne genotypes with and without fungal endophytes. Functional Ecology 14:657–667.

Cheplick, G. P., and T. P. White. 2002. Saltwater spray as an agent of natural selection: no evidence of local adaptation within a coastal population of Triplasis purpurea (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 89:623–631.

Christensen, M. J. 1995. Variation in the ability of Acremonium endophytes of Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, and F. pratensis to form compatible associations in the three grasses. Mycological Research 99:466–470.

Christensen, M. J., O. J.-P. Ball, R. J. Bennett, and C. L. Schardl. 1997. Fungal and host genotype effects on compatibility and vascular colonization by Epichloë festucae. Mycological Research 101:493–501.

Christensen, M. J., R. J. Bennett, and J. Schmid. 2001. Vascular bundle colonisation by Neotyphodium endophytes in natural and novel associations with grasses. Mycological Research 105:1239–1245.

Christensen, M. J., R. J. Bennett, and J. Schmid. 2002. Growth of Epichloe/Neotyphodium and p-endophytes in leaves of Lolium and Festuca grasses. Mycological Research 106:93–106.

(p.200) Christensen, M. J., and G. C. M. Latch. 1991. Variation among isolates of Acremonium endophytes (A. coenophialum and possibly A. typhinum) from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Mycological Research 95:1123–1126.

Christensen, M. J., A. Leuchtmann, D. D. Rowan, and B. A. Tapper. 1993. Taxonomy of Acremonium endophytes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Mycological Research 97:1083–1092.

Christensen, M. J., W. R. Simpson, and T. Al Samarrai. 2000. Infection of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass plants by combinations of different Neotyphodium endophytes. Mycological Research 104:974–978.

Christensen, M. J., and C. R. Voisey. 2007. The biology of the endophyte/grass partnership. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 123–133. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Chu-Chou, M., B. Guo, Z.-Q. An, J. Hendrix, R. Ferriss, M. Siegel, C. Dougherty, and P. Burrus. 1992. Suppression of mycorrhizal fungi in fescue by the Acremonium coenophialum endophyte. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24:633–637.

Chung, K.-R., W. Hollin, M. R. Seigel, and C. L. Schardl. 1997. Genetics of host specificity in Epichloë typhina. Phytopathology 87:599–605.

Chung, K.-R., and C. L. Schardl. 1997a. Sexual cycle and horizontal transmission of the grass symbiont, Epichloë typhina. Mycological Research 101:295–301.

Chung, K.-R., and C. L. Schardl. 1997b. Vegetative compatibility between and within Epichloë species. Mycologia 89:558–565.

Cipollini, D. 2004. Stretching the limits of plasticity: Can a plant defend against both competitors and herbivores? Ecology 85:28–37.

Clancy, K. M., and P. W. Price. 1987. Rapid herbivore growth enhances enemy attack: sublethal plant defenses remain a paradox. Ecology 68:733–737.

Clark, E. M., J. F. White, and R. M. Patterson. 1983. Improved histochemical techniques for the detection of Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue and methods of in vitro culture of the fungus. Journal of Microbiological Methods 1:149–155.

Clark, J. S., E. C. Grime, J. Lynch, and P. G. Mueller. 2001. Effects of Holocene climate change on the C-4 grassland/woodland boundary in the Northern Plains, USA. Ecology 82:620–636.

Clarke, B. B., J. F. White, Jr., R. H. Hurley, M. S. Torres, S. Sun, and D. R. Huff. 2006. Endophyte-mediated suppression of dollar spot disease in fine fescues. Plant Disease 90:994–998.

Clay, K. 1984. The effect of the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon (Clavicipitaceae) on the reproductive system and demography of the grass Danthonia spicata. New Phytologist 98:165–175.

Clay, K. 1986. Induced vivipary in the sedge Cyperus virens and the transmission of the fungus Balansia cyperi (Clavicipitaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 64:2984–2988.

Clay, K. 1987a. The effect of fungi on the interaction between host plants and their herbivores. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 9:380–388.

Clay, K. 1987b. Effects of fungal endophytes on the seed and seedling biology of Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea. Oecologia 73:358–362.

Clay, K. 1988a. Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of grasses: coevolution and the change from parasitism to mutualism. In Coevolution of fungi with plants and animals, eds. D. L. Hawksworth and K. Pirozynski, pp. 79–105. New York: Academic Press.

(p.201) Clay, K. 1988b. Fungal endophytes of grasses: a defensive mutualism between plants and fungi. Ecology 69:10–16.

Clay, K. 1989. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses: their potential as biocontrol agents. Mycological Research 92:1–12.

Clay, K. 1990a. Comparative demography of three graminoids infected by systemic, clavicipitaceous fungi. Ecology 71:558–570.

Clay, K. 1990b. Fungal endophytes of grasses. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:275–297.

Clay, K. 1990c. The impact of parasitic and mutualistic fungi on competitive interactions among plants. In Perspectives on plant competition, eds. J. B. Grace and D. Tilman, pp. 391–412. San Diego: Academic Press.

Clay, K. 1991a. Endophytes as antagonists of plant pests. In Microbial ecology of leaves, eds. J. H. Andrews and S. S. Hirano, pp. 331–357. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Clay, K. 1991b. Parasitic castration of plants by fungi. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6:162–166.

Clay, K. 1993. The ecology and evolution of endophytes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:39–64.

Clay, K. 1994a. Hereditary symbiosis in the grass genus Danthonia. New Phytologist 126:223–231.

Clay, K. 1994b. The potential role of endophytes in ecosystems. In Biotechnology of endophytic fungi of grasses, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 73–86. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Clay, K. 1998. Fungal endophyte infection and the population dynamics of grasses. In Population biology of grasses, ed. G. P. Cheplick, pp. 255–285. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clay, K. 2001. Symbiosis and the regulation of communities. American Zoologist 41:810–824.

Clay, K., and V. K. Brown. 1997. Infection of Holcus lanatus and H. mollis by Epichloë in experimental grasslands. Oikos 79:363–370.

Clay, K., and G. P. Cheplick. 1989. Effect of ergot alkaloids from fungal endophyte-infected grasses on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Journal of Chemical Ecology 15:169–182.

Clay, K., G. P. Cheplick, and S. Marks. 1989. Impact of the fungus Balansia henningsiana on Panicum agrostoides: frequency of infection, plant growth and reproduction, and resistance to pests. Oecologia 80:374–380.

Clay, K., T. N. Hardy, and A. M. Hammond, Jr. 1985. Fungal endophytes of grasses and their effects on an insect herbivore. Oecologia 66:1–5.

Clay, K., and J. Holah. 1999. Fungal endophyte symbiosis and plant diversity in successional fields. Science 285:1742–1744.

Clay, K., J. Holah, and J. A. Rudgers. 2005. Herbivores cause a rapid increase in hereditary symbiosis and alter plant community composition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:12465–12470.

Clay, K., and P. X. Kover. 1996. The Red Queen hypothesis and plant/pathogen interactions. Annual Review of Phytopathology 34:29–50.

Clay, K., and A. Leuchtmann. 1989. Infection of woodland grasses by fungal endophytes. Mycologia 81:805–811.

Clay, K., S. Marks, and G. P. Cheplick. 1993. Effects of insect herbivory and fungal endophyte infection on competitive interactions among grasses. Ecology 74:1767–1777.

Clay, K., and C. Schardl. 2002. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses. American Naturalist 160:S99–S127.

(p.202) Clement, S. L. 2001. Overview of Neotyphodium incidence in seed bank collections and plants in managed and unmanaged habitats. In Proceedings of the 4th International Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions Symposium, Universität-Gesamthochschule, eds. V. H. Paul and P. D. Dapprich, Paderborn, Soest, Germany, pp. 113–122.

Clement, S. L., L. R. Elberson, N. A. Bosque-Pérez, and D. J. Schotzko. 2005. Detrimental and neutral effects of wild barley—Neotyphodium fungal associations on insect survival. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 114:119–125.

Clement, S. L., L. R. Elberson, N. N. Youssef, C. M. Davitt, and R. P. Doss. 2001. Incidence and diversity of Neotyphodium fungal endophytes in tall fescue from Morocco, Tunisia, and Sardinia. Crop Science 41:570–576.

Clement, S. L., W. J. Kaiser, and H. Eichenseer. 1994. Acremonium endophytes in germplasms of major grasses and their utilization for insect resistance. In Biotechnology of endophytic fungi of grasses, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 185–199. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Clement, S. L., D. G. Lester, A. D. Wilson, and K. S. Pike. 1992. Behavior and performance of Diuarphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) on fungal endophyte-infected and uninfected perennial ryegrass. Journal of Economic Entomology 85:583–588.

Clement, S. L., A. D. Wilson, D. G. Lester, and C. M. Davitt. 1997. Fungal endophytes of wild barley and their effects on Diuraphis noxia population development. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 82:275–281.

Clement, S. L., N. N. Youssef, G. W. Bruehl, W. J. Kaiser, L. R. Elberson, and V. Bradley. 2004. Effects of different storage temperatures on grass seed germination and Neotyphodium survival. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions, eds. R. Kallenbach, C. Rosenkraus, Jr., and T. R. Lock, Fayetteville, AR, Paper 511.

Coley, A. B., H. A. Fribourg, M. R. Pelton, and K. D. Gwinn. 1995. Effects of tall fescue endophyte infestation on relative abundances of small mammals. Journal of Environmental Quality 24:472–475.

Collins, J. P. 2003. What can we learn from community genetics? Ecology 84:574–577.

Conover, M. R. 2003. Impact of the consumption of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass by meadow voles. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 97:199–203.

Conover, M. R., and T. A. Messmer. 1996. Feeding preferences and changes in mass of Canada geese grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Condor 98:859–862.

Crous, P. W., O. Petrini, G. F. Marais, Z. A. Pretorius, and F. Rehder. 1995. Occurrence of fungal endophytes in cultivars of Triticum aestivum in South Africa. Mycoscience 36:105–111.

Crutsinger, G. M., M. D. Collins, J. A. Fordyce, Z. Gompert, C. C. Nice, and N. J. Sanders. 2006. Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process. Science 313:966–968.

Cullen, B. R., D. F. Chapman, and P. E. Quigley. 2006. Comparative defoliation tolerance of temperate perennial grasses. Grass and Forage Science 61:405–412.

Cunningham, A. A., P. Daszak, and J. P. Rodriguez. 2003. Pathogen pollution: defining a parasitological threat to biodiversity conservation. Journal of Parasitology 89:S78–S83.

Cunningham, P. J., J. Z. Foot, and K. F. M. Reed. 1993. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) endophyte (Acremonium lolii) relationships: the Australian experience. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:157–168.

(p.203) Darbyshire, S. J. 2007. Schedonorus P. Beauv. In Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Flora of North America north of Mexico, vol. 24, eds. M. E. Barkworth, K. M. Capels, S. Long, L. K. Anderton, and M. B. Piep, pp. 445–448. New York: Oxford University Press.

Daszak, P., A. A. Cunningham, and A. D. Hyatt. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife-threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287:443–449.

Davidson, A. W., and D. A. Potter. 1995. Response of plant-feeding, predatory, and soil inhabiting invertebrates to Acremonium endophyte and nitrogen fertilization in tall fescue turf. Journal of Economic Entomology 88:367–379.

de Battista, J. P., C. W. Bacon, R. Severson, R. D. Plattner, and J. H. Bouton. 1990. Indole acetic acid production by the fungal endophyte of tall fescue. Agronomy Journal 82:878–880.

de Jong, T., and P. Klinkhamer. 2005. Evolutionary ecology of plant reproductive strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

de Sassi, C., C. B. Müller, and J. Krauss. 2006. Fungal plant endosymbionts alter life history and reproductive success of aphid predators. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 273:1301–1306.

Dean, A. M. 1983. A simple model of mutualism. American Naturalist 121:409–417.

Del-Val, E. K., and M. J. Crawley. 2005. Are grazing increaser species better tolerators than decreasers? An experimental assessment of defoliation tolerance in eight British grassland species. Journal of Ecology 93:1005–1016.

Desprez-Loustau, M-L., C. Robin, M. Buée, R. Courtecuisse, J. Garbaye, F. Suffert, I. Sache, and D. M. Rizzo. 2007. The fungal dimension of biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22:472–480.

Devarajan, P. T., and T. S. Suryanarayanan. 2006. Evidence for the role of phytophagous insects in dispersal of non-grass fungal endophytes. Fungal Diversity 23:111–119.

Dicke, M., and L. E. M. Vet. 1999. Plant-carnivore interactions: evolutionary and ecological consequences. In Herbivores: between plants and predators, eds. H. Olff, V. K. Brown, and R. H. Drent, pp. 483–520. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

do Valle Ribeiro, M. A. M. 1993. Transmission and survival of Acremonium and the implications for grass breeding. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:195–213.

Doebeli, M., and N. Knowlton. 1998. The evolution of interspecific mutualisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 95:8676–8680.

Doss, R. P., and R. E. Welty. 1995. A polymerase chain reaction-based procedure for detection of Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue. Phytopathology 85:913–917.

Douglas, A. E. 1994. Symbiotic interactions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dudt, J. F., and D. J. Shure. 1994. The influence of light and nutrients on foliar phenolics and insect herbivory. Ecology 75:86–98.

Easton, H. S. 2007. Grasses and Neotyphodium endophytes: co-adaptation and adaptive breeding. Euphytica 154:295–306.

Easton, H. S., G. C. M. Latch, B. A. Tapper, and O. J.-P. Ball. 2002. Ryegrass host genetic control of concentrations of endophyte-derived alkaloids. Crop Science 42:51–57.

Eerens, J. P. J., J. G. H. White, and R. J. Lucas. 1993. The influence of the Acremonium endophyte on the leaf extension rate of moisture stressed ryegrass plants. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions, eds. D. E. Hume, G. C. M. Latch and H. S. Easton, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp. 200–203.

(p.204) Eerens, J. P. J., R. J. Lucas, H. S. Easton, and J. G. H. White. 1998a. Influence of the endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) on morphology, physiology, and alkaloid synthesis of perennial ryegrass during high temperature and water stress. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 41:219–226.

Eerens, J. P. J., R. J. Lucas, H. S. Easton, and J. G. H. White. 1998b. Influence of the ryegrass endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) in a cool moist environment. I. Pasture production. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 41:39–48.

Eerens, J. P. J., M. H. P. W. Visker, R. J. Lucas, H. S. Easton, and J. G. H. White. 1998c. Influence of the ryegrass endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) in a cool moist environment. II. Sheep production. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 41:191–199.

Eerens, J. P. J., M. H. P. W. Visker, R. J. Lucas, H. S. Easton, and J. G. H. White. 1998d. Influence of the ryegrass endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) in a cool moist environment. IV. Plant parasitic nematodes. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 41:209–217.

Ehrlich, P. R., and P. H. Raven. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18:586–608.

Eichenseer, H., D. L. Dahlman, and L. P. Bush. 1991. Influence of endophyte infection, plant age and harvest interval on Rhopalosiphum padi survival and its relation to quality of N-formyl and N-acetyl loline in tall fescue. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 60:29–38.

Elbersen, H. W., and C. P. West. 1996. Growth and water relations of field-grown tall fescue as influenced by drought and endophyte. Grass and Forage Science 51:333–342.

Elmi, A. A., and C. P. West. 1995. Endophyte infection effects on stomatal conductance, osmotic adjustment, and drought recovery of tall fescue. New Phytologist 131:61–67.

Elmqvist, T., and P. A. Cox. 1996. The evolution of vivipary in flowering plants. Oikos 77:3–9.

Elton, C. S. 1926. Animal ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ewald, P. W. 1987. Transmission modes and evolution of the parasitism-mutualism continuum. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503:295–306.

Ewald, P. W. 1994. Evolution of infectious disease. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Faeth, S. H. 1994. Induced plant responses: effects on parasitoids and other natural enemies of phytophagous insects. In Parasitoid community ecology, eds. B. A. Hawkins and W. S. Sheehan, pp. 245–260. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Faeth, S. H. 2002. Are endophytic fungi defensive plant mutualists? Oikos 98:25–36.

Faeth, S. H. 2008. Asexual fungal symbionts alter reproductive allocation and herbivory over time in their native perennial grass hosts. American Naturalist (in review).

Faeth, S. H., and T. L. Bultman. 2002. Endophytic fungi and interactions among host plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. In Multitrophic level interactions, eds. T. Tscharntke and B. A. Hawkins, pp. 89–123. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Faeth, S. H., L. P. Bush, and T. J. Sullivan. 2002a. Peramine alkaloid variation in Neotyphodium-infected Arizona fescue: effects of endophyte and host genotype and environment. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:1511–1526.

(p.205) Faeth, S. H., and W. F. Fagan. 2002. Fungal endophytes: common host plant symbionts but uncommon mutualists. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42:360–368.

Faeth, S. H., D. R. Gardner, C. J. Hayes, A. Jani, S. K. Wittlinger, and T. A. Jones. 2006. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium. Journal of Chemical Ecology 32:307–324.

Faeth, S. H., S. M. Haase, S. S. Sackett, T. J. Sullivan, R. K. Keithley, and C. E. Hamilton. 2002b. Does fire maintain symbiotic, fungal endophyte infections in native grasses? Symbiosis 32:211–228.

Faeth, S. H., K. P. Hadeler, and H. R. Thieme. 2007. An apparent paradox of horizontal and vertical disease transmission. Journal of Biological Dynamics 1:45–62.

Faeth, S. H., and C. E. Hamilton. 2006. Does an asexual endophyte symbiont alter life stage and long-term survival in a perennial host grass? Microbial Ecology 52:748–755.

Faeth, S. H., and K. E. Hammon. 1997. Fungal endophytes oak trees. I. Long-term patterns of abundance and associations with leafminers. Ecology 78:810–819.

Faeth, S. H., M. L. Helander, and K. T. Saikkonen. 2004. Asexual Neotyphodium endophytes in a native grass reduce competitive abilities. Ecology Letters 7:304–313.

Faeth, S. H., and K. Saikkonen. 2007. Variability is the nature of the endophyte-grass interaction. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 37–48. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Faeth, S. H., and T. J. Sullivan. 2003. Mutualistic asexual endophytes in a native grass are usually parasitic. American Naturalist 161:310–325.

Faeth, S. H., and D. Wilson. 1996. Induced responses in trees: mediators of interactions between macro- and micro-herbivores? In Multitrophic interactions in terrestrial systems, eds. A. C. Gange and V. K. Brown, pp. 201–215. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Fair, J., W. K. Lauenroth, and D. P. Coffin. 1999. Demography of Bouteloua gracilis in a mixed prairie: analysis of genets and individuals. Journal of Ecology 87:233–243.

Fales, S. L., A. S. Laidlaw, and M. G. Lambert. 1996. Cool-season grass ecosystems. In Cool-season forage grasses, eds. L. E. Moser, D. R. Buxton, and M. D. Casler, pp. 267–296. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Ferdy, J.-B., and B. Godelle. 2005. Diversification of transmission mode and the evolution of mutualism. American Naturalist 166:613–627.

Ferraro, D. O., and M. Oesterheld. 2002. Effect of defoliation on grass growth. A quantitative review. Oikos 98:125–133.

Fine, P. E. M. 1975. Vectors and vertical transmission: an epidemiologic perspective. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science 266:173–194.

Finkes L. K., A. B. Cady, J. C. Mulroy, K. Clay, and J. A. Rudgers. 2006. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields. Ecology Letters 9:344–353.

Flor, H. H. 1955. Host-parasite interaction in flax-rust—its genetics and other implications. Phytopathology 45:680–685.

Fornoni, J., J. Nunez-Farfan, P. L. Valverde, and M. D. Rausher. 2004. Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies. Evolution 58:1685–1695.

(p.206) Fortier, G. M., N. Bard, M. Jansen, and K. Clay. 2000. Effects of tall fescue endophyte infection and population density on growth and reproduction in prairie voles. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:122–128.

Fortier, G. M., M. A. Osmon, M. Roach, and K. Clay. 2001. Are female voles food limited? Effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue on home range size in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). American Midland Naturalist 146:63–71.

Foster, K. R., and T. Wenseleers. 2006. A general model for the evolution of mutualisms. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:1283–1293.

Fowler, N. L., and K. Clay. 1995. Environmental heterogeneity, fungal parasitism and the demography of the grass Stipa leucotricha. Oecologia 103:55–62.

Francis, S. M., and D. B. Baird. 1989. Increases in the proportion of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in overdrilled pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 32:437–440.

Frank, A. B., S. Bittman, and D. A. Johnson. 1996. Water relations of cool-season grasses. In Cool-season forage grasses, eds. L. E. Moser, D. R. Buxton, and M. D. Casler, pp. 127–164. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Frank, S. A. 1993. Coevolutionary genetics of plants and pathogens. Evolutionary Ecology 7:45–75.

Frank, S. A. 1994. Genetics of mutualisms: the evolution of altruism between species. Journal of Theoretical Biology 170:393–400.

Franzluebbers, A. J., N. Nazih, J. A. Stuedemann, J. J. Fuhrmann, H. H. Schomberg, and P. G. Hartel. 1999. Soil carbon and nitrogen pools under low and high endophyte infected tall fescue. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63:1687–1694.

Freeland, W. J., and D. H. Janzen. 1974. Strategies in herbivory by mammals: the role of plant secondary compounds. American Naturalist 108:269–289.

Freeman, E. M. 1904. The seed fungus of Lolium temulentum L., the darnel. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London [Biol.] 196:1–27.

Freeman, S., and R. J. Rodriguez. 1993. Genetic conversion of a fungal plant pathogen to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist. Science 260:75–78.

Fritz, R. S. and E. L. Simms, eds. 1992. Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution, and genetics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Futuyma, D. J., and M. Slatkin, eds. 1983. Coevolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Gallagher, R. T., A. D. Hawkes, P. S. Steyn, and R Vleggaar. 1984. Tremorgenic neurotoxins from perennial ryegrass causing ryegrass staggers disorder of livestock—structure elucidation of lolitrem-B. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications 9:614–616.

Gandon, S. 1998. Local adaptation and host-parasite interactions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:214–216.

Gandon, S. 2002. Local adaptation and the geometry of host-parasite coevolution. Ecology Letters 5:246–256.

Gandon, S., Y. Capowiez, Y. Dubois, Y. Michalakis, and I. Olivieri. 1996. Local adaptation and gene-for-gene coevolution in a metapopulation model. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 263:1003–1009.

Gentile, A., M. S. Rossi, D. Cabral, K. D. Craven, and C. L. Schardl. 2005. Origin, divergence, and phylogeny of Epichloë endophytes of native Argentine grasses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35:196–208.

Gibson, D. J. 2002. Methods in comparative plant population ecology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.207) Giddings, G. D., N. R. S Hamilton, and M. D. Hayward. 1997. The release of genetically modified grasses. Part 1: pollen dispersal to traps in Lolium perenne. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94:1000–1006.

Gilbert, G. S. 2002. Evolutionary ecology of plant diseases in natural ecosystems. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40:13–43.

Gilchrist, M. A., D. L. Sulsky, and A. Pringle. 2006. Identifying fitness and optimal life-history strategies for an asexual filamentous fungus. Evolution 60:970–979.

Godt, M. J. W., and J. L. Hamrick. 1998. Allozyme diversity in the grasses. In Population biology of grasses, ed. G. P. Cheplick, pp. 11–29. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goldson, S. L., J. R. Proffitt, L. R. Fletcher, and D. B. Baird. 2000. Multitrophic interaction between the ryegrass Lolium perenne, its endophyte Neotyphodium lolii, the weevil pest Listronotus bonariensis, and its parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 43:227–233.

Gomulkiewicz, R., S. L. Nuismer, and J. N. Thompson. 2003. Coevolution in variable mutualisms. American Naturalist 162:S80–S93.

Gonthier, D. J., T. J. Sullivan, K. L. Brown, B. Wurtzel, R. Lawal, K. VandenOever, Z. Buchan, T. L. Bultman. 2008. Stroma-forming endophyte Epichloë glyceriae provides wound-inducible herbivore resistance to its grass host. Oikos 117:629–633.

Gotelli, N. J., and G. L. Entsminger. 2007. EcoSim: null models software for ecology. Version 7.0. Acquired Intelligence Inc. & Kesey-Bear, Jericho, VT 05465. http://garyentsminger.com/ecosim.htm.

Grewal, S. K., P. S. Grewal, and R. Gaugler. 1995. Endophytes of fescue grasses enhance susceptibility of Popillia japonica larvae to an entomophagous nematode. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 74:219–224.

Grime, J. P. 1979. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Groppe, K., and T. Boller. 1997. PCR assay based on a microsatellite-containing locus for detection and quantification of Epichloë endophytes in grass tissue. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:1543–1550.

Groppe, K., I. Sanders, A. Wiemken, and T. Boller. 1995. A microsatellite marker for studying the ecology and diversity of fungal endophytes (Epichloë spp.) in grasses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:3943–3949.

Groppe, K., T. Steinger, I. Sanders, B. Schmid, A. Wiemken, and T. Boller. 1999. Interaction between the endophytic fungus Epichloë bromicola and the grass Bromus erectus: effects of endophyte infection, fungal concentration and environment on grass growth and flowering. Molecular Ecology 8:1827–1835.

Groppe, K., T. Steinger, B. Schmid, B. Baur, and T. Boller. 2001. Effects of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloë bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus. Journal of Ecology 89:247–255.

Gundel, P. E., P. H. Maseda, M. M. Vila-Aiub, C. M. Ghersa, and R. Benech-Arnold. 2006. Effects of Neotyphodium fungi on Lolium multiflorum seed germination in relation to water availability. Annals of Botany 97:571–577.

Gundel, P. E., W. B. Batista, M. Texeira, M. A. Martinez-Ghersa, M. Omacini, and C. M. Ghersa. 2008. Neotyphodium endophyte infection frequency in annual grass populations: relative importance of mutualism and transmission efficiency. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275:897–905.

(p.208) Guillaumin, J.-J., M. Frain, N. Picheon, and C. Ravel. 2001. Survey of fungal endophytes in wild grass species of the Auvergne region (central France). In Proceedings of the Fourth International Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions Symposium, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, eds. V. H. Paul and P. D. Dapprich, Soest, Germany, pp. 85–92.

Guo, B. Z., J. W. Hendrix, Z.-Q. An, and R. S. Ferriss. 1992. Role of Acremonium endophyte of fescue on inhibition of colonization and reproduction of mycorrhizal fungi. Mycologia 84:882–885.

Gwinn, K. D., and Gavin, A. M. 1992. Relationship between endophyte infection level of tall fescue seed lots and Rhizoctonia zeae seedling disease. Plant Disease 76:911–914.

Gyllenberg, M., D. Preoteasa, and K. Saikkonen. 2002. Vertically transmitted symbionts in structured host metapopulations. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 64:959–978.

Hahn, H., W. Huth, W. Schöberlein, and W. Diepenbrock. 2003. Detection of endophytic fungi in Festuca spp. by means of tissue print immunoassay. Plant Breeding 122:217–222.

Hamilton, C. E. 2002. Maintenance of systemic Neotyphodium infections in Arizona fescue: a test of three hypotheses. Master's thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Hamilton, C. E., and S. H. Faeth. 2005. Asexual Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue: a test of the seed germination and pathogen resistance hypothesis. Symbiosis 38:69–85.

Hamilton, C. E., and S. H. Faeth. 2007. Neotyphodium infection and hybridisation as a function of environmental variation. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 215–217. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Hammon, K. E., and S. H. Faeth. 1992. Ecology of plant-herbivore communities: a fungal component? Natural Toxins 1:197–208.

Hance, H. F. 1876. On a mongolian grass producing intoxication in cattle. Journal of Botany 14:210–212.

Hardy, T., K. Clay, and A. M. Hammond, Jr. 1985. Fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a laboratory bioassay and larval performance study for the fungal endophyte of perennial ryegrass. Journal of Economic Entomology 78:571–575.

Hardy, T., K. Clay, and A. M. Hammond, Jr. 1986. Leaf age and related factors affecting endophyte-mediated resistance to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in tall fescue. Environmental Entomology 15:1083–1089.

Harper, J. L. 1977. Population biology of plants. San Diego: Academic Press.

Härri, S. A. 2007. Effects of endophytes on multitrophic interactions. PhD dissertation, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Hawkes, C. V., J. Belnap, C. D'Antonio, and M. K. Firestone. 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of exotic grasses. Plant and Soil 281:367–379.

Hawkes, C. V., and J. J. Sullivan. 2001. The impact of herbivory on plants in different resource conditions—a meta-analysis. Ecology 82:2045–2058.

Hawkes, C.V., I. F. Wren, D. J. Herman, and M. K. Firestone. 2005. Plant invasion alters nitrogen cycling by modifying the soil nitrifying community. Ecology Letters 8:976–985.

Heckman, D. S., D. H. Gleiser, B. R. Eidell, R. L. Stauffer, N. L. Kardos, and S. B. Hedges. 2001. Molecular evidence for the early colonization of land by fungi and plants. Science 293: 1129–1133.

Heemsbergen, D. A., M. P. Berg, M. Loreau, J. R. van Hal, J. H. Faber, and H. A. Verhoef. 2004. Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity. Science 306:1019–1020.

(p.209) Herms, D. A., and W. J. Mattson. 1992. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Quarterly Review of Biology 67:283–335.

Hesse, U., H. Hahn, K. Andreeva, K. Förster, K. Warnstorff, W. Schöberlein, and W. Diepenbrock. 2004. Investigations on the influence of Neotyphodium endophytes on plant growth and seed yield of Lolium perenne genotypes. Crop Science 44:1689–1695.

Hesse, U., W. Schöberlein, L. Wittenmayer, K. Förster, K. Warnstorff, W. Diepenbrock, and W. Merbach. 2003. Effects of Neotyphodium endophytes on growth, reproduction and drought-stress tolerance of three Lolium perenne L. genotypes. Grass and Forage Science 58:407–415.

Hesse, U., W. Schöberlein, L. Wittenmayer, K. Förster, K. Warnstorff, W. Diepenbrock, and W. Merbach. 2005. Influence of water supply and endophyte infection (Neotyphodium spp.) on vegetative and reproductive growth of two Lolium perenne L. genotypes. European Journal of Agronomy 22:45–54.

Hiatt, E. E., III, N. S. Hill, J. H. Bouton, and J. A. Stuedemann. 1999. Tall fescue endophyte detection: commercial immunoblot test kit compared with microscopic analysis. Crop Science 39:796–799.

Hignight, K. W., G. A. Muilenburg, and A. J. P. van Wijk. 1993. A clearing technique for detecting the fungal endophyte Acremonium sp. in grasses. Biotechnic & Histochemistry 68:87–90.

Hill, N. S., D. P. Belesky, and W. C. Stringer. 1991. Competitiveness of tall fescue as influenced by Acremonium coenophialum. Crop Science 31:185–190.

Hill, N. S., J. G. Pachon, and C. W. Bacon. 1996. Acremonium coenophialum-mediated short-and long-term drought acclimation in tall fescue. Crop Science 36:665–672.

Hill, N. S., D. P. Belesky, and W. C. Stringer. 1998. Encroachment of endophyte-infected on endophyte-free tall fescue. Annals of Botany 81:483–488.

Hochwender, C. G., R. J. Marquis, and K. A. Stowe. 2000. The potential for and constraints on the evolution of compensatory ability in Asclepias syriaca. Oecologia 122:361–370.

Holland, B. R., C. L. Schardl, and J. Schmid. 2007. Endophyte survival without sex. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 151–154. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Holland, J. N., D. L. DeAngelis, and J. L. Bronstein. 2002. Population dynamics and mutualism: functional responses of benefits and costs. American Naturalist 159:231–244.

Holsinger, K. E. 2000. Demography and extinction in small populations. In Genetics, demography and viability of fragmented populations, eds. A. G. Young and G. M. Clarke, pp. 55–74. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hoveland, C. S. 1993. Importance and economic significance of the Acremonium endophytes to performance of animals and the grass plant. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 44: 3–12.

Hoveland, C. S., J. H. Bouton, and R. G. Durham. 1999. Fungal endophyte effects on production of legumes in association with tall fescue. Agronomy Journal 91:897–902.

Hoveland, C. S., R. G. Durham, and J. H. Bouton. 1997. Tall fescue response to clipping and competition with no-till seeded alfalfa as affected by fungal endophyte. Agronomy Journal 89:119–125.

Huigens, M. E., H. F. Luck, R. H. G. Klaassen, M. F. P. M. Maas, M. J. T. N. Timmerman, and R. Stouthamer. 2000. Infectious parthenogenesis. Nature 405:178–179.

(p.210) Huitu, O., M. Helander, P. Lehtonen, and K. Saikkonen. 2008. Consumption of grass endophytes alters the ultraviolet spectrum of vole urine. Oecologia 156:333–340.

Humphrey, L. D., and D. A. Pyke. 1998. Demographic and growth responses of a guerrilla and a phalanx perennial grass in competitive mixtures. Journal of Ecology 86:854–865.

Hunt, M. G., and J. A. Newman. 2005. Reduced herbivore resistance from a novel grass-endophyte association. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:762–769.

Hunt, M. G., S. Rasmussen, P. C. D. Newton, A. J. Parsons, and J. A. Newman. 2005. Near-term impacts of elevated CO2, nitrogen, and fungal endophyte-infection on Lolium perenne L. growth, chemical composition and alkaloid production. Plant, Cell and Environment 28:1345–1354.

Isaac, S. 1992. Fungal-plant interactions. London: Chapman & Hall.

Jani, A. J. 2005. Association of Neotyphodium endophytes and alkaloids with community structure in native grasses. Master's thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Janzen, D. H. 1966. Coevolution of mutualism between ants and acacias in Central America. Evolution 20:249–275.

Jeffries, M. J., and J. H. Lawton. 1984. Enemy free space and the structure of ecological communities. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 23:269–286.

Johnson, M. C., R. C. Anderson, R. J. Kryscio, and M. R. Siegel. 1983. Sampling procedures for determining endophyte in tall fescue seed lots by ELISA. Phytopathology 73:1406–1409.

Johnson, N. C., J. H. Graham, and F. A. Smith. 1997. Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. New Phytologist 135:575–585.

Johnson, N. C., J. Wolf, M. A. Reyes, A. Panter, G. W. Koch, and A. Redman. 2005. Species of plants and associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediate mycorrhizal responses to CO2 enrichment. Global Change Biology 11:1156–1166.

Johnson-Cicalese, J., M. E. Secks, C. K. Lam, W. A. Meyer, J. A. Murphy, and F. C. Belanger. 2000. Cross species inoculation of Chewings and strong creeping red fescues with fungal endophytes. Crop Science 40:1485–1489.

Jones, T. A., M. H. Ralphs, D. R. Gardner, and N. J. Chatterton. 2000. Cattle prefer endophyte-free robust needlegrass. Journal of Range Management 53:427–431.

Jump, A. S., and J. Peñuelas. 2005. Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change. Ecology Letters 8:1010–1020.

Kaltz, O., S. Gandon, Y. Michalakis, and J. A. Shykoff. 1999. Local maladaptation in the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum to its host plant Silene latifolia: evidence from a cross-inoculation experiment. Evolution 53:395–407.

Kaltz, O., and J. A. Shykoff. 1998. Local adaptation in host-parasite systems. Heredity 81:361–370.

Karban, R. 1997. Neighborhood affects a plant's risk of herbivory and subsequent success. Ecological Entomology 22:433–439.

Karban, R., and I. T. Baldwin. 1997. Induced responses to herbivory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Karban, R., A. K. Brody, and W. C. Schnathorst. 1989. Crowding and a plant's ability to defend itself against herbivores and diseases. American Naturalist 134:749–760.

Kareiva, P. M., J. G. Kingsolver, and R. B. Huey, eds. 1993. Biotic interactions and global change. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Keeler, K. H. 1985. Cost:benefit models of mutualism. In The biology of mutualism, eds. D. H. Boucher, pp. 100–127. New York: Oxford University Press.

(p.211) Kelley, S. E., and K. Clay. 1987. Interspecific competitive interactions and the maintenance of genotypic variation within two perennial grasses. Evolution 41:92–103.

Keogh, R. G., and T. Lawrence. 1987. Influence of Acremonium lolii presence on emergence and growth of ryegrass seedlings. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 30:507–510.

Kessler, A., and I. T. Baldwin. 2001. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science 291:2141–2144.

Kimmons, C. A., Gwinn, K. D., and E. C. Bernard. 1990. Nematode reproduction on endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue. Plant Disease 74:757–761.

Kniskern, J. M., and M. D. Rausher. 2006. Environmental variation mediates the deleterious effects of Coleosporium ipomoeae on Ipomoea purpurea. Ecology 87:675–685.

Knoch, T. R., S. H. Faeth, and D. Arnott. 1993. Endophytic fungi alter foraging by two species of desert seed-harvesting ants. Oecologia 95:470–475.

Koch, A. M., D. Croll, and I. R. Sanders. 2006. Genetic variability in a population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi causes variation in plant growth. Ecology Letters 9:103–110.

Koga, H., M. J. Christensen, and R. J. Bennett. 1993. Incompatibility of some grass-Acremonium endophyte associations. Mycological Research 97:1237–1244.

Kogel, K.-H., P. Franken, and R. Hückelhoven. 2006. Endophyte or parasite—what decides? Current Opinion in Plant Biology 9:358–363.

Koh, S., and D. S. Hik. 2007. Herbivory mediates grass-endophyte relationships. Ecology 88:2752–2757.

Koh, S., M. Vicari, J. P. Ball, T. Rakocevic, S. Zaher, D. S. Hik, and D. R. Bazely. 2006. Rapid detection of fungal endophytes in grasses for large-scale studies. Functional Ecology 20: 736–742.

Körner, C. 1991. Some often overlooked plant characteristics as determinants of plant growth: a reconsideration. Functional Ecology 5:162–173.

Koshino, H., S. Togiya, T. Yoshihara, and S. Sakamura. 1987. Four fungitoxic C-18 hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from stromata of Epichloë typhina. Tetrahedron Letters 28:73–76.

Kover, P. X. 2000. Effects of parasitic castration on plant resource allocation. Oecologia 123:48–56.

Kover, P. X., and K. Clay. 1998. Trade-off between virulence and vertical transmission and the maintenance of a virulent plant pathogen. American Naturalist 152:165–175.

Kover, P. X., T. E. Dolan, and K. Clay. 1997. Potential versus actual contribution of vertical transmission to pathogen fitness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 264:903–909.

Krauss J., S. A. Härri, L. Bush, R. Husi, L. Bigler, S. A. Power, and C. B. Müller. 2007. Effects of fertiliser, fungal endophytes and plant cultivar on the performance of insect herbivores and their natural enemies. Functional Ecology 21:107–116.

Krings, M., T. N. Taylor, H. Hass, H. Kerp, N. Dotzler, and E. J. Hermsen. 2007. Fungal endophytes in a 400-million-yr-old land plant: infection pathways, spatial distribution, and host responses. New Phytologist 174:648–657.

Kula, A. A. R., D. C. Hartnett, and G. W. T. Wilson. 2005. Effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on tallgrass prairie plant-herbivore interactions. Ecology Letters 8:61–69.

Kuldau, G. A., H. F. Tsai, and C. L. Schardl. 1999. Genome sizes of Epichloë and anamorphic hybrids. Mycologia 91:776–782.

(p.212) Kunkel, B. A., and P. S. Grewal. 2003. Endophyte infection in perennial ryegrass reduces susceptibility of Agrotis ipsilon to an entomopathogenic nematode. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 107:95–104.

Kunkel, B. A., P. S. Grewal, and M. F. Quiley. 2004 A mechanism of acquired resistance against an entomopathogenic nematode by Agrotis ipsilon feeding on perennial ryegrass harboring a fungal endophyte. Biological Control 29:100–108.

Lane, G. A., B. A. Tapper, E. Davies, D. E. Hume, G. C. M. Latch, D. J. Barker, H. S. Easton, and M. P. Rolston. 1997. Effect of growth conditions on alkaloid concentrations in perennial ryegrass naturally infected with endophytes. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and A. C. Hill, pp. 179–182. New York: Plenum Press.

Latch, G. C. M. 1993. Physiological interactions of endophytic fungi and their hosts. Biotic stress tolerance imparted to grasses by endophytes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:143–156.

Latch, G. C. M., and M. J. Christensen. 1982. Ryegrass endophyte, incidence, and control. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 25:443–448.

Latch, G. C. M., and M. J. Christensen. 1985. Artificial infections of grasses with endophytes. Annals of Applied Biology 107:17–24.

Latch, G. C. M., W. F. Hunt, and D. R. Musgrave. 1985. Endophytic fungi affect growth of perennial ryegrass. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 28:165–168.

Latch, G. C. M., L. R. Potter, and B. R. Tyler. 1987. Incidence of endophytes in seeds from collections of Lolium and Festuca species. Annals of Applied Biology 111:59–64.

Law, R. 1985. Evolution in a mutualistic environment. In The biology of mutualism, ed. D. H. Boucher, pp. 145–170. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lehtonen, P., M. Helander, and K. Saikkonen. 2005a. Are endophyte-mediated effects on herbivores conditional on soil nutrients? Oecologia 142:38–45.

Lehtonen, P., M. Helander, S. A. Siddiqui, K. Lehto, and K. Saikkonen. 2006. Endophytic fungi decrease plant virus infections in meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense). Biology Letters 2:620–623.

Lehtonen, P., M. Helander, M. Wink, F. Sporer, and K. Saikkonen. 2005b. Transfer of endophyte-origin defensive alkaloids from a grass to a hemiparasitic plant. Ecology Letters 8:1256–1263.

Lemons, A., K. Clay, and J. A. Rudgers. 2005. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition. Oecologia 145:595–604.

Lennartsson, T., J. Tuomi, and P. Nilsson. 1997. Evidence for an evolutionary history of overcompensation in the grassland biennial Gentianella campestris (Gentianaceae). American Naturalist 149:1147–1155.

LeRoy, C. J., T. G. Whitham, P. Keim, and J. C. Marks. 2006. Plant genes link forests and streams. Ecology 87:255–261.

Leuchtmann, A. 1992. Systematics, distribution, and host specificity of grass endophytes. Natural Toxins 1:150–162.

Leuchtmann, A. 2003. Taxonomy and diversity of Epichloë endophytes. In Clavicipitalean fungi: evolutionary biology, chemistry, biocontrol, and cultural impacts, eds. J. F. White, Jr., C. W. Bacon, N. L. Hywel-Jones, and J. W. Spatafora, pp. 169–194. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1988a. Atkinsonella hypoxylon and Balansia cyperi, epiphytic members of the Balansiae. Mycologia 80:192–199.

(p.213) Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1988b. Experimental infection of host grasses and sedges with Atkinsonella hypoxylon and Balansia cyperi (Balansiae, Clavicipitaceae). Mycologia 80:291–297.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1989a. Experimental evidence for genetic variation in compatibility between the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon and its three host grasses. Evolution 43:825–834.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1989b. Isozyme variation in the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon within and among populations of its host grasses. Canadian Journal of Botany 67:2600–2607.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1990. Isozyme variation in the Acremonium/Epichloë fungal endophyte complex. Phytopathology 80:1133–1139.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1993. Nonreciprocal compatibility between Epichloë typhina and four host grasses. Mycologia 85:157–163.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1996. Isozyme evidence for host races of the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon (Clavicipitaceae) infecting the Danthonia (Poaceae) complex in the southern Appalachians. American Journal of Botany 83:1144–1152.

Leuchtmann, A., and K. Clay. 1997. The population biology of grass endophytes. In The Mycota. V. Plant Relationships. Part B, eds. G. C. Carroll and P. Tudzynski, pp. 185–204. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Leuchtmann, A., D. Schmidt, and L. P. Bush. 2000. Different levels of protective alkaloids in grasses with stroma-forming and seed-transmitted Epichloë/Neotyphodium endophytes. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26:1025–1036.

Levine, J. M., and C. M. D'Antonio. 1999. Elton revisited: a review of evidence linking diversity and invasibility. Oikos 87:15–26.

Lewis, D. H. 1985. Symbiosis and mutualism: crisp concepts and soggy semantics. In The biology of mutualism, ed. D. H. Boucher, pp. 29–39. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, G. C. 1992. Effect of ryegrass endophyte in mixed swards of perennial ryegrass and white clover under two levels of irrigation and pesticide treatment. Grass and Forage Science 47:302–305.

Lewis, G. C. 2004. Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on the growth of three genotypes of Lolium perenne with and without infection by the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii. Annals of Applied Biology 144:53–63.

Lewis, G. C., A. K. Bakken, J. H. MacDuff, and N. Raistrick. 1996. Effect of infection by the endophytic fungus Acremonium lolii on growth and nitrogen uptake by perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in flowing solution culture. Annals of Applied Biology 129:451–460.

Lewis, G. C., and R. O. Clement. 1986. A survey of ryegrass endophyte in the U.K. and its apparent ineffectuality on a seedling pest. Journal of Agricultural Sciences Cambridge 107:633–638.

Lewis, G. C., C. Ravel, W. Naffaa, C. Astier, and G. Charmet. 1997. Occurrence of Acremonium endophytes in wild populations of Lolium spp. in European countries and a relationship between level of infection and climate in France. Annals of Applied Biology 130:227–238.

Lewis, J. 1973. Longevity of crop and weed seeds: survival after 20 years in soil. Weed Research 13:179–191.

Leyronas, C., B. Mériaux, and G. Raynal. 2006. Chemical control of Neotyphodium spp. endophytes in perennial ryegrass and tall fescue seeds. Crop Science 46:98–104.

(p.214) Li, B., X. Zheng, and S. Sun. 1997a. A survey of endophytic fungi in some native forage grasses of Northwestern China. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and N. S. Hill, pp. 69–71. New York: Plenum Press.

Li, C., Z. Nan, J. Gao, and P. Tian. 1997b. Detection and distribution of Neotyphodium-Achnatherum inebrians association in China. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions, eds. R. Kallenbach, C. Rosenkraus, Jr., and T. R. Lock, Fayetteville, AR, pp. 210–212.

Li, C. J., Z. B. Nan, V. H. Paul, P. D. Dapprich, and Y. Liu. 2004. Neotyphodium species symbiotic with drunken horse grass (Achnatherum inebrians) in China. Mycotaxon 90: 141–147.

Linhart, Y. B., K. Keefover-Ring, K. A. Mooney, B. Breland, and J. D. Thompson. 2005. A chemical polymorphism in a multitrophic setting: thyme monoterpene composition and food web structure. American Naturalist 166:517–529.

Lipsitch, M., A. Nowak, D. Ebert, and R. May. 1995. The population dynamics of vertically and horizontally transmitted parasites. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 260:321–327.

Lipsitch, M., S. Sillerand, and A. Nowak. 1996. The evolution of virulence in pathogens with vertical and horizontal transmission. Evolution 50:1729–1741.

Logendra, S., and M. D. Richardson. 1997. Ergosterol as an indicator of endophyte biomass in grass tissue. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and N. S. Hill, pp. 267–270. New York: Plenum Press.

Lopez, J. E., S. H. Faeth, and M. Miller. 1995. The effect of endophytic fungi on herbivory by red-legged grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on Arizona fescue. Environmental Entomology 24:1576–1580.

Loreau, M., S. Naeem, P. Inchausti, J. Bengstsson, J. P. Grime, A. Hector, D. U. Hooper, M. A. Huston, D. Raffaelli, B. Schmid, D. Tilman, and D. A. Wardle. 2001. Ecological-biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science 294:804–808.

Lyons, P. C., J. J. Evans, and C. W. Bacon. 1990. Effects of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in tall fescue. Plant Physiology 92:726–732.

Lyons, P. C., R. D. Plattner, and C. W. Bacon. 1986. Occurrence of peptide and clavine ergot alkaloids in tall fescue grass. Science 232:487–489.

Mack, K. M. L., and J. A. Rudgers. 2008. Balancing multiple mutualists: asymmetric interactions among plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungal endophytes. Oikos 117:310–320.

Mack, M. C., and C. M. D'Antonio. 2003. The effects of exotic grasses on litter decomposition in a Hawaiian woodland: the importance of indirect effects. Ecosystems 6:723–738.

Maclean, B., C. Matthew, G. C. M. Latch, and D. J. Barker. 1993. The effect of endophyte on drought resistance in tall fescue. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions, eds. D. E. Hume, G. C. M. Latch, and H. S. Easton, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp. 165–169.

Malinowski, D. P., G. A. Alloush, and D. P. Belesky. 2000. Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescue. Plant and Soil 227:115–126.

Malinowski, D. P., and D. P. Belesky. 2000. Adaptations of endophyte-infected cool-season grasses to environmental stresses: mechanisms of drought and mineral stress tolerance. Crop Science 40:923–940.

(p.215) Malinowski, D. P., and D. P. Belesky. 2006. Ecological importance of Neotyphodium spp. grass endophytes in agroecosystems. Grassland Science 52:1–14.

Malinowski, D. P., D. P. Belesky, and J. M. Fedders. 1999a. Endophyte infection may affect the competitive ability of tall fescue grown with red clover. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 183:91–101.

Malinowski, D. P., D. P. Belesky, N. S. Hill, V. C. Baligar, and J. M. Fedders. 1998. Influence of phosphorus on the growth and ergot alkaloid content of Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Plant and Soil 198:53–61.

Malinowski, D. P., D. P. Belesky, and G. C. Lewis. 2005. Abiotic stresses in endophytic grasses. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 187–199. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publications.

Malinowski, D. P., D. K. Brauer, and D. P. Belesky. 1999b. The endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum affects root morphology of tall fescue grown under phosphorus deficiency. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 183:53–60.

Malinowski, D. P., A. Leuchtmann, D. Schmidt, and J. Nösberger. 1997a. Growth and water status in meadow fescue is affected by Neotyphodium and Phialophora species endophytes. Agronomy Journal 89:673–678.

Malinowski, D. P., A. Leuchtmann, D. Schmidt, and J. Nösberger. 1997b. Symbiosis with Neotyphodium uncinatum endophyte may increase the competitive ability of meadow fescue. Agronomy Journal 89:833–839.

Margulis, L. 1991. Symbiogenesis and symbionticism. In Symbiosis as a source of evolutionary innovation, eds. L. Margulis and R. Fester, pp. 1–14. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Marks S., and K. Clay. 1990. Effects of CO2 enrichment, nutrient addition, and fungal endophyte-infection on the growth of two grasses. Oecologia 84:207–214.

Marks S., and K. Clay. 1996. Physiological responses of Festuca arundinacea to fungal endophyte infection. New Phytologist 133:727–733.

Marks S., and K. Clay. 2007. Low resource availability differentially affects the growth of host grasses infected by fungal endophytes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 168:1269–1277.

Marks, S., K. Clay, and G. P. Cheplick. 1991. Effects of fungal endophytes on interspecific and intraspecific competition in the grasses Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne. Journal of Applied Ecology 28:194–204.

Marks, S., and D. E. Lincoln. 1996. Antiherbivore defense mutualism under elevated carbon dioxide levels: a fungal endophyte and grass. Environmental Entomology 25:618–623.

Márquez, L. M., R. S. Redman, R. J. Rodriquez, and M. J. Roossinck. 2007. A virus in a fungus in a plant: three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance. Science 315:513–515.

Márquez, S. S., G. F. Bills, and I. Zabalgogeazcoa. 2007. The endophytic community of Dactylis glomerata. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 69–73. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Marsh, C. D., and A. B. Clawson. 1929. Sleepy grass (Stipa vaseyi) as a stock-poisoning plant. Technical Bulletin 114. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Marshall, D., B. Tunali, and L. R. Nelson. 1999. Occurrence of fungal endophytes in species of wild Triticum. Crop Science 39:1507–1512.

Maschinski, J., and T. G. Whitham. 1989. The continuum of plant responses to herbivory: the influence of plant association, nutrient availability, and timing. American Naturalist 134:1–9.

(p.216) Massad, E. 1987. Transmission rates and the evolution of pathogenicity. Evolution 41:1127–1130.

Matthews, J. W., and K. Clay. 2001. Influence of fungal endophyte infection on plant-soil feedback and community interactions. Ecology 82:500–509.

Mayer, P. M., S. J. Tunnell, D. M. Engle, E. E. Jorgensen, and P. Nunn. 2005. Invasive grass alters litter decomposition by influencing macrodetritivores. Ecosystems 8:200–209.

McCormick, M. K., K. L. Gross, and R. A. Smith. 2001. Danthonia spicata (Poaceae) and Atkinsonella hypoxylon (Balansiae): environmental dependence of a symbiosis. American Journal of Botany 88:903–909.

McKone, M. J. 1989. Intraspecific variation in pollen yield in bromegrass (Poaceae; Bromus). American Journal of Botany 76:231–237.

McKone, M. J., C. P. Lund, and J. M. O'Brien. 1998. Reproductive biology of two dominant prairie grasses (Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans; Poaceae): male-biased sex allocation in wind-pollinated plants? American Journal of Botany 85:776–783.

McNaughton, S. J. 1984. Grazing lawns—animals in herds, plant form, and coevolution. American Naturalist 124:863–886.

Meijer, G., and A. Leuchtmann. 1999. Multistrain infections of the grass Brachypodium sylvaticum by its fungal endophyte Epichloë sylvatica. New Phytologist 141:355–368.

Meijer, G., and A. Leuchtmann. 2000. The effects of genetic and environmental factors on disease expression (stroma formation) and plant growth in Brachypodium sylvaticum infected by Epichloë sylvatica. Oikos 91:446–458.

Meijer, G., and A. Leuchtmann. 2001. Fungal genotype controls mutualism and sex in Brachypodium sylvaticum infected by Epichloë sylvatica. Acta Biologica Hungarica 52:249–263.

Meister B., J. Krauss, S. A. Harri, M. V. Schneider, and C. B. Müller. 2006. Fungal endosymbionts affect aphid population size by reduction of adult life span and fecundity. Basic and Applied Ecology 7:244–252.

Merilä, J., and M. Björklund. 2004. Phenotypic integration as a constraint and adaptation. In Phenotypic integration: studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes, eds. M. Pigliucci and K. Preston, pp. 107–129. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Miles, C. O., M. E. di Menna, S. W. L. Jacobs, I. Garthwaite, G. A. Lane, R. A. Prestidge, S. L. Marshall, H. W. Wilkinson, C. L. Schardl, O. J.-P. Ball, and G. C. M. Latch. 1998. Endophytic fungi in indigenous Australasian grasses associated with toxicity to livestock. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64:601–606.

Miles, C. O., G. A. Lane, M. E. Di Menna, I. Garthwaite, E. L. Piper, O. J.-P. Ball, G. C. M. Latch, J. M. Allen, M. B. Hunt, L. P. Bush, F. K. Min, I. Fletcher, and P. S. Harris. 1996. High levels of ergonovine and lysergic acid amide in toxic Achnatherum inebrians accompany infection by an Acremonium-like endophytic fungus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44:1285–1290.

Mills, N. J., and W. M. Getz. 1996. Modelling the biological control of insect pests: a review of host-parasitoid models. Ecological Modelling 92:121–143.

Mirlohi, A., M. R. Sabzalian, B. Sharifnabi, and M. K. Nekoui. 2006. Widespread occurrence of Neotyphodium-like endophyte in populations of Bromus tomentellus Boiss. in Iran. FEMS Microbiology Letters 256:126–131.

Mitchell, C. E., and A. G. Power. 2003. Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature 421:625–627.

(p.217) Monnet, F., N. Vaillant, A. Hitmi, and H. Sallanon. 2005. Photosynthetic activity of Lolium perenne as a function of endophyte status and zinc nutrition. Functional Plant Biology 32:131–139.

Moon, C. D., K. D. Craven, A. Leuchtmann, S. L. Clement, and C. L. Schardl. 2004. Prevalence of interspecific hybrids amongst asexual fungal endophytes of grasses. Molecular Ecology 13:1455–1467.

Moon, C. D., C. O. Miles, U. Järlfors, and C. L. Schardl. 2002. The evolutionary origins of three new Neotyphodium endophyte species from grasses indigenous to the Southern Hemisphere. Mycologia 94:694–711.

Moon, C. D., B. Scott, C. L. Schardl, and M. J. Christensen. 2000. The evolutionary origins of Epichloë endophytes from annual ryegrasses. Mycologia 92:1103–1118.

Moran, N. A. 2007. Symbiosis as an adaptive process and source of phenotypic complexity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:8627–8633.

Moran, N. A., and J. J. Wernegreen. 2000. Lifestyle evolution in symbiotic bacteria: insights from genomics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15:321–326.

Moranz, R., and L. P. Brower. 1998. Geographic and temporal variation of cardenolide-based chemical defenses of queen butterfly (Danaus gilippus) in northern Florida. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24:905–922.

Morin, P. J. 1999. Community ecology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science.

Morin, P. J. 2003. Community ecology and the genetics of interacting species. Ecology 84:577–580.

Morse, L. J., T. A. Day, and S. H. Faeth. 2002. Effect of Neotyphodium endophyte infection on growth and leaf gas exchange of Arizona fescue under contrasting water availability regimes. Environmental and Experimental Botany 48:257–268.

Morse, L. J., S. H. Faeth, and T. A. Day. 2007. Neotyphodium interactions with a wild grass are driven mainly by endophyte haplotype. Functional Ecology 21:813–822.

Moy, M., F. Belanger, R. Duncan, A. Feedhoff, C. Leary, R. Sullivan, and J. F. White, Jr. 2000. Identification of epiphyllous nets on leaves of grasses infected by clavicipitaceous endophytes. Symbiosis 28:291–302.

Müller, C. B., and J. Krauss. 2005. Symbiosis between grasses and asexual fungal endophytes. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 8:450–456.

Müller, J. 2003. Artificial infection by endophytes affects growth and mycorrhizal colonisation of Lolium perenne. Functional Plant Biology 30:419–424.

Nan, Z. B., and Li, C. J. 2001. Neotyphodium in native grasses in China and observations on endophyte/host interactions. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions Symposium, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, Soest, Germany, eds. V. H. Paul. and P. D. Dapprich, pp. 41–50.

Neil, K., R. T. Tiller, and S. H. Faeth. 2003. Germination success of big Sacaton and Neotyphodium-infected and uninfected Arizona fescue. Journal of Range Management 56:612–622.

Nelson, C. J. 1988. Genetic association between photosynthetic characteristics and yield: review of the evidence. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 26:543–554.

Nelson, C. J. 1996. Physiology and developmental morphology. In Cool-season forage grasses, eds. L. E. Moser, D. R. Buxton, and M. D. Casler, pp. 87–125. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Neuhauser, C., D. A. Andow, G. E. Heimpel, G. May, R. G. Shaw, and S. Wagenius. 2003. Community genetics: expanding the synthesis of ecology and genetics. Ecology 84:545–558.

(p.218) Newman, J. A., M. L. Abner, R. G. Dado, D. J. Gibson, A. Brookings, and A. J. Parsons. 2003. Effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen and fungal endophyte-infection on tall fescue: growth, photosynthesis, chemical composition and digestibility. Global Change Biology 9:425–437.

Newsham, K. K., G. C. Lewis, P. D. Greenslade, and A. R. McLeod. 1998. Neotyphodium lolii, a fungal leaf endophyte, reduces fertility of Lolium perenne exposed to elevated UV-B radiation. Annals of Botany 81:397–403.

Noss, R. F., E. T. La Roe, and J. M. Scott. 1995. Endangered ecosystems of the United States: a preliminary assessment of loss and degradation. Biological Report 28. Washington, DC: USGS National Biological Resources Division.

Novas, M. V., A. Gentile, and D. Cabral. 2003. Comparative study of growth parameters on diaspores and seedlings between populations of Bromus setifolius from Patagonia, differing in Neotyphodium endophyte infection. Flora 198:421–426.

Novas, M. V., D. Cabral, and A. M. Godeas. 2005. Interaction between grass endophytes and mycorrhizae in Bromus setifolius from Patagonia, Argentina. Symbiosis 40:23–30.

Nuismer, S. L., J. N. Thompson, and R. Gomulkiewicz. 1999. Gene flow and geographically structured coevolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 266:605–609.

Nuismer, S. L., J. N. Thompson, and R. Gomulkiewicz. 2000. Coevolutionary clines across selection mosaics. Evolution 54:1102–1115.

Nurminiemi, M., J. Tufto, N. O. Nilsson, and O. A. Rognli. 1998. Spatial models of pollen dispersal in the forage grass meadow fescue. Evolutionary Ecology 12:487–502.

Obeso, J. R. 2002. The costs of reproduction in plants. New Phytologist 155:321–348.

Ohnmeiss, T. E., and I. T. Baldwin. 1994. The allometry of nitrogen allocation to growth and an inducible defense under nitrogen-limited growth. Ecology 75:995–1002.

Olejniczak, P., and M. Lembicz. 2007. Age-specific response of the grass Puccinellia distans to the presence of a fungal endophyte. Oecologia 152:485–494.

Olff, H., and M. E. Ritchie. 1998. Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:261–265.

Omacini, M., E. J. Chaneton, and C. M. Ghersa. 2005. A hierarchical framework for understanding the ecosystem consequences of endophyte-grass symbiosis. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 141–162. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publications.

Omacini, M., E. J. Chaneton, C. M. Ghersa, and C. B. Müller. 2001. Symbiotic fungal endophytes control insect host-parasite interaction webs. Nature 409:78–81.

Omacini, M., E. J. Chaneton, C. M. Ghersa, and P. Otero. 2004. Do foliar endophytes affect grass litter decomposition? A microcosm approach using Lolium multiflorum. Oikos 104:581–590.

Omacini, M., T. Eggers, M. Bonkowski, A. C. Gange, and T. H. Jones. 2006. Leaf endophytes affect mycorrhizal status and growth of co-infected and neighbouring plants. Functional Ecology 20:226–232.

Orr, S. P., J. A. Rudgers, and K. Clay. 2005. Invasive plants can inhibit native tree seedlings: testing potential allelopathic mechanisms. Plant Ecology 181:153–165.

Paige, K. N., and T. G. Whitham. 1992. Overcompensation in response to mammalian herbivory: the advantage of being eaten. American Naturalist 129:407–416.

Pan, J. J., and K. Clay. 2002. Infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae and clonal growth of its host grass Glyceria striata. Oikos 98:37–46.

(p.219) Pan, J. J., and K. Clay. 2003. Infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae alters clonal growth of its grass host, Glyceria striata. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 270:1585–1591.

Pan, J. J., and K. Clay. 2004. Epichloë glyceriae infection affects carbon translocation in the clonal grass Glyceria striata. New Phytologist 164:467–475.

Paracer, S., and V. Ahmadjian. 2000. Symbiosis: an introduction to biological associations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Parker, M. A. 1995. Plant fitness variation caused by different mutualist genotypes. Ecology 76:1525–1535.

Pavlu, V., M. Hejcman, L. Pavlu, J. Gaisler, P. Hejcmanova-Nezerkova, and L. Meneses. 2006. Changes in plant densities in a mesic species-rich grassland after imposing different grazing management treatments. Grass and Forage Science 61:42–51.

Pellmyr, O., J. Leebens-Mack, and C. J. Huth. 1996. Non-mutualistic yucca moths and their evolutionary consequences. Nature 380:155–156.

Peters, E. J., and A. H. B. M. Zam. 1981. Allelopathic effects of tall fescue genotypes. Agronomy Journal 73:56–58.

Petrini, O., T. N. Sieber, L. Toti, and O. Viret. 1992. Ecology, metabolite production, and substrate utilization in endophytic fungi. Natural Toxins 1:185–196.

Petroski, R. J., R. G. Powell, and K. Clay. 1992. Alkaloids of Stipa robusta (sleepygrass) infected with an Acremonium endophyte. Natural Toxins 1:84–88.

Pfender, W. F., and S. C. Alderman. 1999. Geographical distribution and incidence of orchardgrass choke, caused by Epichloë typhina, in Oregon. Plant Disease 83:754–758.

Piano, E., F. B. Bertoli, M. Romani, A. Tava, L. Riccioni, M. Valvassori, A. M. Carroni, and L. Pecetti. 2005. Specificity of host-endophyte association in tall fescue populations from Sardinia, Italy. Crop Science 45:1456–1463.

Pigliucci, M. 2004. Studying the plasticity of phenotypic integration in a model organism. In Phenotypic integration: studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes, eds. M. Pigliucci and K. Preston, pp. 155–175. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pimentel, D. 1988. Herbivore population feeding pressure on plant hosts: feedback evolution and host conservation. Oikos 53:289–302.

Popay, A. J. 1997. Tiller mortality in mixtures of endophyte-free ryegrass and ryegrass infected with two different endophytes. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and N. S. Hill, pp. 191–193. New York: Plenum Press.

Popay, A. J., and S. A. Bonos. 2005. Biotic responses in endophytic grasses. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 163–185. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing.

Popay, A. J., and D. D. Rowan. 1994. Endophytic fungi as mediators of plant-insect interactions. In Insect-plant interactions, vol. V, ed. E. A. Bernays, pp. 83–103. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Popay, A. J., and E. R. Thom, eds. 2007. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Popay, A. J., and R. T. Wyatt. 1995. Resistance to Argentine stem weevil in perennial ryegrass infected with endophytes producing different alkaloids. Proceedings of the 48th New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, pp. 229–236.

Post, D. M. 2002. The long and short of food-chain length. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:269–277.

(p.220) Poulsen, M., and J. J. Boomsa. 2005. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants. Science 307:741–744.

Powell, R. G., and R. J. Petroski. 1992. Alkaloid toxins in endophyte-infected grasses. Natural Toxins 1: 163–170.

Powell, R. G., M. R. Tepaske, R. D. Plattner, J. F. White, and S. L. Clement. 1994. Isolation of resveratrol from Festuca versuta and evidence for the widespread occurrence of this stilbene in the Poaceae. Phytochemistry 35:335–338.

Power, M. E. 1992. Top-down and bottom-up forces in food webs: do plants have primacy? Ecology 73:733–746.

Prestidge, R. A. 1993. Causes and control of perennial ryegrass staggers in New Zealand. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:283–300.

Prestidge, R. A., and R. T. Gallagher. 1988. Endophyte fungus confers resistance to ryegrass: Argentine stem weevil larval studies. Ecological Entomology 13:429–435.

Prestidge, R. A., R. P. Pottinger, and G. M. Barker. 1982. An association of Lolium endophyte with ryegrass resistance to Argentine stem weevil. In Proceedings of the 35th New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference, pp. 119–122.

Preston, K. A., and D. D. Ackerly. 2004. The evolution of allometry in modular organisms. In Phenotypic integration: studying the ecology and evolution of complex phenotypes, eds. M. Pigliucci and K. Preston, pp. 80–106. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Price, P. W. 1984. Insect ecology, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Priestley, D. A. 1986. Seed aging: implications for seed storage and persistence in the soil. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Pringle, A., and J. W. Taylor. 2002. The fitness of filamentous fungi. Trends in Microbiology 10:474–481.

Quinn, J. F., and J. R. Karr. 1993. Habitat fragmentation and global change. In Biotic interactions and global change, eds. P. M. Kareiva, J. G. Kingsolver, and R. B. Huey, pp. 451–463. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Rahman, M. H., and S. Saiga. 2005. Endophytic fungi (Neotyphodium coenophialum) affect the growth and mineral uptake, transport and efficiency ratios in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Plant and Soil 272:163–171.

Rambo, J. L., and S. H. Faeth. 1999. Effect of vertebrate grazing on plant and insect community structure. Conservation Biology 13:1047–1054.

Rao, S., S. C. Alderman, J. Takeysu, and B. Matson. 2005. The Botanophila-Epichloë association in cultivated Festuca in Oregon: evidence of simple fungivory. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 115:427–433.

Rao, S., and D. Baumann. 2004. The interaction of a Botanophila fly species with an exotic Epichloë fungus in a cultivated grass: fungivore or mutualist? Entomologica Experimentalis et Applicata 112:99–105.

Rasmussen, S., A. J. Parsons, S. Bassett, M. J. Christensen, D. E. Hume, L. J. Johnson, R. D. Johnson, W. R. Simpson, C. Stacke, C. R. Voisey, H. Xue, and J. A. Newman. 2007. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne. New Phytologist 173:787–797.

Rasmussen, S., A. J. Parsons, K. Fraser, H. Xue, and J. A. Newman. 2008. Metabolic profiles of Lolium perenne are differentially affected by nitrogen supply, carbohydrate content, and fungal endophyte infection. Plant Physiology 146:1440–1453.

Ravel, C., G. Charmet, and F. Balfourier. 1995. Influence of the fungal endophyte Acremonium lolii on agronomic traits of perennial ryegrass in France. Grass and Forage Science 50:75–80.

(p.221) Ravel, C., F. Balfourier, and J. J. Guillaumin. 1999. Enhancement of yield and persistence of perennial ryegrass inoculated with one endophyte isolate in France. Agronomie 19:635–644.

Ravel, C., C. Courty, A. Coudret, and G. Charmet. 1997a. Beneficial effects of Neotyphodium lolii on the growth and the water status in perennial ryegrass cultivated under nitrogen deficiency or drought stress. Agronomie 17:173–181.

Ravel, C., Y. Michalakis, and G. Charmet. 1997b. The effect of imperfect transmission on the frequency of mutualistic seed-borne endophytes in natural populations of grasses. Oikos 80:18–24.

Read, J. C., and B. J. Camp. 1986. The effect of the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum in tall fescue on animal performance, toxicity, and stand maintenance. Agronomy Journal 78:848–850.

Redlin, S. C., and L. M. Carris, eds. 1996. Endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press.

Redman, R. S., D. D. Dunigan, and R. J. Rodriguez. 2001. Fungal symbiosis from mutualism to parasitism: who controls the outcome, host or invader? New Phytologist 151:705–716.

Redman, R. S., K. B. Sheehan, R. G. Stout, R. J. Rodriquez, and J. M. Henson. 2002. Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis. Science 298:1581–1581.

Ren, A. Z., Y. B. Gao, and F. Zhou. 2007. Response of Neotyphodium lolii-infected perennial ryegrass to phosphorus deficiency. Plant, Soil and Environment 53:113–119.

Renne, I. G., B. J. Rios, J. S. Fehmi, and B. F. Tracy. 2004. Low allelopathic potential of an invasive forage grass on native grassland plants: a cause for encouragement? Basic and Applied Ecology 5:261–269.

Reynolds, H. L., A. E. Hartley, K. M. Vogelsang, J. D. Bever, and P. A. Schultz. 2005. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi do not enhance nitrogen acquisition and growth of old-field perennials under low nitrogen supply in glasshouse culture. New Phytologist 167:869–880.

Rice, J. S., B. W. Pinkerton, W. C. Stringer, and D. J. Undersander. 1990. Seed production in tall fescue as affected by fungal endophyte. Crop Science 30:1303–1305.

Richardson, D. M., N. Allsopp, C. M. D'Antonio, S. J. Milton, and M. Rejmanek. 2000. Plant invasions—the role of mutualisms. Biological Reviews 75:65–93.

Richardson, M. D., G. W. Chapman, Jr., C. S. Hoveland, and C. W. Bacon. 1992. Sugar alcohols in endophyte-infected tall fescue. Crop Science 32:1060–1061.

Richardson, M. D., C. S. Hoveland, and C. W. Bacon. 1993. Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic tall fescue. Crop Science 33:145–149.

Richmond, D. S., J. Cardina, and P. S. Grewal. 2006. Influence of grass species and endophyte infection on weed populations during establishment of low-maintenance lawns. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 115:27–33.

Richmond, D. S., P. S. Grewal, and J. Cardina. 2003. Competition between Lolium perenne and Digitaria sanguinalis: ecological consequences for harbouring an endosymbiotic fungus. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:835–840.

Richmond, D. S., P. S. Grewal, and J. Cardina. 2004a. Influence of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) larvae and fungal endophytes on competition between turfgrasses and dandelions. Crop Science 44:600–606.

Richmond, D. S., B. A. Kunkel, N. Somesekar, and P. S. Grewal. 2004b. Top-down and bottom-up regulation of herbivores: Spodoptera frugiperda turns tables on endophyte-mediated plant defence and virulence of an entomopathogenic nematode. Ecologica Entomology 29:353–360.

(p.222) Roberts, C. A., C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, eds. 2005. Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishers.

Rodriguez, R. J., R. S. Redman, and J. M. Henson. 2004. The role of fungal symbionts in the adaptation of plants to high stress environments. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 9:261–272.

Rodriguez, R. J., R. S. Redman, and J. M. Henson. 2005. Symbiotic lifestyle expression by fungal endophytes and the adaptation of plants to stress: unraveling the complexities of intimacy. In The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem, 3rd ed., eds. J. Dighton, J. F. White, and P. Oudemans, pp. 683–695. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Rodriguez-Saona, C., and J. S. Thaler. 2005. Herbivore-induced responses and patch heterogeneity affect abundance of arthropods on plants. Ecological Entomology 30:156–163.

Rolston, M. P., M. D. Hare, K. K. Moore, and M. J. Christensen. 1986. Viability of Lolium endophyte fungus in seed stored at different moisture contents and temperatures. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 14:297–300.

Root, R. B. 1973. Organisation of a plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: the fauna of collards (Brassica oleracea). Ecological Monographs 43:95–124.

Rowan, D. D., J. J. Dymock, and M. A. Brimble. 1990. Effect of fungal metabolite peramine and analogs on feeding and development of Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). Journal of Chemical Ecology 16:1683–1695.

Rowan, D. D., and G. C. M Latch. 1994. Utilization of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass for increased insect resistance. In Biotechnology of endophytic fungi of grasses, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 169–183. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Roylance, J. T., N. S. Hill, and C. S. Agee. 1994. Ergovaline and peramine production in endophyte-infected tall fescue: independent regulation and effects of plant and endophyte genotype. Journal of Chemical Ecology 20:2171–2183.

Rudgers, J. A., and K. Clay. 2005. Fungal endophytes in terrestrial communities and ecosystems. In The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem, 3rd ed., eds. J. Dighton, J. F. White, and P. Oudemans, pp. 423–442. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Rudgers, J. A., J. Holah, S. P. Orr, and K. Clay. 2007. Forest succession suppressed by an introduced plant-fungal symbiosis. Ecology 88:18–25.

Rudgers, J. A., J. M. Koslow, and K. Clay. 2004. Endophytic fungi alter relationships between diversity and ecosystem properties. Ecology Letters 7:42–51.

Rudgers, J. A., W. B. Mattingly, and J. M. Koslow. 2005. Mutualistic fungus promotes plant invasion into diverse communities. Oecologia 144: 463–471.

Ryley, M. J. 2003. Nigrocornus scleroticus, a common Old World Balansioid fungus. In Clavicipitalean fungi: evolutionary biology, chemistry, biocontrol, and cultural impacts, eds. J. F. White, Jr., C. W. Bacon, N. L. Hywel-Jones, and J. W. Spatafora, pp. 247–271. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Sabo, J. L., J. L. Bastow, and M. E. Power. 2002. Length-mass relationships for adult aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates in a California watershed. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21:336–343.

Saccheri, I., and I. Hanski. 2006. Natural selection and population dynamics. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:341–347.

Sachs, J. L., and E. L. Simms. 2006. Pathways to mutualism breakdown. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:585–592.

(p.223) Saikkonen, K. 2000. Kentucky 31, far from home. Science 287:1887.

Saikkonen, K., J. Ahlholm, M. Helander, S. Lehtimäki, and O. Niemeläinen. 2000. Endophytic fungi in wild and cultivated grasses in Finland. Ecography 23:360–366.

Saikkonen, K., S. H. Faeth, M. Helander, and T. J. Sullivan. 1998. Fungal endophytes: a continuum of interactions with host plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 319–343.

Saikkonen, K., M. Helander, S. H. Faeth, F. Schulthess, and D. Wilson. 1999. Endophyte-grass-herbivore interactions: the case of Neotyphodium endophytes in Arizona fescue populations. Oecologia 121: 411–420.

Saikkonen, K., D. Ion, and M. Gyllenberg. 2002. The persistence of vertically transmitted fungi in grass metapopulations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B – Biological Sciences 269:1397–1403.

Saikkonen, K., P. Lehtonen, M. Helander, J. Koricheva, and S. H. Faeth. 2006. Model systems in ecology: dissecting the endophyte-grass literature. Trends in Plant Science 11:428–433.

Saikkonen, K., P. Wäli, M. Helander, and S. H. Faeth. 2004. Evolution of endophyte-plant symbioses. Trends in Plant Science 9:275–280.

Salvaudon, L., V. Heraudet, and J. A. Shykoff. 2005. Parasite-host fitness trade-offs change with parasite identity: genotype-specific interactions in a plant-pathogen system. Evolution 59:2518–2524.

Samson, F., and F. Knopf. 1994. Prairie conservation in North America. BioScience 44:418–421.

Schardl, C. L. 1996. Epichloë species: fungal symbionts of grasses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 34:109–130.

Schardl, C. L. 2001. Epichloë festucae and related mutualistic symbionts of grasses. Fungal Genetics and Biology 33:69–82.

Schardl, C. L., and K. Clay. 1997. Evolution of mutualistic endophytes from plant pathogens. In The Mycota. V. Plant Relationships. Part B, eds. G. C. Carroll and P. Tudzynski, pp. 221–238. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Schardl, C. L., and K. D. Craven. 2003. Interspecific hybridization in plant-associated fungi and oomycetes: a review. Molecular Ecology 12:2861–2873.

Schardl, C. L., R. B. Grossman, P. Nagabhyru, J. R. Faulkner, and U. P. Mallik. 2007. Loline alkaloids: currencies of mutualism. Phytochemistry 68:980–996.

Schardl, C. L., and A. Leuchtmann. 2005. The Epichloë endophytes of grasses and the symbiotic continuum. In The fungal community: its organization and role in the ecosystem, 3rd ed., eds. J. Dighton, J. F. White, Jr., and P. Oudemans, pp. 475–503. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Schardl, C. L., A. Leuchtmann, K.-R. Chung, D. Penny, and M. R. Siegel. 1997. Coevolution by common descent of fungal symbionts (Epichloë spp.) and grass hosts. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14:133–143.

Schardl, C. L., A. Leuchtmann, and M. J. Spiering. 2004. Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes. Annual Reviews in Plant Biology 55: 315–340.

Schardl, C. L., A. Leuchtmann, H.-F. Tsai, M. A. Collett, D. M. Watt, and D. B. Scott. 1994. Origin of a fungal symbiont of perennial ryegrass by interspecific hybridization of a mutualist with the ryegrass choke pathogen, Epichloë typhina. Genetics 136:1301–1317.

(p.224) Schardl, C. L., and C. D. Moon. 2003. Processes of species evolution in Epichloë/Neotyphodium endophytes of grasses. In Clavicipitalean fungi: evolutionary biology, chemistry, biocontrol, and cultural impacts, eds. J. F. White, Jr., C. W. Bacon, N. L. Hywel-Jones, and J. W. Spatafora, pp. 273–310. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Schardl, C. L., and D. G. Panaccione. 2005. Biosynthesis of ergot and loline alkaloids. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 75–92. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publications.

Schardl, C. L., D. G. Panaccione, and T. P. Tudzynski. 2006. Ergot alkaloids—biology and molecular biology. In The alkaloids: chemistry and biology, vol. 63, ed. G. A. Cordell, pp. 45–86. New York: Academic Press.

Schardl, C. L., and H. H. Wilkinson. 2000. Hybridization and cospeciation hypotheses for the evolution of grass endophytes. In Microbial endophytes, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 63–83. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Schlichting, C. D., and M. Pigliucci. 1998. Phenotypic evolution: a reaction norm perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Schmidt, D. D., C. Voelkel, M. Hartl, S. Schmidt, and I. T. Baldwin. 2005. Specificity in ecological interactions. Attack from the same lepidopteran herbivore results in species-specific transcriptional responses in two solanaceous host plants. Plant Physiology 138:1763–1773.

Schoener, T. W. 1989. Food webs from the small to the large. Ecology 70:1559–1589.

Schulthess, F. M., and S. H. Faeth. 1998. Distribution, abundances, and associations of the endophytic fungal community of Arizona fescue (Festuca arizonica). Mycologia 90:569–578.

Schulz, B., and C. Boyle. 2005. The endophytic continuum. Mycological Research 109:661–686.

Scott, B. 2001. Epichloë endophytes: fungal symbionts of grasses. Current Opinion in Microbiology 4:393–398.

Selosse, M.-A., and F. Le Tacon. 1998. The land flora: a phototroph-fungus partnership? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 15–20.

Selosse, M.-A., and C. L. Schardl. 2007. Fungal endophytes of grasses: hybrids rescued by vertical transmission? An evolutionary perspective. New Phytologist 173:452–458.

Shipley, B. 2000. Cause and correlation in biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Siegel, M. R., and L. P Bush. 1996. Defensive chemicals in grass-fungal endophyte associations. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 30:81–119.

Siegel, M. R., and L. P. Bush. 1997. Toxin production in grass/endophyte association. In The Mycota. V. Plant relationships, Part A, eds. G. C. Carroll and P. Tudzynski, pp. 185–208. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Siegel, M. R., M. C. Johnson, D. R. Varney, W. C. Nesmith, R. C. Buckner, L. P. Bush, P. B. Burrus, T. A. Jones, and J. A. Boling. 1984a. A fungal endophyte in tall fescue: incidence and dissemination. Phytopathology 74:932–937.

Siegel, M. R. and G. C. Latch. 1991. Expression of anti-fungal activity in agar culture by isolates of grass endophytes. Mycologia 83:529–537.

Siegel, M. R., G. C. M. Latch, L. P. Bush, F. F. Fannin, D. D. Rowan, B. A. Tapper, C. W. Bacon, and M. C. Johnson. 1990. Fungal endophyte-infected grasses: alkaloid accumulation and aphid response. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16:3301–3315.

Siegel, M. R., G. C. M. Latch, and M. C. Johnson. 1985. Acremonium fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: significance and control. Plant Disease 69:179–183.

Siegel, M. R., G. C. M. Latch, and M. C. Johnson. 1987. Fungal endophytes of grasses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 25:293–315.

(p.225) Siegel, M. R., D. R. Varney, M. C. Johnson, W. C. Nesmith, R. C. Buckner, L. P. Bush, P. B. Burris II, and J. R. Hardison. 1984b. A fungal endophyte of tall fescue: evaluation of control methods. Phytopathology 74:937–941.

Silvertown, J., and Charlesworth, D. 2001. Introduction to plant population biology, 4th edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Sleper, D. A., and C. P. West. 1996. Tall fescue. In Cool-season forage grasses, eds. L. E. Moser, D. R. Buxton, and M. D. Casler, pp. 471–502. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg, and D. W. Martin. 2006. Biology, 7th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

Spiering, M. J., D. H. Greer, and J. Schmid. 2006a. Effects of the fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium lolii, on net photosynthesis and growth rates of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are independent of in planta endophyte concentration. Annals of Botany 98:379–387.

Spiering, M. J., G. A. Lane, M. J. Christensen, and J. Schmid. 2005. Distribution of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii is not a major determinant of the distribution of fungal alkaloids in Lolium perenne plants. Phytochemistry 66:195–202.

Spiering, M. J., C. D. Moon, H. H. Wilkinson, and C. L. Schardl. 2006b. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum. Genetics 169:1403–1414.

Spyreas, G., D. J. Gibson, and M. Basinger. 2001. Endophyte infection levels of native and naturalized fescues in Illinois and England. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 128:25–34.

Stachowicz, J. J. 2001. Mutualism, facilitation, and the structure of ecological communities. Bioscience 51:235–246.

Stearns, S. C. 1992. The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Steiner, U., M. A. Ahimsa-Mueller, A. Markert, S. Kucht, J. Gross, N. Kauf, M. Kuzma, M. Zych, M. Lamshoeft, M. Furmanowa, V. Knoop, C. Drewke, and E. Leistner. 2006. Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledonous plants (Convolvulaceae). Planta 224:533–544.

Stevens, D. R., and M. J. Hickey. 1990. Effects of endophytic ryegrass on the production of ryegrass/white clover pastures. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions, eds. S. S. Quisenberry and R. E. Joost, pp. 58–61. Baton Rouge: Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station.

Stohlgren, T. J., D. T. Barnett, and J. T. Kartesz. 2003. The rich get richer: patterns of plant invasions in the United States. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1:11–14.

Stone, J. K., C. W. Bacon, and J. F. White, Jr. 2000. An overview of endophytic microbes: endophytism defined. In Microbial endophytes, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 3–29. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Stovall, M. E., and K. Clay. 1988. The effect of the fungus, Balansia cyperi Edg., on growth and reproduction of purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus L. New Phytologist 109:351–359.

Stovall, M. E., and K. Clay. 1991. Fungitoxic effects of Balansia cyperi (Clavicipitaceae). Mycologia 83:288–295.

Strauss, S. Y., and A. A. Agrawal. 1999. The ecology and evolution of plant tolerance to herbivory. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:179–185.

Strauss, S. Y., and R. E. Irwin. 2004. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of multispecies plant-animal interactions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 35:435–466.

(p.226) Strong, D. R., Jr., J. H. Lawton, and R. Southwood. 1984. Insects on plants. Community patterns and mechanisms. Oxford: Blackwell Science.

Sugawara, K., H. Ohkubo, M. Yamashita, and Y. Mikoshiba. 2004. Flowers for Neotyphodium endophytes detection: a new observation method using flowers of host grasses. Mycoscience 45:222–226.

Sullivan, T. J. and S. H. Faeth. 2004. Gene flow in the endophyte Neotyphodium and implications for coevolution with Festuca arizonica. Molecular Ecology 13:649–656.

Sullivan, T. J. and S. H. Faeth. 2008. Local adaptation in Festuca arizonica by hybrid and nonhybrid Neotyphodium endophytes. Microbial Ecology 55:697–704.

Sullivan, T. J., J. Rodstrom, J. Vandop, J. Librizzi, C. Graham, C. L. Schardl, and T. L. Bultman. 2007. Symbiont-mediated changes in Lolium arundinaceum inducible defenses: evidence from changes in gene expression and leaf composition. New Phytologist 176:673–679.

Sutherland, B. L., and J. H. Hoglund. 1990. Effect of ryegrass containing the endophyte Acremonium lolii on associated white clover. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions, eds. S. S. Quisenberry and R. E. Joost, pp. 67–71. Baton Rouge: Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station.

Sutherland, B. L., D. E. Hume, and B. A. Tapper. 1999. Allelopathic effects of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass extracts on white clover seedlings. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 42:19–26.

Tadych, M., and J. F. White, Jr. 2007. Ecology of epiphyllous stages of endophytes and implications for horizontal dissemination. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 157–161. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

Tahvanainen, J. O., and R. B. Root. 1972. Influence of vegetational diversity on population ecology of a specialized herbivore, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera-Chrysomelidae). Oecologia 10:321–346.

Tan, Y. Y., M. J. Spiering, V. Scott, G. A. Lane, M. J. Christensen, and J. Schmid. 2001. In planta regulation of extension of an endophytic fungus and maintenance of high metabolic rates in its mycelium in the absence of apical extension. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 5377–5383.

Tanaka, A., M. J. Christensen, D. Takemoto, P. Park, and B. Scott. 2006. Reactive oxygen species play a role in regulating a fungus-perennial ryegrass mutualistic interaction. Plant Cell 18:1052–1066.

Taylor, P. D., T. Day, D. Nagy, G. Wild, J.-B. Andre, and A. Gardner. 2006. The evolutionary consequences of plasticity in host-pathogen interactions. Theoretical Population Biology 69:323–331.

Thompson, F. N., and J. A. Stuedemann. 1993. Pathophysiology of fescue toxicosis. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 44:263–281.

Thompson, J. N. 1994. The coevolutionary process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Thompson, J. N. 1997. Evaluating the dynamics of coevolution among geographically structured populations. Ecology 78:1619–1623.

Thompson, J. N. 1999. The raw material for coevolution. Oikos 84:5–16.

Thompson, J. N. 2005. The geographic mosaic of coevolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tibbets, T. M., and S. H. Faeth. 1999. Neotyphodium endophytes in grasses: deterrents or promoters of herbivory by leaf-cutting ants? Oecologia 118:297–305.

(p.227) Tiffin, P., and M. D. Rauscher. 1999. Genetic constraints and selection acting on tolerance to herbivory in the common morning glory Ipomoea purpurea. American Naturalist 145:700–716.

Tilman, D., J. Knops, D. Wedin, P. Reich, M. Ritchie, and E. Siemann. 1997. The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science 277:1300–1302.

Timper, P., R. N. Gates, and J. H. Bouton. 2005. Response of Pratylenchus spp. in tall fescue infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Nematology 7:105–110.

Tintjer, T., A. Leuchtmann, and K. Clay. 2008. Variation in horizontal and vertical transmission of the endophyte Epichloë elymi infecting the grass Elymus hystrix. New Phytologist 179:236–246.

Tintjer, T., and J. A. Rudgers. 2006. Grass-herbivore interactions altered by strains of a native endophyte. New Phytologist 170:513–521.

Tomimatsu, H., and M. Ohara. 2006. Evolution of hierarchical floral resource allocation associated with mating system in an animal-pollinated hermaphroditic herb, Trillium camschatcense (Trilliaceae). American Journal of Botany 93:134–141.

Tracy, B. F., and I. J. Renne. 2005. Reinfestation of endophtye-infected tall fescue in renovated endophyte-free pastures under rotational stocking. Journal of Agronomy 97:1473–1477.

Tredway, L. P., J. F. White, Jr., B. S. Gaut, P. V. Reddy, M. D. Richardson, and B. B. Clarke. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships within and between Epichloë and Neotyphodium endophytes as estimated by AFLP markers and rDNA sequences. Mycological Research 103:1593–1603.

Trevathan, L. E. 1996. Performance of endophyte-free and endophyte infected tall fescue seedlings in soil infected with Cochiobolus sativus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 18: 415–418.

Trumble, J. T., D. M. Kolodny-Hirsch, and I. P. Ting. 1993. Plant compensation for arthropod herbivory. Annual Review of Entomology 38:93–120.

Tsai, H.-F., J.-S. Liu, C. Staben, M. J. Christensen, G. C. M. Latch, M. R. Siegel, and C. L. Schardl. 1994. Evolutionary diversification of fungal endophytes of tall fescue grass by hybridization with Epichloë species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 91:2542–2546.

Turelli, M., D. W. Schemske, and P. Bierzychudek. 2001. Stable two-allele polymorphisms maintained by fluctuating fitnesses and seed banks: protecting the blues in Linanthus parryae. Evolution 55:1283–1298.

Turkington, R., and L. A. Mehrhoff. 1990. The role of competition in structuring pasture communities. In Perspectives on plant competition, eds. J. B. Grace and D. Tilman, pp. 307–340. San Diego: Academic Press.

Unterseher, M., A. Reiher, K. Finstermeier, P. Otto, and W. Morawetz. 2007. Species richness and distribution patterns of leaf-inhabiting endophytic fungi in a temperate forest canopy. Mycological Progress 6:201–212.

Valdez Barillas, J. R., M. W. Paschke, M. H. Ralphs, and R. D. Child. 2007. White locoweed toxicity is facilitated by a fungal endophyte and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Ecology 88:1850–1856.

Vanderkoornhuyse, P., K. P. Ridgway, I. J. Watson, A. H. Fitter, and J. P. W. Young. 2003. Co-existing grass species have distinctive arbuscular mycorrhizal communities. Molecular Ecology 12:3085–3095.

van Heeswijck, R., and G. McDonald. 1992. Acremonium endophytes in perennial ryegrass and other pasture grasses in Australia and New Zealand. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 43:1683–1709.

(p.228) van Horn, R., and K. Clay. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the fungus Atkinsonella hypoxylon infecting sympatric Danthonia grasses. Evolution 49:360–371.

van Valen, L. 1973. A new evolutionary law. Evolutionary Theory 1:1–30.

van Zijll de Jong, E., K. M. Guthridge, G. C. Spangenberg, and J. W. Foster. 2003. Development and characterization of EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for pasture grass endophytes. Genome 46:277–290.

van Zijll de Jong, E., K. F. Smith, G. C. Spangenberg, and J. W. Foster. 2005. Molecular genetic marker-based analysis of the grass-endophyte symbiosis. In Neotyphodium in cool-season grasses, eds. C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers, pp. 123–140. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing.

Vicari, M., and D. R. Bazely. 1993. Do grasses fight back? The case for anti-herbivore defenses. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:137–141.

Vicari, M., P. E. Hatcher, and P. G. Ayres. 2002. Combined effect of foliar and mycorrhizal endophytes on an insect herbivore. Ecology 83:2452–2464.

Vila-Aiub, M. M., P. E. Gundel, and C. M. Ghersa. 2005. Fungal endophyte infection changes growth attributes in Lolium multiflorum Lam. Austral Ecology 30:49–57.

Vinton, M. A., E. S. Kathol, K. P. Vogel, and A. A. Hopkins. 2001. Endophytic fungi in Canada wild rye in natural grasslands. Journal of Range Management 54:390–395.

Vujanovic, V., and J. Brisson. 2002. A comparative study of endophytic mycobiota in leaves of Acer saccharum in eastern North America. Mycological Progress 1:147–154.

Wagenius, S. 2006. Scale dependence of reproductive failure in fragmented Echinacea populations. Ecology 87:931–941.

Wäli, P. R., J. U. Ahlholm, M. Helander, and K. Saikkonen. 2007. Occurrence and genetic structure of the systemic grass endophyte Epichloë festucae in fine fescue populations. Microbial Ecology 53:20–29.

Wäli, P. R., M. Helander, O. Nissinen, and K. Saikkonen. 2006. Susceptibility of endophyte-infected grasses to winter pathogens (snow molds). Canadian Journal of Botany 84:1043–1051.

Warren, J. M., A. F. Raybould, T. Ball, A. J. Gray, and M. D. Hayward. 1998. Genetic structure in the perennial grasses Lolium perenne and Agrostis curtisii. Heredity 81:556–562.

Watson, R. N., R. A. Prestidge, and O. J.-P. Ball. 1993. Suppression of white clover by ryegrass infected with Acremonium endophyte. In Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions, eds. D. E. Hume, G. C. M. Latch, and H. S. Easton, Palmerston North, New Zealand, pp. 218–221.

Wei, Y. K., Y. B. Gao, H. Xu, D. Su, X. Zhang, Y. H. Wang, F. Lin, L. Chen, L. Y. Nie, and A. Z. Ren. 2006. Occurrence of endophytes in grasses native to northern China. Grass and Forage Science 61:422–429.

Welty, R. E., and M. D. Azevedo. 1985. Survival of endophyte hyphae in seeds of tall fescue stored one year. Phytopathology 77:893–900.

Welty, R. E., M. D. Azevedo, and K. L. Cook. 1986a. Detecting viable Acremonium endophytes in leaf sheaths and meristems of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Plant Disease 70:431–435.

Welty, R. E., M. D. Azevedo, and T. M. Cooper. 1987. Influence of moisture content, temperature, and length of storage on seed germination and survival of endophytic fungi in seeds of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass. Phytopathology 77: 893–900.

(p.229) Welty, R. E., G. M. Milbrath, D. Faulkenberry, M. D. Azevedo, L. Meek, and K. Hall. 1986b. Endophyte detection in tall fescue seed by staining and ELISA. Seed Science and Technology 14:105–116.

Wennström, A. 1996. The distribution of Epichloë typhina in natural plant populations of the host plant Calamagrostis purpurea. Ecography 19:377–381.

Werren, J. H. 1997. Biology of Wolbachia. Annual Review of Entomology 423:587–609.

Werren, J. H. and S. L. O'Neill. 1997. The evolution of heritable symbionts. In Influential passengers: inherited microorganisms and arthropod reproduction, eds. S. L. O'Neill, J. H. Werren, and A. A. Hoffmann, pp. 1–41. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

West, C. P. 1994. Physiology and drought tolerance of endophyte-infected grasses. In Biotechnology of endophytic fungi of grasses, eds. C. W. Bacon and J. F. White, Jr., pp. 87–99. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

West, C. P. 2007. Plant influence on endophyte expression. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp.117–121. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

West, C. P., H. W. Elberson, A. A. Elmi, and G. W. Buck. 1995. Acremonium effects on tall fescue growth: parasite or stimulant? In Proceedings of the 50th Southern Pasture and Forage Crop Improvement Conference, pp. 102–111.

West, C. P., E. Izekor, K. E. Turner, and A. A. Elmi. 1993. Endophyte effects on growth and persistence of tall fescue along a water-supply gradient. Agronomy Journal 85:264–270.

West, C. P., F. Volaire, and F. Lelievre. 2007. Tiller survival after drought of ‘Grasslands Flecha' tall fescue as influenced by endophyte. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses, eds. A. J. Popay and E. R. Thom, pp. 267–269. Christchurch, New Zealand: New Zealand Grassland Association.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 2003. Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Westoby, M. 1978. What are the biological bases of varied diets? American Naturalist 112:627–631.

White, J. F., Jr. 1987. Widespread distribution of endophytes in the Poaceae. Plant Disease 71:340–342.

White, J. F., Jr. 1988. Endophyte-host associations in forage grasses. XI. A proposal concerning origin and evolution. Mycologia 80:442–446.

White, J. F., Jr. 1997. Systematics of the graminicolous Clavicipitaceae: applications of morphological and molecular approaches. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and N. S. Hill, pp. 27–39. New York: Plenum Press.

White, J. F., Jr., and G. T. Cole. 1985. Endophyte associations in forage grasses. III. In vitro inhibition by Acremonium coenophialum. Mycologia 77:487–489.

White, J. F., Jr., T. I. Martin, and D. Cabral. 1996. Endophyte-host associations in grasses. 22. Conidia formation by Acremonium endophytes on the phylloplanes of Agrostis hiemalis and Poa rigidifolia. Mycologia 88:174–178.

White, J. F., Jr., G. Morgan-Jones, and A. C. Morrow. 1993. Taxonomy, life cycle, reproduction and detection of Acremonium endophytes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 44:13–37.

(p.230) White, J. F., Jr., R. F. Sullivan, G. A. Balady, T. J. Gianfagna, Q. Yue, W. A. Meyer, and D. Cabral. 2001a. A fungal endosymbiont of the grass Bromus setifolius: distribution in some Andean populations, identification, and examination of beneficial properties. Symbiosis 31:241–257.

White, J. F. Jr., R. Sullivan, and M. Moy. 2001b. An overview of the biology and systematics of Neotyphodium endophytes. In Proceedings of the 4th International Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions Symposium, Fachbereich Agrarwirtschaft, eds. P. D. Dapprich and V. H. Paul, Soest, Germany, pp. 17–30.

White, R. H., M. C. Engelke, S. J. Morton, J. M. Johnson-Cicalese, and B. A. Ruemmele. 1992. Acremonium endophyte effects on tall fescue drought tolerance. Crop Science 32:1392–1396.

Whitham, T. G., W. P. Young, G. D. Martinsen, C. A. Gehring, J. A. Schweitzer, S. M. Shuster, G. M. Wimp, D. G. Fischer, J. K. Bailey, R. L. Lindroth, S. Woolbright, and C. R. Kuske. 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84:559–573.

Wiggins, N. L., C. McArthur, N. D. Davies, and S. McLean. 2006. Spatial scales of the patchiness of plant poisons: a critical influence on foraging efficiency. Ecology 87:2236–2243.

Wilkinson, H. H., and C. L. Schardl. 1997. The evolution of mutualism in grass-endophyte associations. In Neotyphodium/grass interactions, eds. C. W. Bacon and N. S. Hill, pp. 13–25. New York: Plenum Press.

Wilkinson, H. H., M. R. Siegel, J. D. Blankenship, A. C. Mallory, L. P. Bush, and C. L. Schardl. 2000. Contribution of fungal loline alkaloids to protection from aphids in an endophyte-grass mutualism. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13:1027–1033.

Wille, P. A., R. A. Aeschbacher, and T. Boller. 1999. Distribution of fungal endophyte genotypes in doubly infected host grasses. Plant Journal 18:349–358.

Williams, M. J., P. A. Backman, E. M. Clark, and J. F. White. 1984. Seed treatments for control of the tall fescue endophyte Acremonium coenophialum. Plant Disease 68:49–52.

Wilson, D. 1993. Fungal endophytes: out of sight but should not be out of mind. Oikos 68:379–384.

Wilson, D. 1995. Endophyte—the evolution of a term, and clarification of its use and definition. Oikos 73:274–276.

Wilson, A. D. 1996. Resources and testing of endophyte-infected germplasm in national grass repository collections. In Endophytic fungi in grasses and woody plants, eds. S. C. Redlin and L. M. Carris, pp. 179–195. St. Paul, MN: American Pathological Society Press.

Wilson, A. D., S. L. Clement, and W. J. Kaiser. 1991a. Endophytic fungi in a Hordeum germplasm collection. Plant Genetics Resources Newsletter 87:1–4.

Wilson, A. D., S. L. Clement, and W. J. Kaiser. 1991b. Survey and detection of endophytic fungi in Lolium germplasm by direct staining and aphid assays. Plant Disease 75:169–173.

Wise, M. J., and W. G. Abrahamson. 2007. Effects of resource availability on tolerance of herbivory: a review and assessment of three opposing models. American Naturalist 169:443–454.

Wiyakrutta, S., N. Sriubolmas, W. Panphut, N. Thongon, K. Danwisetkanjana, N. Ruangrungsi, and V. Meevootisom. 2004. Endophytic fungi with anti-microbial, anti-cancer and anti-malarial activities isolated from Thai medicinal plants. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20:265–272.

Wolin, C. L. 1985. The population dynamics of mutualistic systems. In The biology of mutualism, eds. D. H. Boucher, pp. 248–269. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.231) Wolock-Madej, C. W., and K. Clay. 1991. Avian seed preference and weight loss experiments: the effect of fungal endophyte-infected seeds. Oecologia 88:296–302.

Woolhouse, M. E. J., D. T. Haydon, and R. Antia. 2005. Emerging pathogens: the epidemiology and evolution of species jumps. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:238–244.

Yamamura, N. 1993. Vertical transmission and evolution of mutualism from parasitism. Theoretical Population Biology 44:95–109.

Yamamura, N., M. Higashi, N. Behera, and J. Y. Wakano. 2004. Evolution of mutualism through spatial effects. Journal of Theoretical Biology 226:421–428.

Yates, S. G., J. C. Fenster, and R. J. Bartlett. 1989. Assay of tall fescue seeds extracts, fractions, and alkaloids using the large milkweed bug. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 37: 354–357.

Young, C. A., M. K. Bryant, M. J. Christensen, B. A. Tapper, G. T. Bryan, and B. Scott. 2005. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of a symbiosis-expressed gene cluster for lolitrem biosynthesis from a mutualistic endophyte for perennial ryegrass. Molecular Genetics and Genomics 274:13–29.

Yue, Q., J. Johnson-Cicalese, T. J. Gianfagna, and W. A. Meyer. 2000a. Alkaloid production and chinch bug resistance in endophyte-inoculated Chewings and strong creeping red fescues. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26:279–292.

Yue, Q., C. J. Miller, J. F. White, Jr., and M. D. Richardson. 2000b. Isolation and characterization of fungal inhibitors from Epichloë festucae. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 48:4687–4692.

Zabalgogeazcoa, I., E. P. Benito, A. P. Eslava, A. G. Ciudad, B. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and B. García Criado. 2001. Viruses in endophytes infecting natural populations of Festuca rubra. In Fourth International Neotyphodium/Grass Interactions Symposium, Fachbereich, Agrarwirtschaft, Soest, Germany, eds. V. H. Paul and P. D. Dapprich, pp. 109–112.

Zabalgogeazcoa, I., A. García Cuidad, B. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and B. García Criado. 2006a. Effects of the infection by the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae in the growth and nutrient content of Festuca rubra. European Journal of Agronomy 24:374–384.

Zabalgogeazcoa, I., M. Romo, E. Keck, B. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. García Ciudad, and B. García Criado. 2006b. The infection of Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa by Epichloë festucae. Grass and Forage Science 61:71–76.

Zabalgogeazcoa, I., B. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Garcia Ciudad, and B. Garcia Criado. 1999. The infection of Festuca rubra by the fungal endophyte Epichloe festucae in Mediterranean permanent grasslands. Grass and Forage Science 54:91–95.

Zabalgogeazcoa, I., B. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. García Cuidad, and B. García Criado. 2003. Fungal endophytes in grasses from semi-arid permanent grasslands of western Spain. Grass and Forage Science 58:94–97.

Zhang, N. X., V. Scott, T. H. Al-Samarrai, Y. Y. Tan, M. J. Spiering, L. K. McMillan, G. A. Lane, D. B. Scott, M. J. Christensen, and J. Schmid. 2006. Transformation of the ryegrass endophyte Neotyphodium lolii can alter its in planta mycelial morphology. Mycological Research 110:601–611. (p.232)