Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Evolution of Social Wasps$

James H. Hunt

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195307979

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307979.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 30 March 2017

(p.207) Bibliography

(p.207) Bibliography

Source:
The Evolution of Social Wasps
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

References

Abe, Y., Y. Tanaka, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Y. Kawasaki. 1991. Comparative study of the composition of hornet larval saliva, its effect on behaviour and role of trophallaxis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C 99:79–84.

Alam, S. M. 1958. Some interesting revelations about the nest of Polistes hebroeus Fabr. (Vespidae, Hymenoptera) – the common yellow wasp of India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Calcutta 11:113–122.

Alexander, R. D. 1974. The evolution of social behavior. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5:325–383.

Alexander, R. D., K. M. Noonan, and B. J. Crespi. 1991. The evolution of eusociality. In The biology of the naked mole-rat (pp. 3–44), edited by P. W. Sherman, J. U. M. Jarvis and R. D. Alexander. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Alexander, R. D., and P. W. Sherman. 1977. Local mate competition and parental investment in social insects. Science 196:494–500.

Alonso, W. J., and C. Schuck-Paim. 2002. Sex-ratio, kin selection, and the evolution of altruism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 99:6843–6847.

Amdam, G. V., A. Csondes, M. K. Fondrk, and R. E. Page, Jr. 2006. Complex social behaviour derived from maternal reproductive traits. Nature 439:76–78.

Amdam, G. V., K. Norberg, M. K. Fondrk, and R. E. Page, Jr. 2004. Reproductive ground plan may mediate colony-level selection effects on individual foraging behavior in honey bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 101:11350–11355.

Amdam, G. V., K. Norberg, A. Hagen, and S. W. Omholt. 2003. Social exploitation of vitellogenin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 100:1799–1802.

Amdam, G. V., and S. W. Omholt. 2002. The regulatory anatomy of honeybee lifespan. Journal of Theoretical Biology 216:209–228.

Andersson, M. 1984. The evolution of eusociality. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:165–189.

(p.208) Antonovics, J. 1987. The evolutionary dys-synthesis: which bottles for which wine? The American Naturalist 129:321–331.

Aoki, S. 1977. Colophina clematis (Homoptera, Pemphigidae), an aphid species with “soldiers”. Kontyû 45:276–282.

Archer, M. E. 1972. The significance of worker size in the seasonal development of the wasps Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (F.). Journal of Entomology (A) 46:175–183.

Arnold, S. J., and M. J. Wade. 1984. On the measurement of natural and sexual selection: theory. Evolution 38:709–719.

Askew, R. R., and M. R. Shaw. 1986. Parasitoid communities: their size, structure and development. In Insect parasitoids (pp. 225–264), edited by J. K. Waage and D. Greathead. London: Academic Press.

Autumn, K., M. J. Ryan, and D. B. Wake. 2002. Integrating historical and mechanistic biology enhances the study of adaptation. The Quarterly Review of Biology 77:383–408.

Autuori, M. 1949–50. Contribuição para o conhecimento da saúva (Atta spp.—Hymenoptera—Formicidae) V – Número de formas aladas e redução dos sauveiros iniciais. Arquivos do Instituto Biologico 19:325–331.

Baker, H. G., and I. Baker. 1968. Some anthecological aspects of the evolution of nectarproducing flowers, particularly amino acid production in nectar. In Taxonomy and ecology (pp. 243–264), edited by V. H. Heywood. New York: Academic Press.

Baker, H. G., and I. Baker. 1973. Amino acids in nectar and their evolutionary significance. Nature 241:543–545.

Baker, H. G., and P. Hurd. 1968. Intrafloral ecology. Annual Review of Entomology 13:385–414.

Barash, D. P. 1982. Sociobiology and behavior, 2nd ed. New York: Elsevier.

Barash, D. P. 1992. Anomalies in sociobiology. Science 256:14, 79.

Basolo, A. L. 2001. The effect of intrasexual fitness differences on genotype frequency stability at Fisherian sex ratio equilibrium. Annales Zoologici Fennici 38:297–304.

Batra, S. W. T. 1966. Nests and social behavior of halictine bees of India. Indian Journal of Entomology 28:375–393.

Beall, G. 1942. Mass movement of the wasp, Polistes fuscatus var. pallipes LeP. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 56:64–67.

Beani, L., M. F. Sledge, S. Maiani, F. Boscaro, M. Landi, A. Fortunato, and S. Turillazzi. 2002. Behavioral and chemical analyses of scent-marking in the lek system of a hoverwasp (Vespidae, Stenogastrinae). Insectes Sociaux 49:275–281.

Beani, L., and S. Turillazzi. 1999. Stripes display in hover-wasps (Vespidae: Stenogastrinae): a socially costly status badge. Animal Behaviour 57:1233–1239.

Belshaw, R., and D. L. J. Quicke. 2002. Robustness of ancestral state estimates: evolution of life history strategy in ichneumonoid parasitoids. Systematic Biology 51:450–477.

Belt, T. 1874. The naturalist in Nicaragua. London: John Murray.

Benton, T. G., and W. A. Foster. 1992. Altruistic housekeeping in a social aphid. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 247:199–202.

Berlese, A. 1900. Osservazioni su fenomeni che avvegnono durante la nifosi degli insetti metabolici. Parte I. Tessuto adiposo. Revista di Patologia Vegetale 9:177–344.

Beukeboom, L. W. 1995. Sex determination in Hymenoptera: a need for genetic and molecular studies. BioEssays 17:813–817.

Beye, M., M. Hasselmann, M. K. Fondrk, R. E. Page, Jr., and S. W. Omholt. 2003. The gene csd is the primary signal for sexual development in the honeybee and encodes an SR-type protein. Cell 114:419–429.

(p.209) Boeve, J. L. 1991. Gregariousness, field distribution and defense in the sawfly larvae Croesus varus and C. septentrionalis (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae). Oecologia 85:440–446.

Bohart, R. M. 1989. A review of the genus Euparagia (Hymenoptera, Masaridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 62:462–467.

Bohart, R. M., F. D. Parker, and V. J. Tepedino. 1982. Notes on the biology of Odynerus dilectus [Hym.: Eumenidae], a predator of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica [Col.: Curculionidae]. Entomophaga 27:23–31.

Bohm, M. K. 1972a. Studies on reproduction in Polistes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Bohm, M. K. 1972b. Effects of environment and juvenile hormone on ovaries of the wasp, Polistes metricus. Journal of Insect Physiology 18:1875–1883.

Boomsma, J. J., and A. Grafen. 1990. Intraspecific variation in ant sex ratios and the Trivers-Hare hypothesis. Evolution 44:1026–1034.

Boomsma, J. J., and A. Grafen. 1991. Colony-level sex-ratio selection in the eusocial Hymenoptera. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 4:383–407.

Bourke, A. F. G., and N. R. Franks. 1995. Social evolution in ants. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bouwma, P. E., A. M. Bouwma, and R. L. Jeanne. 2000. Social wasp swarm emigration: males stay behind. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 12:35–42.

Brauns, H. 1910. Biologisches über südafrikanische Hymenopteren. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie 6:348–387, 445–447.

Bredekamp, H. 2002. Darwins Evolutionsdiagramm oder: Brauchen Bilder Gedanken? In Grenzen und Grenzüberschreitungen: XIX. Deutscher Kongress fur Philosophie (pp. 863–877), edited by W. Hogrebe and J. Bromand. Bonn: Sinclair Press.

Breed, M. D., and G. J. Gamboa. 1977. Behavioral control of workers by queens in primitively eusocial bees. Science 195:694–696.

Brian, M. V. 1965. Caste differentiation in social insects. In Social Organization of Animal Communities (pp. 13–38), edited by P. E. Ellis. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, no. 14.

Brian, M. V., and A. D. Brian. 1952. The wasp Vespula sylvestris Scopoli, feeding, foraging and colony development. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 103:1–26.

Brian, M. V., G. Elmes, and A. F. Kelly. 1967. Populations of the ant Tetramorium caespitum Latreille. Journal of Animal Ecology 36:337–342.

Brimley, C. S. 1908. Male Polistes annularis survive the winter. Entomological News 8:107.

Brockmann, H. J. 1984. The evolution of social behaviour in insects. In Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, 2nd ed. (pp. 340–361), edited by J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.

Brockmann, H. J. 2004. Variable life-history and emergence patterns of the pipe-organ mud-daubing wasp, Trypoxylon politum (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77:503–527.

Brockmann, H. J., and A. Grafen. 1992. Sex ratios and life-history patterns of a solitary wasp, Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) politum (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 30:7–27.

Brooke, M. de L. 1981. The nesting biology and population dynamics of the Seychelles potter wasp Eumenes alluaudi Perez. Ecological Entomology 6:365–377.

Brooks, D. R., D. A. McLennan, J. M. Carpenter, S. G. Weller, and J. A. Coddington. 1995. Systematics, ecology, and behavior: integrating phylogenetic patterns and evolutionary mechanisms. BioScience 45:687–695.

(p.210) Brothers, D. J. 1995. The vespoid families (except vespids and ants): Introduction. In The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica (pp. 504–512), edited by P. E. Hanson and I. D. Gauld. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brothers, D. J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea). Zoologica Scripta 28:233–249.

Brothers, D. J., and J. M. Carpenter. 1993. Phylogeny of the Aculeata: Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2:227–304.

Brown, W. D., and L. Keller. 2000. Colony sex ratios vary with queen number but not relatedness asymmetry in the ant Formica exsecta. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267:1751–1757.

Brunson, M. H. 1937. Influence of the instars of the host larvae on sex of Tiphia popilliavora Roh. Science 86:197.

Brunson, M. H. 1938. Influence of Japanese beetle instar on the sex and population of the parasite Tiphia popilliavora. Journal of Agricultural Research 57:379–386.

Bursell, E. 1963. Aspects of the metabolism of amino acids in the tsetse fly, Glossinia (Diptera). Journal of Insect Physiology 9:439–452.

Buss, L. W. 1987. The evolution of individuality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Buysson, R. du. 1903. Monographie des guêpes ou Vespa. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 72:260–288.

Cagniant, H. 1979. La parthenogenese thelytoque et arrhenotoque chez la fourmi Cataglyphis cursor Fonsc. (Hym. Form.). Cycle biologique en elevage des colonies avec reine et des colonies sans reine. Insectes Sociaux 26:51–60.

Calderone, N. W., and R. E. Page. 1987. Evolutionary genetics of division of labor in colonies of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). The American Naturalist 138:69–92.

Cameron, S. A. 1985. Brood care by male bumble bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 82:6371–6373.

Cameron, S. A. 1986. Brood care by males of Polistes major (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 59:183–185.

Camillo, E. 1999. A solitary mud-daubing wasp, Brachymenes dyscherus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) fron [sic] Brazil with evidence of a life-cycle polyphenism. Revista de Biología Tropical 47:949–958.

Camillo, E. 2002. The natural history of the mud-dauber wasp Sceliphron fistularium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in southeastern Brazil. Revista de Biología Tropical 50:127–134.

Carlin, N. F., H. K. Reeve, and S. P. Cover. 1993. Kin discrimination and division of labour among matrilines in the polygynous carpenter ant, Camponotus planatus. In Queen number and sociality in insects (pp. 362–401), edited by L. Keller. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carpenter, J. M. 1982. The phylogenetic relationships and natural classification of the Vespoidea (Hymenoptera). Systematic Entomology 7:11–38.

Carpenter, J. M. 1987. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Systematic Entomology 12:413–431.

Carpenter, J. M. 1988. The phylogenetic system of the Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 96:140–175.

Carpenter, J. M. 1991. Phylogenetic relationships and the origin of social behavior in the Vespidae. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 7–32), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Carpenter, J. M. 1996a. Distributional checklist of species of the genus Polistes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae, Polistini). American Museum Novitates 3188:1–39.

(p.211) Carpenter, J. M. 1996b. Phylogeny and biogeography of Polistes. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps (pp. 18–57), edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carpenter, J. M. 2001. New generic synonymy in Stenogastrinae (Insecta: Hymenoptera; Vespidae). Natural History Bulletin of Ibaraki University 5:27–30.

Carpenter, J. M. 2003. On “Molecular phylogeny of Vespidae (Hymenoptera) and the evolution of sociality in wasps”. American Museum Novitates 3389:1–20.

Carpenter, J. M. 2004. Synonymy of the genus Marimbonda Richards, 1978, with Leipomeles Möbius, 1856 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae), and a new key to the genera of paper wasps of the New World. American Museum Novitates 3465:1–16.

Carpenter, J. M., and J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19:877–916.

Carpenter, J. M., and B. R. Garcete-Barrett. 2002. A key to the neotropical genera of Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Boletin del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Paraguay 14:52–73.

Carpenter, J. M., and J. I. Kojima. 1996. Checklist of the species in the subfamily Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 104:21–36.

Carpenter, J. M., and S. Mateus. 2004. Males of Nectarinella Bequaert (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). Revista Brasiliera de Entomologia 48:297–302.

Carpenter, J. M., and A. P. Rasnitsyn. 1990. Mesozoic Vespidae. Psyche 97:1–20.

Carpenter, J. M., and C. K. Starr. 2000. A new genus of hover wasps from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Stenogastrinae). American Museum Novitates 3291:1–12.

Carpenter, J. M., J. W. Wenzel, and J. I. Kojima. 1996. Synonymy of the genera Occipitalia Richards, 1978, with Clypearia de Saussure, 1854, (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae, Epiponini). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 5:157–165.

Cervo, R., and F. R. Dani. 1996. Social parasitism and its evolution in Polistes. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps (pp. 98–112), edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cervo, R., V. Macinai, F. Dechigi, and S. Turillazzi. 2004. Fast growth of immature brood in a social parasite wasp: a convergent evolution between avian and insect cuckoos. The American Naturalist 164:814–820.

Cervo, R., and S. Turillazzi. 1985. Associative foundation and nesting sites in Polistes nimpha. Naturwissenschaften 72:48–49.

Chao, J. T., and H. R. Hermann. 1983. Spinning and external ontogenetic changes in the pupae of Polistes annularis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae). Insectes Sociaux 30:496–507.

Chapman, R. E., and A. F. G. Bourke. 2001. The influence of sociality on the conservation biology of social insects. Ecology Letters 4:650–662.

Chapman, R. F. 1998. The insects: Structure and function, 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapman, T. W., and S. C. Stewart. 1996. Extremely high levels of inbreeding in a natural population of the free-living wasp Ancistrocerus antilope (Hymenoptera; Vespidae: Eumeninae). Heredity 76:65–69.

Charlesworth, B. 1978. Some models of the evolution of altruistic behaviour between siblings. Journal of Theoretical Biology 72:297–319.

Charnov, E. L. 1978. Evolution of eusocial behavior: offspring choice or parental parasitism? Journal of Theoretical Biology 75:451–465.

(p.212) Chen, B., T. Kayukawa, H. Jiang, A. Monteiro, S. Hoshizaki, and Y. Ishikawa. 2005. DaTrypsin, a novel clip-domain serine proteinase gene up-regulated during winter and summer diapauses of the onion maggot, Delia antiqua. Gene 347:115–123.

Choe, J. C., and B. J. Crespi, editors. 1997. The evolution of social behavior in insects and arachnids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Claude-Joseph, F. (H. Janvier). 1930. Recherches biologiques sur les prédateurs du Chile. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 10e série: Zoologie 13:235–354.

Clement, S. L., and E. E. Grissell. 1968. Observations of the nesting habits of Euparagia scutellaris Cresson. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 44:34–37.

Codella, S. G., and K. F. Raffa. 1995. Contributions of female oviposition patterns and larval behavior to group defense in conifer sawflies (Hymenoptera, Diprionidae). Oecologia 103:24–33.

Collins, A. M. 2004. Variation in time of egg hatch by the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97:140–146.

Cook, J. M. 1993. Sex determination in the Hymenoptera: a review of models and evidence. Heredity 71:421–435.

Cook, J. M., and R. H. Crozier. 1995. Sex determination and population biology in the Hymenoptera. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:281–286.

Cooper, K. W. 1957. Biology of eumenine wasps. V. Digital communication in wasps. Journal of Experimental Zoology 134:469–514.

Cooper, K. W. 1966. Ruptor ovi, the number of moults in development, and method of exit from masoned nests. Biology of eumenine wasps, VII. Psyche 73:238–250.

Cooper, K. W. 1979. Plasticity in nesting behavior of a renting wasp, and its evolutionary implications. Studies on eumenine wasps, VIII (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 69:151–158.

Corona, M., E. Estrada, and M. Zurita. 1999. Differential expression of mitochondrial genes between queens and workers during caste determination in the honeybee Apis mellifera. The Journal of Experimental Biology 202:929–938.

Costa, J. T., and R. W. Louque. 2001. Group foraging and trail following behavior of the red-headed pine sawfly Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch) (Hymenoptera : Symphyta : Diprionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94:480–489.

Coster-Longman, C., M. Landi, and S. Turillazzi. 2002. The role of passive defense (selfish herd and dilution effect) in the gregarious nesting of Liostenogaster wasps (Vespidae, Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Journal of Insect Behavior 15:331–350.

Coster-Longman, C., and S. Turillazzi. 1995. Nest architecture in Parischnogaster alternata Sakagami (Vespidae, Stenogastrinae), intra-specific variability in building strategies. Insectes Sociaux 42:1–16.

Cowan, D. P. 1979. Sibling mating in a hunting wasp: adaptive inbreeding? Science 204:1403–1405.

Cowan, D. P. 1981. Parental investment in two solitary wasps Ancistrocerus adiabatus and Euodynerus foraminatus (Eumenidae: Hymenoptera). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 9:95–102.

Cowan, D. P. 1986. Sexual behavior of eumenid wasps (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88:531–541.

Cowan, D. P. 1991. The solitary and presocial Vespidae. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 33–73), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Cowan, D. P., and G. P. Waldbauer. 1984. Seasonal occurrence and mating at flowers by Ancistrocerus antilope (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 86:930–934.

(p.213) Craig, R. 1979. Parental manipulation, kin selection, and the evolution of altruism. Evolution 33:319–334.

Craig, R. 1980. Sex ratio changes and the evolution of eusociality in the Hymenoptera: simulation and games theory studies. Journal of Theoretical Biology 87:55–70.

Craig, R. 1982a. Evolution of male workers in the Hymenoptera. Journal of Theoretical Biology 94:95–105.

Craig, R. 1982b. Evolution of eusociality by kin selection: the effect of inbreeding between siblings. Journal of Theoretical Biology 94:119–128.

Craig, S. F., L. B. Slobodkin, G. A. Wray, and C. H. Biermann. 1997. The ‘paradox’ of polyembryony: A review of the cases and a hypothesis for its evolution. Evolutionary Ecology 11:127–143.

Crawford, C. B. 1993. The future of sociobiology: counting babies or studying proximate mechanisms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8:183–186.

Cremonez, T. A., D. De Jong, and M. M. Bittondi. 1998. Quantification of hemolymph proteins as a fast method for testing protein diets for honeybees. Journal of Economic Entomology 91:1284–1289.

Crespi, B. J. 1992a. Cannibalism and trophic eggs in subsocial and eusocial insects. In Cannibalism: Ecology and evolution among diverse taxa (pp. 176–213), edited by M. A. Elgar and B. J. Crespi. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crespi, B. J. 1992b. Eusociality in Australian gall thrips. Nature 359:724–726.

Crespi, B. J., and L. A. Mound. 1997. Ecology and evolution of social behavior among Australian gall thrips and their allies. In: Social behavior in insects and arachnids (pp. 166–180), edited by J. C. Choe and B. J. Crespi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Crespi, B. J., and D. Yanega. 1995. The definition of eusociality. Behavioral Ecology 6:109–115.

Crosland, M. W. J., and R. H. Crozier. 1986. Myrmecia pilosula, an ant with only one pair of chromosomes. Science 231:1278.

Crozier, R. H. 1982. On insects and insects: twists and turns in our understanding of the evolution of eusociality. In The biology of social insects (pp. 4–9), edited by M. D. Breed, C. D. Michener and H. E. Evans. Boulder: Westview Press.

Crozier, R. H. 1992. The genetic evolution of flexible strategies. The American Naturalist 139:218–223.

Crozier, R. H., and P. Pamilo. 1993. Sex allocation in social insects: problems in prediction and estimation. In Evolution and diversity of sex ratio in insects and mites (pp. 369–383), edited by D. L. Wrensch and M. A. Ebbert. New York: Chapman and Hall.

Crozier, R. H., and P. Pamilo. 1996. Evolution of social insect colonies: Sex allocation and kin selection. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cruz, Y. P. 1981. A sterile defender morph in a polyembryonic hymenopterous parasite. Nature 294:446–447.

Danforth, B. N. 2002. Evolution of sociality in a primitively eusocial lineage of bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 99:286–290.

Danforth, B. N., L. Conway, and S. Q. Ji. 2003. Phylogeny of eusocial Lasioglossum reveals multiple losses of eusociality within a primitively eusocial clade of bees (Hymenoptera : Halictidae). Systematic Biology 52:23–36.

Dani, F. R., and R. Cervo. 1992. Reproductive strategies following nest loss in Polistes gallicus (L.) (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution Special Issue 2:49–53.

(p.214) Dapporto, L., E. Palagi, and S. Turillazzi. 2005. Sociality outside the nest: helpers in prehibernating clusters of Polistes dominulus. Annales Zoologici Fennici 42:135–139.

Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray.

Deegener, P. 1918. Die Formen der Vergesellschaftung im Tierreiche. Leipzig: Veit & Co.

Dejean, A., E. Francescato, and S. Turillazzi. 1994. Food sources and alimentary behaviour of Polybioides tabidus (Vespidae, Polistinae). Journal of African Zoology 108:251–260.

Deleurance, É.-P. 1949. Sur le déterminisme de l’apparition des ouvrières et des fondatrices-filles chez les Polistes (Hyménoptères: Vespides). Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences Paris 229:303–304.

Deleurance, É.-P. 1952 Le polymorphisme sociale et son déterminisme chez les guêpes. Colloques internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche scientifique 34:141–155.

Deleurance, É.-P. 1955. Contribution à l’étude biologique des Polistes (Hyménoptères – Vespides). II. Le cycle évolutif du couvain. Insectes Sociaux 2:285–302.

Deleurance, É.-P. 1956. Analyse du comportement bâtisseur chez “Polistes” (Hyménoptères vespides). L’activité bâtisseuse d’origine “interne”. In L’instinct dans le comportement des animaux et de l’homme. Paris: Masson.

DeMarco, B. B. 1982. Population studies of a paper wasp, Polistes metricus. M. S. thesis, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis.

Denlinger, D. L. 2002. Regulation of diapause. Annual Review of Entomology 47:93–122.

Deslippe, R. J., and R. Savolainen. 1995. Sex investment in a social insect: the proximate role of food. Ecology 76:375–382.

Dew, H. E., and C. D. Michener. 1981. Division of labor among workers of Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): laboratory foraging activities. Insectes Sociaux 28:87–101.

Dow, R. 1942. The relation of the prey of Sphecius speciosus to the size and sex of the adult wasp (Hym.: Sphecidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 35:310–317.

Downing, H. A. 1991. The function and evolution of exocrine glands. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 540–569), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Downing, H. A. 2004. Effect of mated condition on dominance interactions and nesting behavior in the social wasp, Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77:288–291.

Downing, H. A., and R. L. Jeanne. 1983. Correlation of season and dominance status with activity of exocrine glands in Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 56:387–397.

Downing, H. A., and R. L. Jeanne. 1987. A comparison of nest construction behavior in two species of Polistes paper wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Ethology 5:53–66.

Downing, H. A., and R. L. Jeanne. 1990. The regulation of complex building behaviour in the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Animal Behaviour 39:105–124.

Dowton, M., and A. D. Austin. 1994. Molecular phylogeny of the insect order Hymenoptera: apocritan relationships. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 91:9911–9915.

Dowton, M., and A. D. Austin. 2001. Simultaneous analysis of 16S, 28S, COI and morphology in the Hymenoptera: Apocrita—evolutionary transitions among parasitic wasps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74:87–111.

Duffy, J. E. 1996. Eusociality in a coral-reef shrimp. Nature 381:512–514.

(p.215) Duffy, J. E. 1998. On the frequency of eusociality in snapping shrimps (Decapoda: Alpheidae), with description of a second eusocial species. Bulletin of Marine Science 63:387–400.

Dugatkin, L. A., editor. 2001. Model systems in behavioral ecology: Integrating conceptual, theoretical, and empirical approaches. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Dugatkin, L. A. 2004. Principles of animal behavior. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

Duncan, C. D. 1928. Plant hairs as building material for Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidæ). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 5:90.

Duncan, C. D. 1939. A contribution to the biology of North American vespine wasps. Stanford University Publications (University Series, Biological Sciences) 8:1–272.

Dunn, T., and M. H. Richards. 2003. When to bee social: interactions among environmental constraints, incentives, guarding, and relatedness in a facultatively social carpenter bee. Behavioral Ecology 14:417–424.

Dzierzon, J. 1845. Gutachten über die von Herrn Direktor Stöhr im ersten und zweiten Kapitel des General-Gutachtens aufgestellten Fragen. Eichstädter Bienenzeitung 1:109–113, 119–121.

Eberhard, W. G. 1974. The natural history and behaviour of the wasp Trigonopsis cameronii Kohl (Sphecidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, London 125:295–328.

Edwards, R. 1980. Social wasps: Their biology and control. East Grinstead: Rentokill Limited.

Eggleton, P., and R. Belshaw. 1992. Insect parasitoids: an evolutionary overview. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 337:1–20.

Eickwort, G. C. 1981. Presocial insects. In Social insects (pp. 199–280), edited by H. R. Hermann. New York: Academic Press.

Eickwort, K. R. 1969a. Differential variation of males and females in Polistes exclamans. Evolution 23:391–405.

Eickwort, K. 1969b. Separation of the castes of Polistes exclamans and notes on its biology (Hym.: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 16:67–72.

Elmes, G. W. 1974. Colony populations of Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl. (Hym. Formicidae). Oecologia 15:337–343.

Elmes, G. W., and J. C. Wardlaw. 1982. A population study of the ants Myrmica sabuleti and Myrmica scabrinodis, living at two sites in the south of England. I. A comparison of colony populations. Journal of Animal Ecology 51:651–664.

Emlen, S. T. 1994. Benefits, constraints and the evolution of the family. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:282–285.

Emlen, S. T., H. K. Reeve, P. W. Sherman, P. H. Wrege, F. L. W. Ratnieks, and J. Shellman-Reeve. 1991. Adaptive versus nonadaptive explanations of behavior: the case of alloparental helping. The American Naturalist 138:259–270.

Engels, W., and H. Fahrenhorst. 1974. Alters- und kastenspezifische Veeränderungen ser Haemolymph-Protein-Spectren bei Apis mellifera. Wilhelm Roux’ Archiv 174:285–296.

Espelie, K. E., and D. S. Himmelsbach. 1990. Characterization of pedicel, paper, and larval silk from nest of Polistes annularis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16:3467–3477.

Espinas, A. 1877. Les sociétés animales: Etude de psychologie comparée. New York: G. E. Stechert & Co. [reprint 1924].

Evans, H. E. 1956. Notes on the biology of four species of ground-nesting Vespidae (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 58:265–270.

Evans, H. E. 1958. The evolution of social life in wasps. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Entomology (Montreal, 1956) 2:449–457.

(p.216) Evans, H. E. 1970. Ecological-behavioral studies of the wasps of Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 140:451–511.

Evans, H. E. 1973. Notes on the nests of Montezumia (Hymenoptera, Eumenidae). Entomological News 84:285–290.

Evans, H. E. 1977a. Observations on the nests and prey of eumenid wasps (Hymenoptera, Eumenidae). Psyche 83:255–259.

Evans, H. E. 1977b. Extrinsic versus intrinsic factors in the evolution of insect sociality. BioScience 27:613–617.

Evans, H. E., and R. W. Matthews. 1974. Notes on nests and prey of two species of groundnesting Eumenidae from So. America (Hymenoptera). Entomological News 85:149–153.

Evans, H. E., and M. J. West Eberhard. 1970. The wasps. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Evans, J. D., D. C. A. Shearman, and B. P. Oldroyd. 2004. Molecular basis of sex determination in haplodiploids. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:1–3.

Evans, J. D., and D. E. Wheeler. 1999. Differential gene expression between developing queens and workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 96:5575–5580.

Fauth, J. E., J. Bernardo, M. Camara, W. J. Resetarits, Jr., J. Van Buskirk, and S. A. McCollum. 1996. Simplifying the jargon of community ecology: a conceptual approach. The American Naturalist 147:282–286.

Ferguson, C. S., and J. H. Hunt. 1989. Near-nest behavior of a solitary mud-daubing wasp, Sceliphron caementarium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 2:315–323.

Field, J., and W. Foster. 1999. Helping behaviour in facultatively eusocial hover wasps: an experimental test of the subfertility hypothesis. Animal Behaviour 57:633–636.

Field, J., W. Foster, G. Shreeves, and S. Sumner. 1998. Ecological constraints on independent nesting in facultatively eusocial hover wasps. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:973–977.

Field, J., G. Shreeves, and S. Sumner. 1999. Group size, queuing and helping decisions in facultatively eusocial hover wasps. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 45:378–385.

Fisher, R. A. 1930. The genetical theory of natural selection. New York: Dover [reprint, 1958].

Flanders, S. E. 1946. Haploidy as a factor in the polymorphic differentiation of the Hymenoptera. Science 103:555–556.

Flanders, S. E. 1950. Regulation of ovulation and egg disposal in the parasitic Hymenoptera. Canadian Entomologist 82:134–140.

Flannagan, R. D., S. P. Tammariello, K. H. Joplin, R. A. Cikra-Ireland, G. D. Yocum, and D. L. Denlinger. 1998. Diapause-specific gene expression in pupae of the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 95:5616–5620.

Fletcher, D. J. C., and K. G. Ross. 1985. Regulation of reproduction in eusocial Hymenoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 30:319–343.

Flowers, R. W., and J. T. Costa. 2003. Larval communication and group foraging dynamics in the red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch) (Hymenoptera: Symphyta: Diprionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96:336–343.

Fong, D. W., T. C. Kane, and J. C. Culver. 1995. Vestigialization and loss of nonfunctional characters. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:249–268.

Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Zurich: Imprimerie Zurcher & Furrer.

Foster, K. R., T. Wenseleers, and F. L. W. Ratnieks. 2006. Kin selection is the key to altruism. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:57–60.

(p.217) Francke-Grossman, H. 1967. Ectosymbiosis in wood-inhabiting insects. In Symbiosis (pp. 142–205), edited by S. M. Henry. New York: Academic Press.

Frank, S. A. 1986. Hierarchical selection theory and sex ratios. I. General solutions for structured populations. Theoretical Population Biology 29:312–342.

Free, J. B., and Y. Spencer-Booth. 1959. The longevity of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society London 34A:141–150.

Freeman, B. E. 1973. Preliminary studies on the population dynamics of Sceliphron assimile Dahlbom (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) in Jamaica. Journal of Animal Ecology 42:173–182.

Freeman, B. E. 1977. Aspects of the regulation of size of the Jamaican population of Sceliphron assimile (Dahlbom) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 46:231–247.

Freeman, B. E. 1980. A population study in Jamaica on adult Sceliphron assimile Dahlbom (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Ecological Entomology 5:19–30.

Freeman, B. E., and B. Y. Johnston. 1978. The biology in Jamaica of the adults of the sphecid wasp Sceliphron assimile Dahlbom. Ecological Entomology 2:39–52.

Freeman, S., and J. C. Herron. 2003. Evolutionary analysis, third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Frumhoff, P. C., and J. Baker. 1988. A genetic component to division of labour within honey bee colonies. Nature 333:358–361.

Fukuda, H., J. Kojima, and R. L. Jeanne. 2003. Colony specific morphological caste differences in an Old World, swarm-founding polistine, Ropalidia romandi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Entomological Science 6:37–47.

Gadagkar, R. 1990. Evolution of eusociality: the advantage of assured fitness returns. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 329:17–25.

Gadagkar, R. 1991a. On testing the role of genetic asymmetries created by haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusociality in the Hymenoptera. Journal of Genetics 70:1–31.

Gadagkar, R. 1991b. Belonogaster, Mischocyttarus, Parapolybia, and independent-founding Ropalidia. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 149–190), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Gadagkar, R. 1994. Why the definition of eusociality is not helpful to understand its evolution and what should we do about it. Oikos 70:485–488.

Gadagkar, R. 1996. The evolution of eusociality, including a review of the social status of Ropalidia marginata. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps (pp. 248–271), edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gadagkar, R. 2001. The social biology of Ropalidia marginata: Toward understanding the evolution of eusociality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gadagkar, R., S. Bhagavan, K. Chandrashekara, and C. Vinutha. 1991. The role of larval nutrition in pre-imaginal biasing of caste in the primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ecological Entomology 16:435–440.

Gadagkar, R., S. Bhagavan, R. Malpe, and C. Vinutha. 1990. On reconfirming the evidence for pre-imaginal caste bias in a primitively eusocial wasp. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Science) 99:141–150.

Gadagkar, R., C. Vinutha, A. Shanubhogue, and A. P. Gore. 1988. Pre-imaginal biasing of caste in a primitively eusocial insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 233:175–189.

Gamboa, G. J. 1978. Intraspecific defense: advantage of social cooperation among paper wasp foundresses. Science 199:1463–1465.

(p.218) Gamboa, G. J. 1980. Comparative timing of brood development between multiple- and single-foundress colonies of the paper wasp, Polistes metricus. Ecological Entomology 5:221–225.

Gamboa, G. J., and J. A. Dropkin. 1979. Comparisons of behaviors in early vs. late foundress associations of the paper wasp, Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The Canadian Entomologist 111:919–926.

García A., R. 1974. Observaciones sobre “Polistes peruvianus” Bequaert (Hym., Vespidae) en los alrededores de Lima. Biota 10:11–27.

Gauld, I. D. 1986. Taxonomy, its limitations and its role in understanding parasitoid biology. In Insect parasitoids (pp. 1–22), edited by J. K. Waage and D. Greathead. London: Academic Press.

Gauld, I., and B. Bolton, editors. 1988. The Hymenoptera. Oxford: British Museum (Natural History)/Oxford University Press.

Gervet, J. 1964. Le comportement d’oophagie differentielle chez Polistes gallicus L. (Hyménoptère, Vespide). Insectes Sociaux 11:343–382.

Gess, F. W., and S. K. Gess. 1976. An ethological study of Parachilus insignis (Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Annals of the Cape Town Provincial Museums (Natural History) 11:83–102.

Gess, F. W., and S. K. Gess. 1992. Ethology of three Southern African ground nesting Masarinae, two Celonites species and a silk spinning Quartinia species, with a discussion of nesting by the subfamily as a whole (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1:145–155.

Gess, S. K. 1996. The pollen wasps: Ecology and natural history of the Masarinae. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ghiselin, M. T. 1969. The triumph of the Darwinian method. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Giannotti, E., and V. L. L. Machado. 1994. Longevity, life table and age polyethism in Polistes lanio lanio (Hymenoptera, Vespidae), a primitive eusocial wasp. Journal of Advanced Zoology 15:95–101.

Gibo, D. L. 1972. Hibernation sites and temperature tolerance of two species of Vespula and one species of Polistes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 80:105–108.

Gibo, D. L. 1974. A laboratory study on the selective advantage of foundress associations in Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The Canadian Entomologist 106:101–106.

Gibo, D. L. 1976. Cold-hardiness in fall and winter of adults of the social wasp Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in southern Ontario. The Canadian Entomologist 108:801–806.

Gibo, D. L. 1978. The selective advantage of foundress associations in Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): a field study of the effects of predation on productivity. The Canadian Entomologist 110:519–540.

Giray, T., M. Giovanetti, and M. J. West-Eberhard. 2005. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 102:3330–3335.

Gobbi, N., H. G. Fowler, J. C. Netto, and S. L. Nazareth. 1993. Comparative colony productivity of Polistes simillimus and Polistes versicolor (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and the evolution of paragyny in the Polistinae. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für allgemeine Zoologie und Physiologie der Tiere 97:239–243.

(p.219) Gobbi, N., and V. L. L. Machado. 1985. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Myrapetra) paulista Ihering, 1896 (Hymenoptera – Vespidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 14:189–195.

Godfray, H. C. J. 1987. The evolution of clutch size in parasitic wasps. The American Naturalist 129:221–233.

González, J. M., J. Piñango, E. Blanco D., and R. W. Matthews. 2005. On the mass aggregations of Polistes versicolor (Oliver) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) along the northern cordillera of Venezuela, South America. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14:15–21.

Gould, S. J. 1987. Freudian slip. Natural History 96 (2):14–21.

Gould, S. J., and R. C. Lewontin. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 205:581–598.

Grafen, A. 1986. Split sex ratios and the evolutionary origins of eusociality. Journal of Theoretical Biology 122:95–121.

Grandi, G. 1961. Studi di un entomologo sugli Imenotteri superiori. Bollettino dell’Istituto di Entomologia dell’Università di Bologna 25:141–144.

Grbic, M., P. J. Ode, and M. R. Strand. 1992. Sibling rivalry and brood sex-ratios in polyembryonic wasps. Nature 360:254–256.

Greene, A. 1991. Dolichovespula and Vespula. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 263–305), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Greenstone, M. H., and J. H. Hunt. 1993. Determination of prey antigen half-life in Polistes metricus using a monoclonal antibody-based immunodot assay. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 68:1–7.

Grinfel’d, E. K. 1977. The feeding of the social wasp Polistes gallicus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Entomological Review 56:24–29.

Grogan, D. E., and J. H. Hunt. 1977. Digestive proteases of two species of wasps of the genus Vespula. Insect Biochemistry 7:191–196.

Grogan, D. E., and J. H. Hunt. 1979. Pollen proteases: their potential role in insect digestion. Insect Biochemistry 9:309–313.

Grogan, D. E., and J. H. Hunt. 1980. Age correlated changes in midgut protease activity of the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Experientia 36:1347–1348.

Grogan, D. E., and J. H. Hunt. 1984. Chymotrypsin-like activity in the honeybee midgut: patterns in a three year study. Journal of Apicultural Research 23:61–63.

Grogan, D. E., and J. H. Hunt. 1986. Midgut endopeptidase activities of the hornet Vespa crabro germana Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 33:486–489.

Haeselbarth, E. 1979. Zur Parasitierung der Puppen von Forleule (Panolis flammea [Schiff.]), Kiefernspanner (Bupalus piniarius [L.]) und Heidelbeerspanner (Boarmia bistortana [Goezel]) in bayerischen Kiefernwaeldern. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 87:186–202, 311–322.

Haeseler, V. 1980. Zum Necktarraub solitärer Faltenwespen (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Eumenidae). Entomologia Generalis 6:49–55.

Haggard, C. M., and G. J. Gamboa. 1980. Seasonal variation in body size and reproductive condition of a paper wasp, Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The Canadian Entomologist 112:239–248.

Hahn, P. D. 1995. Relatedness asymmetry and the evolution of eusociality. Sociobiology 26:1–32.

Haig, T. 1992. Intragenomic conflict and the evolution of eusociality. Journal of Theoretical Biology 156:401–403.

(p.220) Haldane, J. B. S. 1932. The causes of evolution. New York: Harper Bros.

Hamilton, W. D. 1964a. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–16.

Hamilton, W. D. 1964b. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:17–52.

Hamilton, W. D. 1966. [Audience discussion following Kennedy, J. S., Some outstanding questions in insect behaviour]. In Insect behaviour, vol. 3 (p. 108), edited by P. T. Haskell. London: Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London.

Hamilton, W. D. 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156:477–488.

Hamilton, W. D. 1996. Foreword. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps, edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Handlirsch, A. 1907. Die Fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Pälaontologen und Zoologen. Leipzig: Engelmann.

Hansell, M. H. 1981. Nest construction in the subsocial wasp Parischnogaster mellyi (Saussure) Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera). Insectes Sociaux 28:208–216.

Hansell, M. H. 1982. Brood development in the subsocial wasp Parischnogaster mellyi (Saussure) (Stenogastrinae, Hymenoptera). Insectes Sociaux 29:3–14.

Hansell, M. 1985. The nest material of Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera Vespidae) and its effect on the evolution of social behaviour and nest design. Actes Colloques des Insectes Sociaux 2:57–63.

Hansell, M. H. 1986. Colony biology of the stenogastrine wasp Holischnogaster gracilipes (van der Vecht) (Hum.) on Mount Kinabalu (Borneo). Entomologists Monthly Magazine 122:31–36.

Hansell, M. 1987a. Nest building as a facilitating and limiting factor in the evolution of eusociality in the Hymenoptera. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 4:155–181.

Hansell, M. H. 1987b. Elements of eusociality in colonies of Eustenogaster calyptodoma (Sakagami & Yoshikawa) (Stenogastrinae, Vespidae). Animal Behaviour 35:131–141.

Hansell, M. H. 1989. Wasp papier-mâché. Natural History 8/89:52–61.

Hansell, M. H., C. Samuel, and J. I. Furtado. 1982. Liostenogaster flavolineata: social life in the small colonies of an Asian tropical wasp. In The biology of social insects (pp. 192–195), edited by M. D. Breed, C. D. Michener and H. E. Evans. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hanson, P. E., and I. D. Gauld, editors. 1995. The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hardy, I. C. W., P. J. Ode, and M. R. Strand. 1993. Factors influencing brood sex-ratios in polyembryonic Hymenoptera. Oecologia 93:343–348.

Harrison, J. N., and S. P. Roberts. 2000. Flight respiration and energetics. Annual Review of Physiology 62:179–205.

Hartman, C. 1905. Observations on the habits of some solitary wasps of Texas. Bulletin of the University of Texas 65:9–10.

Headley, A. E. 1943. Population studies of two species of ants, Leptothorax longispinosus Roger and Leptothorax curvispinosus Mayr. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 36:743–753.

Headley, A. E. 1949. A population study of the ant Aphaenogaster fulva ssp. aquia Buckler (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 42:265–272.

Heithaus, E. R. 1979. Community structure of neotropical flower visiting bees and wasps: diversity and phenology. Ecology 60:190–202.

(p.221) Heldmann, G. 1936. Über das Leben auf Waben mit meheren überwinterten Weibchen von Polistes gallica (L.). Biologisches Zentralblatt 56:389–400.

Henshaw, M. T., J. E. Strassmann, S. Q. Quach, and D. C. Queller. 2000. Male production in Parachartergus colobopterus, a neotropical, swarm-founding wasp. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 12:161–174.

Hepperle, C., and K. Hartfelder. 2001. Differentially expressed regulatory genes in honey bee caste development. Naturwissenschaften 88:113–116.

Herbers, J. M. 1984. Queen-worker conflict and eusocial evolution in a polygynous ant species. Evolution 38:631–643.

Hermann, H. R., D. Gerling, and T. F. Dirks. 1974. The cohibernation and mating activity of five polistine wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 9:203–204.

Hingston, R. W. G. 1926. The mason wasp (Eumenes conica). Part 1. Architecture. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 31:241–247.

Hirose, Y., and M. Yamasaki. 1984. Dispersal of females for colony founding in Polistes jadwigae Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyû 52:65–71.

Hölldobler, B., and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Holmes, H. B. 1972. Genetic evidence for fewer progeny and a higher percent males when Nasonia vitripennis oviposits in previously parasitized hosts. Entomophaga 17:79–88.

Hook, A. 1982. Observations on a declining nest of Polistes tepidus (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 21:277–278.

Hoshikawa, T. 1979. Observations on the polygynous nests of Polistes chinensis antennalis Pérez (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Japan. Kontyû 47:239–243.

Howard, K. J., A. R. Smith, S. O’Donnell, and R. L. Jeanne. 2002. Novel method of swarm emigration by the epiponine wasp, Apoica pallens (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 14:365–371.

Hughes, C. R. 1987. Group nesting and reproductive conflict in primitively eusocial wasps. Ph.D. dissertation, Rice University, Houston, TX.

Hughes, D. P., L. Beani, S. Turillazzi, and J. Kathirithamby. 2003. Prevalence of the parasite Strepsiptera in Polistes as detected by dissection of immatures. Insectes Sociaux 50:62–68.

Hughes, D. P., J. Kathirithamby, S. Turillazzi, and L. Beani. 2004a. Social wasps desert the colony and aggregate outside if parasitized: parasite manipulation? Behavioral Ecology 15:1037–1043.

Hughes, D. P., J. Kathirithamby, and L. Beani. 2004b. Prevalence of the parasite strepsiptera in adult Polistes wasps: field collections and literature overview. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 16:363–75.

Hunt, J. H. 1971. A field study of the Wrenthrush, Zeledonia coronata. The Auk 88:1–20.

Hunt, J. H. 1975. On the evolution of eusocial wasps and ants. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 56 (2):54.

Hunt, J. H. 1982. Trophallaxis and the evolution of eusocial Hymenoptera. In The biology of social insects (pp. 201–205), edited by M. D. Breed, C. D. Michener and H. E. Evans. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Hunt, J. H. 1984. Adult nourishment during larval provisioning in a primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes metricus Say. Insectes Sociaux 31:452–460.

Hunt, J. H. 1988. Lobe erection behavior and its possible social role in larvae of Mischocyttarus paper wasps. Journal of Insect Behavior 1:379–386.

(p.222) Hunt, J. H. 1991. Nourishment and the evolution of the social Vespidae. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 426–450), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Hunt, J. H. 1993. Survivorship, fecundity, and recruitment in a mud dauber wasp, Sceliphron assimile (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 86:51–59.

Hunt, J. H. 1994. Nourishment and evolution in wasps sensu lato. In Nourishment and evolution in insect societies (pp. 221–254), edited by J. H. Hunt and C. A. Nalepa. Boulder: Westview Press.

Hunt, J. H. 1999. Trait mapping and salience in the evolution of eusocial vespid wasps. Evolution 53:225–237.

Hunt, J. H. 2000. European hornet. In Handbook of household and structural insect pests (pp. 26–29), edited by R. E. Gold and S. C. Jones. Lanham, MD: Entomological Society of America.

Hunt, J. H. 2003. Cryptic herbivores of the rainforest canopy. Science 300:916–917.

Hunt, J. H., and G. V. Amdam. 2005. Bivoltinism as an antecedent to eusociality in the paper wasp genus Polistes. Science 308: 264–267.

Hunt, J. H., I. Baker, and H. G. Baker. 1982. Similarity of amino acids in nectar and larval saliva: the nutritional basis for trophallaxis in social wasps. Evolution 36:1318–1322.

Hunt, J. H., R. J. Brodie, T. P. Carithers, P. Z. Goldstein, and D. H. Janzen. 1999. Dry season migration by Costa Rican lowland paper wasps to high elevation cold dormancy sites. Biotropica 31:192–196.

Hunt, J. H., P. A. Brown, K. M. Sago, and J. A. Kerker. 1991. Vespid wasps eat pollen (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 64:127–130.

Hunt, J. H., N. A. Buck, and D. E. Wheeler. 2003. Storage proteins in vespid wasps: characterization, developmental pattern, and occurrence in adults. Journal of Insect Physiology 49:785–794.

Hunt, J. H., and J. M. Carpenter. 2004. Intra-specific nest form variation in some neotropical swarm-founding wasps of the genus Parachartergus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Epiponini). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77:448–456.

Hunt, J. H., R. D. Cave, and G. R. Borjas. 2001a. First records from Honduras of a yellowjacket wasp, Vespula squamosa (Drury) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Vespinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 74:118–119.

Hunt, J. H., and M. A. Dove. 2002. Nourishment affects colony demographics in the paper wasp Polistes metricus. Ecological Entomology 27:467–474.

Hunt, J. H., and G. J. Gamboa. 1978. Joint nest use by two paper wasp species. Insectes Sociaux 25:373–374.

Hunt, J. H., R. L. Jeanne, I. Baker, and D. E. Grogan. 1987. Nutrient dynamics of a swarmfounding social wasp species, Polybia occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ethology 75:291–305.

Hunt, J. H., R. L. Jeanne, and M. G. Keeping. 1995. Observations on Apoica pallens, a nocturnal neotropical social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae, Epiponini). Insectes Sociaux 42:223–236.

Hunt, J. H., and C. A. Nalepa. 1994. Nourishment, evolution and insect sociality. In Nourishment and evolution in insect societies (pp. 1–19), edited by J. H. Hunt and C. A. Nalepa. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Hunt, J. H., and K. C. Noonan. 1979. Larval feeding by male Polistes fuscatus and Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 26:247–251.

(p.223) Hunt, J. H., S. O’Donnell, N. Chernoff, and C. Brownie. 2001b. Observations on two neotropical swarm-founding wasps, Agelaia yepocapa and A. panamaensis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94:555–562.

Hunt, J. H., A. M. Rossi, N. J. Holmberg, S. R. Smith, and W. R. Sherman. 1998. Nutrients in social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) honey. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 91:466–472.

Hunt, J. H., D. K. Schmidt, S. S. Mulkey, and M. A. Williams. 1996. Caste dimorphism in the wasp Epipona guerini (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae, Epiponini): further evidence for larval determination. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69:362–369.

Hunt, S. 1970. Amino acid composition of silk from the pseudoscorpion Neobisium maritimum (Leach): a possible link between the silk fibroins and the keratins. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 34:773–776.

Huxley, J. 1964. New introduction by the author. In Evolution: The modern synthesis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ikan, R., E. D. Bergmann, J. Ishay, and S. Gitter. 1968. Proteolytic enzyme activity in the various colony members of the oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis F. Life Sciences 7:929–934.

Ikan, R., and J. Ishay. 1966. Larval wasp secretions and honeydew of the aphids, Chaitophorus populi, feeding on Populus euphratica as sources of sugars in the diet of the oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis, F. Israel Journal of Zoology 15:64–68.

Inagawa, K., J. Kojima, K. Sayama, and K. Tsuchida. 2001. Colony productivity of the paper wasp Polistes snelleni: comparison between cool-temperate and warm-temperate populations. Insectes Sociaux 48:259–265.

Isely, D. 1913. The biology of some Kansas Eumenidae. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 8:235–309.

Ishay, J. 1975a. Orientation by pupating larvæ of Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera: Vespidæ). Insectes Sociaux 1:67–73.

Ishay, J. 1975b. Caste determination by social wasps: cell size and building behaviour. Animal Behaviour 23:425–431.

Ishay, J., and R. Ikan. 1968a. Food exchange between adults and larvae in Vespa orientalis F. Animal Behaviour 16:289–303.

Ishay, J., and R. Ikan. 1968b. Gluconeogenesis in the oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis F. Ecology 49:169–171.

Itino, T. 1986. Comparison of life tables between the solitary eumenid wasp Anterhynchium flavomarginatum and the subsocial eumenid wasp Orancistrocerus drewseni to evaluate the adaptive significance of maternal care. Researches on Population Ecology 28:185–199.

Itô, Y. 1989. The evolutionary biology of sterile soldiers in aphids. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 4:69–73.

Iwata, K. 1938a. Habits of four species of Odynerus (Ancistrocerus) in Japan. Tenthredo 2:19–32.

Iwata, K. 1938b. Habits of eight species of Eumeninae (Rhygchium, Lionotus and Symmorphus) in Japan. Mushi 11:110–132.

Iwata, K. 1939. Habits of a paper-making potter wasp (Eumenes architectus Smith) in Japan. Mushi 12:83–85.

Iwata, K. 1953. Biology of Eumenes in Japan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Mushi 25:25–45.

Iwata, K. 1967. Report of the fundamental research on the biological control of insect pests in Thailand. II. The report on the bionomics of aculeate wasps—Bionomics of subsocial wasps of Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 5:259–293.

(p.224) Iwata, K. 1976. Evolution of instinct: Comparative ethology of Hymenoptera (translated from the Japanese). New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Co., Pvt. Ltd.

Jacobson, E. 1935. Aanteekeningen over Stenogastrinae (Hym., Vespidae). Entomologische Mededeelingen van Nederlandsch-Indie 1:15–19.

Jaffe, K. 2001. On the relative importance of haplo-diploidy, assortative mating and social synergy on the evolutionary emergence of social behavior. Acta Biotheoretica 49:29–42.

James, W. H. 1993. Continuing confusion. Nature 365:8.

Jamieson, I. B. 1986. The functional approach to behavior: is it useful? The American Naturalist 127:195–208.

Jamieson, I. B. 1989. Levels of analysis or analyses at the same level. Animal Behaviour 37:696–697.

Janet, C. 1903. Observations sur les Guêpes. Paris: Carré et Naud.

Jarvis, J. U. M. 1981. Eusociality in a mammal: cooperative breeding in naked mole-rat colonies. Science 212:571–573.

Jayakar, S. D. 1963. ‘Proterandry’ in solitary wasps. Nature 198:208–209.

Jayakar, S. D., and H. Spurway. 1965. Normal and abnormal nests of Eumenes emarginatus conoideus (Gmelin) including notes on crépissage in this and other members of the genus (Vespoidea, Hymenoptera). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 62:193–200.

Jayakar, S. D., and H. Spurway. 1966. Re-use of cells and brother-sister mating in the Indian species Stenodynerus miniatus (Sauss.) (Vespidae: Eumeninae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 63:378–398.

Jayasingh, D. B. 1980. A new hypothesis on cell provisioning in solitary wasps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 13:167–170.

Jeanne, R. L. 1970. Chemical defense of brood by a social wasp. Science 168:1465–1466.

Jeanne, R. L. 1972. Social biology of the neotropical wasp Mischocyttarus drewseni. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University 144:63–150.

Jeanne, R. L. 1980. Evolution of social behavior in the Vespidae. Annual Review of Entomology 25:371–396.

Jeanne, R. L. 1981. Chemical communication during swarm emigration in the social wasp Polybia sericea (Olivier). Animal Behaviour 29:102–113.

Jeanne, R. L. 1986. The organization of work in Polybia occidentalis: the costs and benefits of specialization in a social wasp. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 19:333–341.

Jeanne, R. L. 1991. The swarm-founding Polistinae. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 191–231), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Jeanne, R. L., and R. Fagen. 1974. Polymorphism in Stelopolybia areata (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Psyche 81:155–166.

Jeanne, R. L., C. A. Graf, and B. S. Yandell. 1995a. Non-size-based morphological castes in a social insect. Naturwissenschaften 82:296–298.

Jeanne, R. L., and J. H. Hunt. 1992. Observations on the social wasp Ropalidia montana from peninsular India. Journal of Biosciences 17:1–14.

Jeanne, R. L., J. H. Hunt, and M. G. Keeping. 1995b. Foraging in social wasps: Agelaia lacks recruitment to food. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 68:279–289.

Jeanne, R. L., and M. G. Keeping. 1995. Venom spraying in Parachartergus colobopterus: a novel defensive behavior in a social wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 8:433–442.

(p.225) Jenner, R. A. 2004. The scientific status of metazoan cladistics: why current research practice must change. Zoologica Scripta 33:293–310.

Jervis, M. A., G. E. Heimpel, P. N. Ferns, J. A. Harvey, and N. A. C. Kidd. 2001. Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of ‘ovigeny’. Journal of Animal Ecology 70:442–458.

Jervis, M. A., and A. C. Kidd. 1986. Host-feeding strategies in hymenopteran parasitoids. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 61:395–434.

Jervis, M., and L. Vilhelmsen. 2000. Mouthpart evolution in adults of the basal, ‘symphytan’, hymenopteran lineages. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 70:121–146.

Jukes, T. H. 1990. Females at work. Science 249:1359.

Karsai, I. 1999. Decentralized control of construction behavior in paper wasps: an overview of the stigmergy approach. Artificial Life 5:117–136.

Karsai, I., and J. H. Hunt. 2002. Food quantity affects traits of offspring in the paper wasp Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Environmental Entomology 31:99–106.

Karsai, I., and Z. Penzes. 1998. Nest shapes in paper wasps: can the variability of forms be deduced from the same construction algorithm? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:1261–1268.

Karsai, I., Z. Penzes, and J. W. Wenzel. 1996. Dynamics of colony development in Polistes dominulus: a modeling approach. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39:97–105.

Kasuya, E. 1981a. Male mating territory in a Japanese paper wasp, Polistes jadwigae Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyû 49:607–614.

Kasuya, E. 1981b. Polygyny in the Japanese paper wasp, Polistes jadwigae Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyû 49:306–313.

Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers, 2nd ed. (pp. 684–695), edited by I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn. Melbourne: CSIRO, Melbourne University Press.

Kaufman, S., M. Peña Claros, S. A. Morehead, J. H. Hunt, D. Craig, M. Singer, and J. Apple. 1995. A survivorship schedule for Polybia occidentalis (Vespidae) in Palo Verde Marsh. In Tropical biology, an ecological approach: Coursebook 95–1 (pp. 91–94), edited by E. Olson. San Jose, Costa Rica: Organization for Tropical Studies.

Kayes, B. M. 1978. Digestive proteases in four species of Polistes wasps. Canadian Journal of Zoology 56:1454–1459.

Keegans, S. J., E. D. Morgan, S. Turillazzi, B. D. Jackson, and J. Billen. 1993. The Dufour gland and the secretion placed on eggs of 2 species of social wasps, Liostenogaster flavolineata and Parischnogaster jacobsoni (Vespidae, Stenogastrinae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 19:279–290.

Keeping, M. G. 1991. Nest construction by the social wasp, Belonogaster petiolata (DeGeer) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa 54:17–28.

Keeping, M. G. 2002. Reproductive and worker castes in the primitively eusocial wasp Belonogaster petiolata (DeGeer) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): evidence for pre-imaginal differentiation. Journal of Insect Physiology 48:867–879.

Keller, E. F. 1983. A feeling for the organism: The life and work of Barbara McClintock. New York: Freeman.

Keller, L., and P. Nonacs. 1993. The role of queen pheromones in social insects: queen control or queen signal. Animal Behaviour 64:477–485.

(p.226) Kemp, W. P., J. Bosch, and B. Dennis. 2004. Oxygen consumption during the life cycles of the prepupa-wintering bee Megachile rotundata and the adult-wintering bee Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97:161–170.

Kent, D. S., and J. A. Simpson. 1992. Eusociality in the beetle Austroplatypus incompertus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Naturwissenschaften 79:86–87.

King, B. H. 1987. Offspring sex ratios in parasitoid wasps. The Quarterly Review of Biology 62:367–396.

King, B. H. 1996. Sex ratio responses to other parasitoid wasps: multiple adaptive explanations. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39:367–374.

King, L. L., and T. H. Jukes. 1969. Non-Darwinian evolution. Science 164:788–798.

Klahn, J. E. 1979. Philopatric and nonphilopatric foundress associations in the social wasp Polistes fuscatus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 5:417–424.

Klahn, J. E. 1981. Alternative reproductive tactics of single foundresses of a social wasp, Polistes fuscatus. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Klahn, J. 1988. Intraspecific comb usurpation in the social wasp Polistes fuscatus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23:1–8.

Klahn, J. E., and G. J. Gamboa. 1983. Social wasps: discrimination between kin and nonkin brood. Science 221:482–484.

Kludkiewicz, B., J. Godlewski, K. Grzelak, B. Cymborowski, and Z. Lasota. 1996. Influence of low temperature on the synthesis of some Galleria mellonella larvae proteins. Acta Biochimica Polonica 43:639–644.

Knisley, C. B. 1985. Utilization of tiger beetle larval burrows by a nest-provisioning wasp, Leucodynerus russatus (Bohart) (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 87:481.

Kojima, J. 1983. Peritrophic sac extraction in Ropalidia fasciata (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyû 51:502–508.

Kojima, J. 1990. Immatures of hover wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Stenogastrinae). Japanese Journal of Entomology 58:506–522.

Kojima, J. 1993. Feeding of larvae by males of an Australian paper wasp, Ropalidia plebiana Richards (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology 1:213–215.

Kojima, J. 1996. Colony cycle of an Australian swarm-founding paper wasp, Ropalidia romandi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 43:411–420.

Kojima, J. 1998. Larvae of social wasps (Insects: Hymenoptera; Vespidae). Natural History Bulletin of Ibaraki University 2:7–227.

Kojima, J., S. Hartini, W. A. Noerdjito, S. Kahono, N. Fujiyama, and H. Katakura. 2001. Descriptions of pre-emergence nests and mature larvae of Vespa fervida, with a note on a multiple-foundress colony of V. affinis in Sulawesi (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Vespinae). Entomological Science 4:355–360.

Kort, C. A. D. de, and A. B. Koopmanschap. 1994. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding diapause protein 1, an arylphorin-type storage heaxamer of the Colorado potato beetle. Journal of Insect Physiology 40:527–535.

Krebs, H. 1964. Gluconeogenesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 159:545–564.

Krebs, J., and R. M. May. 1976. Social insects and the evolution of altruism. Nature 260:9–10.

Krieger, M. J. B., K. G. Ross, C. W. Y. Chang, and L. Keller. 1999. Frequency and origin of triploidy in the fire ant Solenopsis invicta. Heredity 82:142–150.

Kristensen, N. P. 1999. Phylogeny of endopterygote insects, the most successful lineage of living organisms. European Journal of Entomology 96:237–253.

(p.227) Krombein, K. V. 1967. Trap-nesting wasps and bees: Life histories, nests, and associates. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press.

Krombein, K. V. 1978. Biosystematic studies of Ceylonese wasps III. Life history, nest and associates of Paraleptomenes mephitis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51:721–734.

Kudô, K. 2000. Variable investments in nests and worker production by the foundresses of Polistes chinensis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Ethology 18:37–41.

Kudô, K. 2002. Daily foraging activities and changes of allocation pattern of proteinaceous resources in pre-emergence laboratory foundresses of Polistes chinensis (Hymenoptera; Vespidae). Sociobiology 39:243–257.

Kudô, K. 2003. Growth rate and body weight of foundress-reared offspring in a paper wasp, Polistes chinensis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): no influence of food quantity on the first offspring. Insectes Sociaux 50:77–81.

Kudô, K., Sô. Yamane, and S. Miyano. 1996. Occurrence of a binding matrix in a nest of a primitively eusocial wasp, Eustenogaster calyptodoma (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology 64:891–895.

Kudô, K., Sô. Yamane, and H. Yamamoto. 1998. Physiological ecology of nest construction and protein flow in pre-emergence colonies of Polistes chinensis (Hymenoptera Vespidae): effects of rainfall and microclimates. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 10:171–183.

Kukuk, P. F. 1994. Replacing the terms ‘primitive’ and ‘advanced’: new modifiers for the term ‘eusocial’. Animal Behaviour 47:1475–1478.

Kumano, N., and E. Kasuya. 2001. Why do workers of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes chinensis antennalis remain at their natal nest? Animal Behaviour 61:655–660.

Kundu, H. L. 1967. Observations on Polistes hebraeus (Hymenoptera). Birla Institute of Technological Science, Journal (Pilani) 1:152–161.

Lacy, R. C. 1984. The evolution of termite eusociality: reply to Leinaas. The American Naturalist 123:876–878.

Lai-Fook, J., and M. J. Wiley. 1976. The amino acid composition of the silk of Calpodes ethuliuis (Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B 53:545–547.

Landes, D. A., and J. H. Hunt. 1988. Occurrence of Chalybion zimmermanni zimmermanni Dahlbom in a mixed sleeping aggregation with Chalybion californicum (Saussure) in Missouri (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 61:230–231.

Landes, D. A., M. S. Obin, A. B. Cady, and J. H. Hunt. 1987. Seasonal and latitudinal variation in spider prey of the mud dauber Chalybion californicum (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). The Journal of Arachnology 15:249–256.

Latreille, P. 1802. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et insectes. Tome Troisìè. Familles naturelles des genres. Paris: F. Dufart.

Lewis, D. K., D. Spurgeon, T. W. Sappington, and L. L. Keeley. 2002. A hexamerin protein, AgSP-1, is associated with diapause in the boll weevil. Journal of Insect Physiology 48:887–901.

Liddell, H. G., and R. Scott [revised and augmented by H. Stuart Jones and R. McKenzie]. 1978. A Greek-English lexicon, new (ninth) edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Liebig, J., T. Monnin, and S. Turillazzi. 2005. Direct assessment of queen quality and lack of worker suppression in a paper wasp. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 272:1339–1344.

Liebert, A. E., R. N. Johnson, G. T. Switz, and P. T. Starks. 2004. Triploid females and diploid males: underreported phenomena in Polistes wasps? Insectes Sociaux 51:205–211.

(p.228) Lin, N., and C. D. Michener. 1972. Evolution of sociality in insects. The Quarterly Review of Biology 47:131–159.

Linksvayer, T. A., and M. J. Wade. 2006. The evolutionary origin and elaboration of sociality in the aculeate Hymenoptera: maternal effects, sib-social effects, and heterochrony. The Quarterly Review of Biology 80:317–336.

Litte, M. 1977. Behavioral ecology of the social wasp, Mischocyttarus mexicanus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2:229–246.

Litte, M. 1979. Mischocyttarus flavitarsis in Arizona: social and nesting biology of a polistine wasp. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 50:282–312.

Litte, M. 1981. Social biology of the polistine wasp Mischocyttarus labiatus: survival in a Colombian rain forest. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 327:1–27.

Littledyke, M., and J. M. Cherrett. 1976. Direct ingestion of plant sap from cut leaves by the leaf-cutting ants Atta cephalotes (L.) and Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich) (Formicidae, Attini). Bulletin of Entomological Research 66:205–217.

Lombardi, S. J., and D. L. Kaplan. 1990. The amino-acid composition of major ampullate gland silk (dragline) of Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Tetragnathidae). The Journal of Arachnology 18:297–306.

London, K. B., and R. L. Jeanne. 1998. Envelopes protect social wasps’ nests from phorid infestation (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Diptera: Phoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 71:175–182.

Longair, R. W. 1985. Male behavior in Euparagia richardsi Bohart (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 61:318–320.

Lorenzi, M. C., and S. Turillazzi. 1986. Behavioral and ecological adaptations to the high mountain environment of Polistes biglumis bimaculatus. Ecological Entomology 11:199–204.

Lucas, F., J. T. B. Shaw, and S. G. Smith. 1957. Amino-acid composition of the silk of Chrysopa egg-stalks. Nature 179:906–907.

Machado, V. L. L., N. Gobbi, and D. Simões. 1987. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Stelopolybia pallipes (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera—Vespidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 16:73–79.

Mackensen, O. 1951. Viability and sex determination in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). Genetics 36:500–509.

Makino, S. 1983. Larval feeding by Polistes biglumis males (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyû 51:487.

Makino, S. 1989. Usurpation and nest rebuilding in Polistes riparius: two ways to reproduce after the loss of the original nest (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 36:116–128.

Makino, S. 1993. Sexual differences in larval feeding behavior in a paper wasp, Polistes jadwigae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Journal of Ethology 11:73–75.

Makino, S., and K. Sayama. 1991. Comparison of intraspecific nest usurpation between two haplometrotic paper wasp species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistes). Journal of Ethology 9:121–128.

Maneval, H. 1939. Notes sur les Hyménoptères. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 108:49–108.

Marchal, P. 1896. La reproduction et l’évolution des guêpes sociales. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale 4 (Série 3):1–100.

(p.229) Marchal, P. 1897. La castration nutriciale chez les Hyménoptères sociaux. Comptes rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie (Paris) 1897:556–557.

Marino Piccioli, M. T. 1968. The extraction of the larval peritrophic sac by the adults in Belonogaster. Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 2:203–206.

Marino Piccioli, M. T., and L. Pardi. 1978. Studies on the biology of Belonogaster (Hymenoptera Vespidae). 3. The nest of Belonogaster griseus (Fab.). Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 10:179–228.

Markin, G. P., and A. R. Gittins. 1967. Biology of Stenodynerus claremontensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). University of Idaho College of Agriculture Research Bulletin 74:1–25.

Martin, M. M. 1987. Invertebrate-microbial interactions: Ingested fungal enzymes in arthropod biology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Maschwitz, U. 1965. Larven als Nahrungsspeicher im Wespenvolk: Ein Beitrag zum Trophallaxisproblem. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischer Gesellschaft (Zoologischer Anzeiger 29 Supplementband) 59:530–534.

Maschwitz, U. 1966. Das Speichelsekret der Wespenlarven und seine biologische Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für vergleischende Physiologie 53:228–252.

Matsuura, M. 1977. The life of the paper wasps (in Japanese). Shizen 32:26–36.

Matsuura, M. 1984. Comparative biology of the five Japanese species of the genus Vespa (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Mie University 69:1–131.

Matsuura, M. 1991. Vespa and Provespa. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 232–262), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Matsuura, M., and Sk. Yamane. 1990. Biology of the vespine wasps. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Matthews, R. W. 1968. Microstigmus comes: sociality in a sphecid wasp. Science 160:787–788.

Matthews, R. W. 1991. Evolution of social behavior in sphecid wasps. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 570–602), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Matthews, R. W., and I. D. Naumann. 1988. Nesting biology and taxonomy of Arpactophilus mimi, a new species of social sphecid (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 36:585–597.

Maurizio, A. 1950. The influence of pollen feeding and brood rearing on the length of life and physiological conditions of the honeybee. Bee World 31:9–12.

Maurizio, A. 1975. How bees make honey. In Honey: A comprehensive survey (pp. 71–105), edited by E. Crane. London: Heinemann.

Mayhew, P. J. 1998. The evolution of gregariousness in parasitoid wasps. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:383–389.

Mayhew, P. J., and T. M. Blackburn. 1999. Does development mode organize life-history traits in the parasitoid Hymenoptera? Journal of Animal Ecology 68:906–916.

Mayhew, P. J., and J. J. M. Van Alphen. 1999. Gregarious development in alysiine parasitoids evolved through a reduction in larval aggression. Animal Behaviour 58:131–141.

Maynard Smith, J. 1964. Group selection and kin selection. Nature 201:1145–1147.

Maynard Smith, J., and E. Szathmáry. 1995. The major transitions in evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maynard Smith, J., and E. Szathmáry. 1999. The origins of life: From the birth of life to the origin of language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(p.230) McCorquodale, D. B., and I. D. Naumann. 1988. A new Australian species of communal ground nesting wasp, in the genus Spilomena Shuckard (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: Pemphredoninae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 27:221–231.

Mead, F., D. Gabouriaut, and C. Habersetzer. 1995. Nest-founding behavior induced in the first descendants of Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies. Insectes Sociaux 42:385–396.

Mead, F., C. Habersetzer, D. Gabouriaut, and J. Gervet. 1994. Dynamics of colony development in the paper wasp Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera, Vespidae): the influence of prey availability. Journal of Ethology 12:43–51.

Mead, F., and M. Pratte. 2002. Prey supplementation increases productivity in the social wasp Polistes dominulus Christ (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 14:111–128.

Medler, J. T. 1964. Biology of Rygchium foraminatum in trap-nests in Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 57:56–60.

Medler, J. T., and R. E. Fye. 1956. Biology of Ancistrocerus antilope (Panzer) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in trap nests in Wisconsin. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 49:97–102.

Mehdiabadi, N. J., H. K. Reeve, and U. G. Mueller. 2003. Queens versus workers: sex-ratio conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18:88–93.

Melo, G. A. R. de, and L. A. O. Campos. 1993. Trophallaxis in a primitively social sphecid wasp. Insectes Sociaux 40:107–110.

Menke, A. S., and F. D. Parker. 1996. Phenology of ammophiline wasps in a premontane wet forest in Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae, Ammophilini). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 5:184–189.

Menke, A. S., and L. A. Stange. 1986. Delta campaniforme rendalli (Birmingham) and Zeta argillaceum argillaceum (Linnaeus) established in southern Florida, and comments on generic discretion in Eumenes s.l. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Florida Entomologist 69:697–702.

Metcalf, R. A., and G. S. Whitt. 1977. Relative inclusive fitness in the social wasp Polistes metricus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2:353–360.

Michener, C. D. 1953. Comparative morphological and systematic studies of bee larvae with a key to the families of hymenopterous larvae. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 35:987–1102.

Michener, C. D.1958. The evolution of social behavior in bees. Proceedings Tenth International Congress of Entomology (Montreal, 1956), 2:441–447.

Michener, C. D. 1969. Comparative social behavior of bees. Annual Review of Entomology 14:299–342.

Michener, C. D. 1974. The social behavior of the bees: A comparative study. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Michener, C. D., and D. J. Brothers. 1974. Were workers of eusocial Hymenoptera initially altruistic or oppressed? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 71:671–674.

Micheu, S., K. Crailsheim, and B. Leonhard. 2000. Importance of proline and other amino acids during honeybee flight (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann). Amino Acids 18:157–175.

Michod, R. E. 1980. Evolution of interactions in family-structured populations: mixed mating models. Genetics 96:275–296.

Miller, P. L. 1966. The regulation of breathing in insects. Advances in Insect Physiology 3:279–354.

(p.231) Miotk, P. 1979. Zur Biologie und Ökologie von Odynerus spinipes (L.) und O. reniformis (Gmel.) and den Lößwänden des Kaiserstuhls (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik 106:374–405.

Mitchell, P. S., and J. H. Hunt. 1984. Nutrient and energy assays of larval provisions and feces in the black and yellow mud dauber, Sceliphron caementarium (Drury) (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57:700–704.

Miyano, S. 1980. Life tables of colonies and workers in a paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis, in central Japan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Researches on Population Ecology 22:69–88.

Miyano, S. 1983. Number of offspring and seasonal changes of their body weight in a paperwasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis Pérez (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), with reference to male production by workers. Researches on Population Ecology 25:198–209.

Miyano, S. 1986. Colony development, worker behavior and male production in orphan colonies of a Japanese paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis Perez (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Researches on Population Ecology 28:347–361.

Miyano, S. 1990. Number, larval durations and body weights of queen-reared workers of a Japanese paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Natural History Research 1:93–97.

Miyano, S. 1994. Some ecological observations on social wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia. In Biological expedition to the Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia (Natural History Research, special issue no. 1, pp. 237–245), edited by A. Asakura and T. Furuki. Chiba: Natural History Museum and Institute.

Monnin, T., F. L. W. Ratnieks, G. R. Jones, and R. Beard. 2002. Pretender punishment induced by chemical signalling in a queenless ant. Nature 419:61–65.

Moore, W. S. 1975. Observations on the egg laying and sleeping habits of Euparagia scutellaris Cresson (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 51:286.

Morgan, C. L. 1894. An introduction to comparative psychology. London: W. Scott.

Morgan, C. L. 1900. Animal behaviour. London: Edward Arnold.

Morimoto, R. 1954. On the development of Polistes chinensis antennalis Perez. Studies on the social Hymenoptera of Japan, III. Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 14:337–353.

Morrill, W. L. 1974. Production and flight of alate red imported fire ants. Environmental Entomology 3:265–271.

Morris, D. C., M. P. Schwarz, S. J. B. Cooper, and L. A. Mound. 2002. Phylogenetics of Australian Acacia thrips: the evolution of behaviour and ecology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25:278–292.

Myles, T. G., and W. L. Nutting. 1988. Termite eusocial evolution—a re-examination of Bartz hypothesis and assumptions. The Quarterly Review of Biology 63:1–23.

Nalepa, C. A. 1994. Nourishment and the origin of termite eusociality. In Nourishment and evolution in insect societies (pp. 57–104), edited by J. H. Hunt and C. A. Nalepa. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Naumann, M. G. 1975a. Swarming behavior: evidence for communication in social wasps. Science 189:642–644.

Naumann, M. G. 1975b. The nesting behavior of Protopolybia pumila in Panama (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Nelson, J. M. 1968. Parasites and symbionts of nests of Polistes nests. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 61:1528–1539.

(p.232) Nijhout, H. F. 1999. When developmental pathways diverge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 96:5348–5350.

Noll, F. B., J. W. Wenzel, and R. Zucchi. 2004. Contrasting pre-imaginal and post-imaginal caste determination in neotropical swarm-founding wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Epiponini). American Museum Novitates 3467:1–24.

Noll, F. B., and R. Zucchi. 2000. Increasing caste differences related to life cycle progression in some neotropical swarm-founding polygynic polistine wasps (Hymenoptera Vespidae Epiponini). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 12:43–65.

Nonacs, P. 1986. Ant reproductive strategies and sex allocation theory. The Quarterly Review of Biology 61:1–21.

Nonacs, P., and H. K. Reeve. 1993. Opportunistic adoption of orphaned nests in papers wasps as an alternative reproductive strategy. Behavioural Processes 30:47–59.

Nonacs, P., and H. K. Reeve. 1995. The ecology of cooperation in wasps: causes and consequences of alternative reproductive decisions. Ecology 76:953–967.

Noonan, K. M. 1979. Individual strategies of inclusive fitness maximizing in the social wasp, Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Noonan, K. M. 1981. Individual strategies of inclusive-fitness-maximizing in Polistes fuscatus foundresses. In Natural selection and social behavior: Recent research and new theory (pp. 18–44), edited by R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle. New York: Chiron Press.

O’Brien, M. F., and F. E. Kurczewski. 1982a. Ethology and overwintering of Podalonia luctuosa (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 15:261–275.

O’Brien, M. F., and F. E. Kurczewski. 1982b. Nesting and overwintering behavior of Liris argentata (Hymenoptera: Larridae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 17:60–68.

Ochiai, S. 1960. Comparative studies on embryology of the bees – Apis, Polistes, Vespula and Vespa, with special reference to the development of the silk gland. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tamagawa University 1:13–45.

Ode, P. J., and J. A. Rosenheim. 1998. Sex allocation and the evolutionary transition between solitary and gregarious parasitoid development. The American Naturalist 152:757–761.

Ode, P. J., and S. W. Rissing. 2002. Resource abundance and sex allocation by queen and workers in the harvester ant, Messor pergandei. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 51:548–556.

O’Donnell, S. 1994. Nestmate copulation in the Neotropical eusocial wasp Polistes instabilis De Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Psyche 101:33–36.

O’Donnell, S. 1995a. Necrophagy by neotropical swarm-founding wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Epiponini). Biotropica 27:133–136.

O’Donnell, S. 1995b. Division of labor in post-emergence colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes instabilis de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 42:17–29.

O’Donnell, S. 1996. Reproductive potential and division of labor in wasps: are queen and worker behavior alternative strategies? Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 8:305–308.

O’Donnell, S. 1998. Reproductive caste determination in eusocial wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Annual Review of Entomology 43:323–346.

O’Donnell, S., and R. L. Jeanne. 1990. Notes on an army ant (Eciton burchelli) raid on a social wasp colony (Agelaia yepocapa) in Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology 6:507–509.

(p.233) O’Donnell, S., and R. L. Jeanne. 1991. Interspecific occupation of a tropical social wasp colony (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistes). Journal of Insect Behavior 4:397–400.

O’Donnell, S., and F. J. Joyce. 2001. Seasonality and colony composition in a montane tropical eusocial wasp. Biotropica 33:727–732.

Ohgushi, R., S. F. Sakagami, Sô. Yamane, and N. D. Abbas. 1983. Nest architecture and related notes of stenogastrine wasps in the province of Sumatera Barat, Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Science Reports of Kanazawa University 28:27–58.

Ohgushi, R.-I., Sô. Yamane, and N. D. Abbas. 1986. Additional descriptions and records of stenogastrine nests collected in Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, with some biological notes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Kontyû 54:1–11.

Omholt, S. W. 1988. Relationships between worker longevity and the intracolonial population dynamics of the honeybee. Journal of Theoretical Biology 130:275–284.

O’Neill, K. M. 2001. Solitary wasps: Behavior and natural history. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Oster, G. F., and E. O. Wilson. 1978. Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Pagden, H. T. 1958. Some Malayan social wasps. Malayan Nature Journal 12:131–148.

Pagden, H. T. 1962. More about Stenogaster. Malayan Nature Journal 16:95–102.

Page, R. E. 1980. The evolution of multiple mating by honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.). Genetics 96:263–273.

Page, R. E., and M. K. Fondrk. 1995. The effects of colony level selection on the social organization of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies—colony level components of pollen hoarding. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36:135–144.

Page, R. E., Jr., D. C. Post, and R. A. Metcalf. 1989. Satellite nests, early males, and plasticity of reproductive behavior in a paper wasp. The American Naturalist 134:731–748.

Pant, R., and B. Unni. 1978. Amino-acid composition of fibres of some silk worm species (Philosamia ricini, Antheraea mylitta and Attacus atalus). Current Science 47:681–682.

Pardi, L. 1939. I corpi grassi degli insetti. Redia 25:87–288.

Pardi, L. 1942. Ricerche sui Polistini V. la poliginia iniziale in Polistes gallicus (L.). Bollettino dell’Istituto di Entomologia dell’Università di Bologna 14:1–106.

Pardi, L. 1946. Ricerche sui Polistini. VII. La “dominazione” e il ciclo ovarico annuale in Polistes gallicus (L.). Bollettino dell’Istituto di Entomologia dell’Università di Bologna 15:25–84.

Pardi, L. 1948. Dominance order in Polistes wasps. Physiological Zoology 21:1–13.

Pardi, L. 1951. Studio dell’attività e della divisione di lavoro in una società di Polistes gallicus (L.) dopo la comparsa delle operaie (Ricerche sui Polistini 12). Archivo Zoologico Italiano 36:363–431.

Pardi, L., and M. Cavalcanti. 1951. Esperienze sul meccanismo della monoginia funzionale in Polistes gallicus (L.). Bollettino di zoologia / Unione Zoologica Italiana 18:247–252.

Pardi, L., and M. T. Marino Piccioli. 1981. Studies on the biology of Belonogaster (Hymenoptera Vespidae). 4. On caste differences in Belonogaster griseus (Fab.) and the position of this genus among social wasps. Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 14:131–146.

Pardi, L., and S. Turillazzi. 1982. Biologia delle Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea). Atti dell’Accademia Nazionale Italiana de Entomologia, Rendiconti 30:3–21.

Parker, F. D. 1966. A revision of the North American species in the genus Leptochilus (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 5:153–229.

(p.234) Peakin, G. J. 1972. Aspects of productivity in Tetramorium caespitum L. Ecologia Polska 20:55–63.

Pexton, J. J., D. J. Rankin, C. Dytham, and P. J. Mayhew. 2003. Asymmetric larval mobility and the evolutionary transition from siblicide to nonsiblicidal behavior in parasitoid wasps. Behavioral Ecology 14:182–193.

Pianka, E. R. 1970. On r- and K-selection. The American Naturalist 104:592–597.

Pickering, J. 1980. Sex ratio, social behavior and ecology in Polistes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae), Pachysomoides (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) and Plasmodium (Protozoa, Haemosporida). Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge.

Pickett, K. M., D. M. Osborne, D. Wahl, and J. W. Wenzel. 2001. An enormous nest of Vespula squamosa from Florida, the largest social wasp nest reported from North America, with notes on colony cycle and reproduction. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 109:408–415.

Pierce, W. D. 1909. A monographic revision of the twisted winged insects comprising the order Strepsiptera Kirby. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 66:1–232.

Platt, J. R. 1964. Strong inference. Science 146:347–53.

Post, D. C., R. L. Jeanne, and E. H. Erickson, Jr. 1988. Variation in behavior among workers of the primitively social wasp Polistes fuscatus variatus. In Interindividual behavioral variability in social insects (pp. 283–321), edited by R. L. Jeanne. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Powell, J. A., and W. J. Turner. 1975. Observations on oviposition behavior and host selection in Orussus occidentalis (Hymenoptera: Siricoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 48:299–307.

Prashad, B., A. K. Saund, and N. K. Mathur. 1972. Amino-acid composition of spider silk. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 9:351–352.

Prezoto, F., and N. Gobbi. 2003. Patterns of honey storage in nests of the neotropical paper wasp Polistes simillimus Zikán, 1951 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Sociobiology 41:437–442.

Pricer, J. L. 1908. The life history of the carpenter ant. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 14:177–218.

Queller, D. C. 1989. The evolution of eusociality: reproductive head starts of workers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 86:3224–3226.

Queller, D. C. 1996. The origin and maintenance of eusociality: the advantage of extended parental care. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps (pp. 218–234), edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Queller, D. C., J. A. Negrón-Sotomayor, J. E. Strassmann, and C. R. Hughes. 1993. Queen number and genetic relatedness in a neotropical wasp, Polybia occidentalis. Behavioral Ecology 4:7–13.

Queller, D. C., and J. E. Strassmann. 1988. Reproductive success and group nesting in the paper wasp, Polistes annularis. In Reproductive success: Studies of individual variation in contrasting breeding systems (pp. 76–96), edited by T. H. Clutton-Brock. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Queller, D. C., and J. E. Strassmann. 1989. Measuring inclusive fitness in social wasps. In The genetics of social evolution (pp. 103–122), edited by M. D. Breed and R. E. Page, Jr. Boulder: Westview Press.

Queller, D. C., and J. E. Strassmann. 1998. Kin selection and social insects. BioScience 48:165–175.

Queller, D. C., F. Zacchi, R. Cervo, S. Turillazzi, M. T. Henshaw, L. A. Santorelli, and J. E. Strassmann. 2000. Unrelated helpers in a social insect. Nature 405:784–787.

(p.235) Quicke, D. L. J. 1997. Parasitic wasps. London: Chapman & Hall.

Quicke, D. L. J., and M. R. Shaw. 2004. Cocoon silk chemistry in parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) and their hosts. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81:161–170.

Rabb, R. L. 1960. Biological studies of Polistes in North Carolina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 53:111–121.

Rau, P. 1928. The honey-gathering habits of Polistes wasps. The Biological Bulletin 54:503–519.

Rau, P. 1929. Feeding experiments on Polistes wasps. The Canadian Entomologist 61:25–30.

Rau, P. 1930a. Ecological and behavior notes on the wasp, Polistes pallipes. The Canadian Entomologist 62:143–147.

Rau, P. 1930b. The behavior of hibernating Polistes wasps. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 23:461–466.

Rau, P. 1930c. Mortality of Polistes annularis wasps during hibernation. The Canadian Entomologist 62:81–83.

Rau, P. 1931. Polistes wasps and their use of water. Ecology 12:690–693.

Rau, P. 1935. The courtship and mating of the wasp, Monobia quadridens (Hymen.: Vespidae). Entomological News 46:57–58.

Rau, P. 1941. The swarming of Polistes wasps in temperate regions. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 34:580–584.

Rau, P. 1945a. The size of the cell and the sex of the wasp in Ancistrocerus catskillensis De Sauss. (Hymenoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 38:88.

Rau, P. 1945b. The carnivorous habits of the adult wasp, Odynerus dorsalis Fab. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 40:29–30.

Rau, P., and N. Rau. 1918. Wasp studies afield. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rawlings, G. B. 1957. Guiglia schauinslandi (Ashmead) (Hym. Orussidae), a parasite of Sirex noctilio (Fabricius) in New Zealand. The Entomologist 90:35–26.

Réaumur, R. A. F. de. 1742a. Sixieme memoire. Histoire des guespes in general, et en particulier de celles qui vivent sous terre en sociéte. In Memoires pour servir a l’histoire des insectes, vol. 6. Paris: Imprimerie Royale (reprint 1748 by Pierre Mortier, Amsterdam).

Réaumur, R. A. F. de. 1742b. Septieme memoire. Des frelons, des guespes cartonnieres, et de quelques autres guespes qui vivent en sociéte. In Memoires pour servir a l’histoire des insectes, vol. 6. Paris: Imprimerie Royale (reprint 1748 by Pierre Mortier, Amsterdam).

Reed, H. C., J. Gallego, and J. Nelson. 1988. Morphological evidence for polygyny in post-emergence colonies of the red paper wasp, Polistes perplexus Cresson (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 61:453–463.

Reed, H. C., and P. J. Landolt. 1991. Swarming of paper wasp (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) sexuals at towers in Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 84:628–35.

Reeve, H. K. 1991. Polistes. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 99–148), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Reeve, H. K. 1993. Haplodiploidy, eusociality and absence of male parental and alloparental care in Hymenoptera: a unifying genetic hypothesis distinct from kin selection theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 342:335–352.

Reeve, H. K., J. M. Peters, P. Nonacs, and P. T. Starks. 1998. Dispersal of first “workers” in social wasps: causes and implications of an alternative reproductive strategy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 95:13737–13742.

(p.236) Reeve, H. K., and P. W. Sherman. 1993. Adaptation and the goals of evolutionary research. The Quarterly Review of Biology 68:1–32.

Reichenbach, H. 1956. The direction of time. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Reid, J. A. 1942. On the classification of the larvae of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, London 92:285–331.

Richards, O. W. 1953. The social insects. London: MacDonald & Co.

Richards, O. W. 1965. Concluding remarks on the social organization of insect communities. In Social organization of animal communities (pp. 169–172), edited by P. E. Ellis. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Symposium No. 14.

Richards, O. W. 1971. The biology of the social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 46:483–528.

Richards, O. W. 1978. The social wasps of the Americas, excluding the Vespinae. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Richards, O. W., and A. H. Hamm. 1939. The biology of the British Pompilidae. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 6:51–114.

Richards, O. W., and M. J. Richards. 1951. Observations on the social wasps of South America (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 102:1–169.

Robinson, G. E., and R. E. Page. 1988. Genetic determination of guarding and undertaking in honey-bee colonies. Nature 333:356–358.

Roff, D. A. 1992. The evolution of life histories: Theory and analysis. New York: Chapman & Hall.

Ronquist, F. 1999. Phylogeny of the Hymenoptera (Insecta): the state of the art. Zoologica Scripta 28:3–11.

Ronquist, F., A. P. Rasnitsyn, A. Roy, K. Eriksson, and M. Lindgren. 1999. Phylogeny of the Hymenoptera: a cladistic reanalysis of Rasnitsyn’s (1988) data. Zoologica Scripta 28:13–50.

Rose, M. R., and L. D. Mueller. 2006. Evolution and ecology of the organism. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Röseler, P. F., and I. Röseler. 1989. Dominance of ovarectomized foundresses of the paper wasp, Polistes gallicus. Insectes Sociaux 36:219–234.

Rosenheim, J. A. 1993. Single-sex broods and the evolution of nonsiblicidal parasitoid wasps. The American Naturalist 141:90–104.

Ross, K. G., and R. W. Matthews. 1989a. Population genetic structure and social evolution in the sphecid wasp Microstigmus comes. The American Naturalist 134:574–598.

Ross, K. G., and R. W. Matthews. 1989b. New evidence for eusociality in the sphecid wasp Microstigmus comes. Animal Behaviour 38:613–619.

Ross, K. G., and R. W. Matthews, editors. 1991. The social biology of wasps. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Rossi, A. M., and J. H. Hunt. 1988. Honey supplementation and its developmental consequences: evidence for food limitation in a paper wasp, Polistes metricus. Ecological Entomology 13:437–442.

Roubaud, E. 1908. Gradation et perfectionnement de l’instinct chez les Guêpes solitaires d’Afrique, du genre Synagris. Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris 147:695–697.

Roubaud, E. 1911. The natural history of the solitary wasps of the genus Synagris. Smithsonian Institution Annual Report 1910:507–525.

(p.237) Roubaud, E. 1916. Recherches biologiques sur les guêpes solitaires et sociales d’Afrique. La genèse de la vie sociale et l’évolution de l’instinct maternel chez les vespides. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 10e série: Zoologie 1:1–160.

Ruttner, F. 1977. The problem of the Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz): parthenogenesis, size of population, evolution. Apidologie 8:281–294.

Sacktor, B., and C. C. Childress. 1967. Metabolism of proline in insect flight muscle and its significance in stimulating the oxidation of pyruvate. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 120:583–588.

Saito, Y. 1994. Is sterility by deleterious recessives an origin of inequalities in the evolution of eusociality? Journal of Theoretical Biology 166:113–115.

Sakagami, S. F., and Y. Maeta. 1987a. Multifemale nests and rudimentary castes of an “almost” solitary bee Ceratina flavipes, with additional observation on multifemale nests of Ceratina japonica (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Kontyû 55:391–409.

Sakagami, S. F., and Y. Maeta. 1987b. Sociality, induced and/or natural, in the basically solitary small carpenter bees (Ceratina). In Animal societies: Theories and facts (pp. 1–16), edited by Y. Itô, J. L. Brown and J. Kikkawa. Tokyo: Scientific Societies Press, Ltd.

Salmon, W. C. 1998. Why ask, “Why?”? An inquiry concerning scientific explanation. In Causality and explanation (pp. 125–141), edited by W. C. Salmon. New York: Oxford University Press.

[Original edition, 1978. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 51:683–705.]

Samuel, C. T. 1987. Factors affecting colony size in the stenogastrine wasp Liostenogaster flavolineata. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Schaal, B. A., and W. J. Leverich. 1981. The demographic consequences of two-stage life cycles: survivorship and the time of reproduction. The American Naturalist 118:135–138.

Schatton-Gadelmayer, K., and W. Engels. 1988. Hemolymph proteins and body weight in newly emerged worker honeybees according to the different rates of parasitation by brood mites. Entomologia Generalis 14:93–101.

Schiff, N. 2004. Pseudoperga guerini (Hymenoptera: Pergidae). A female protecting her young on a eucalyptus leaf. American Entomologist 50:129.

Schilder, K., J. Heinze, and B. Hölldobler. 1999. Colony structure and reproduction in the thelytokous parthenogenetic ant Platythyrea punctata (F. Smith) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 46:150–158.

Schlichting, C. D., and M. Pigliucci. 1998. Phenotypic evolution: A reaction norm perspective. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Schmitz, J., and R. F. A. Moritz. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of Vespidae (Hymenoptera) and the evolution of sociality in wasps. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9:183–191.

Schulmeister, S. 2003. Simultaneous analysis of basal Hymenoptera (Insecta):introducing robust-choice sensitivity analysis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79:245–275.

Schwarz, M. P. 1988. Local resource enhancement and sex ratios in a primitively social bee. Nature 331:346–348.

Schwarz, M. P. 1994. Female-biased sex-ratios in a facultatively social bee and their implications for social evolution. Evolution 48:1684–1697.

Schwarz, M. P., N. J. Bull, and S. J. B. Cooper. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics of allodapine bees, with implications for the evolution of sociality and progressive rearing. Systematic Biology 52:1–14.

(p.238) Seal, J. N., and J. H. Hunt. 2004. Food supplementation affects colony-level life history traits in the annual social wasp Polistes metricus. Insectes Sociaux 51:239–242.

Seeley, T. D. 1985. Honeybee ecology: A study of adaptation in social life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Seger, J. 1983. Partial bivoltinism may cause alternating sex-ratio biases that favour eusociality. Nature 301:59–62.

Seger, J. 1991. Cooperation and conflict in social insects. In Behavioural ecology: An evolutionary approach, 3rd ed. (pp. 338–373), edited by J. R. Krebs and N. B. Davies. Oxford: Blackwell.

Sherman, P. W., E. A. Lacey, H. K. Reeve, and L. Keller. 1995. The eusociality continuum. Behavioral Ecology 6:102–108.

Shima, S. N., Sô. Yamane, and R. Zucchi. 1994. Morphological caste differences in some neotropical swarm-founding polistine wasps I. Apoica flavissima (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Japanese Journal of Entomology 62:811–822.

Shreeves, G., M. A. Cant, A. Bolton, and J. Field. 2003. Insurance-based advantages for subordinate co-foundresses in a temperate paper wasp. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270:1617–1622.

Shreeves, G., and J. Field. 2002. Group size and direct fitness in social queues. The American Naturalist 159:81–95.

Shuker, D. M., and S. A. West. 2004. Information constraints and the precision of adaptation: sex ratio manipulation in wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 101:10363–10367.

Singer, T. L., K. E. Espelie, and D. S. Himmelsbach. 1992. Ultrastructural and chemical examination of paper and pedicel from laboratory and field nests of the social wasp Polistes metricus Say. Journal of Chemical Ecology 18:77–86.

(p.239) Sinha, A., S. Premnath, K. Chandrashekara, and R. Gadagkar. 1993. Ropalidia rufoplagiata: a polistine wasp society probably lacking a permanent reproductive division of labor. Insectes Sociaux 40:69–86.

Sledge, M. F., A. Fortunato, S. Turillazzi, E. Francescato, R. Hashim, G. Moneti, and G. R. Jones. 2000. Use of Dufour’s gland secretion in nest defense and brood nutrition by hover wasps (Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Journal of Insect Physiology 46:753–761.

Smith, A. R., S. O’Donnell, and R. L. Jeanne. 2002. Evolution of swarm communication in eusocial wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 15:751–764.

Smith, R. H., and M. R. Shaw. 1980. Haplodiploid sex ratios and the mutation rate. Nature 287:728–729.

Snell, G. D. 1932. The role of male parthenogenesis in the evolution of the social Hymenoptera. The American Naturalist 66:381–384.

Snelling, R. 1952. Notes on nesting and hibernation of Polistes. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 29:177.

Snyder, L. E. 1992. The genetics of social behavior in a polygynous ant. Naturwissenschaften 79:525–527.

Snyder, L. E. 1993. Non-random behavioural interactions among genetic sub-groups in a polygynous ant. Animal Behaviour 46:431–439.

Sober, E. 1984. The nature of selection: Evolutionary theory and philosophical focus. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Sober, E., and D. S. Wilson. 1998. Unto others: The evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Solís, C. R. and J. E. Strassmann. 1990. Presence of brood affects caste differentiation in the social wasp, Polistes exclamans Viereck (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Functional Ecology 4:531–541.

Spradbery, J. P. 1971. Seasonal changes in the population structure of wasp colonies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 40:501–523.

Spradbery, J. P. 1972. A biometric study of seasonal variation in worker wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Entomology (A) 47:61–69.

Spradbery, J. P. 1973. Wasps: An account of the biology and natural history of solitary and social wasps. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Spradbery, J. P. 1975. The biology of Stenogaster concinna Van der Vecht with comments on the phylogeny of the Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 14:309–318.

Spradbery, J. P. 1993. Queen brood reared in worker cells by the social wasp, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 40:181–190.

Stahlhut, J. K., and D. P. Cowan. 2004. Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera : Vespidae). Heredity 92:189–196.

Starks, P. T. 1998. A novel ‘sit and wait’ reproductive strategy in social wasps. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:1407–1410.

Starr, C. K. 1976. Nest reutilization by Polistes metricus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) and possible limitation of multiple foundress associations by parasitoids. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 49:142–144.

Starr, C. K. 1978. Nest reutilization in North American Polistes (Hymenoptera: Vespidae):two possible selective factors. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51:394–397.

Starr, C. K. 1982. P. Marchal, 1897 (A translation of La castration nutriciale chez les Hyménoptères sociaux). Sphecos 5:26–27.

Starr, C. K. 1985. A simple pain scale for field comparison of hymenopteran stings. Journal of Entomological Science 20:225–232.

Stearns, S. C. 1992. The evolution of life histories. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stein, K. J., and R. D. Fell. 1992. Seasonal comparison of weight, energy reserve, and nitrogen changes in queens of the baldfaced hornet (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Environmental Entomology 21:148–155.

Steiner, A. L. 1983. Predatory behavior of solitary wasps V. Stinging of caterpillars by Euodynerus foraminatus (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Weakening of the complete foursting pattern. Biology of Behaviour 8:11–26.

Strambi, C., A. Strambi, and R. Augier. 1982. Protein level in the haemolymph of the wasp Polistes gallicus L. at the beginning of imaginal life and during overwintering. Action of the strepsiterian parasite Xenos vesparum Rossi. Experientia 38:1189–1191.

Strand, M. R., and M. Grbic. 1997. The development and evolution of polyembryonic insects. In Current Topics in Developmental Biology, Vol 35.

Strand, M. R., and M. Grbic. 1999. Life history shifts and alterations in the early development of parasitic wasps. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 36:51–56.

Strassmann, J. E. 1979. Honey caches help female paper wasps (Polistes annularis) survive Texas winters. Science 204:207–209.

Strassmann, J. E. 1981. Evolutionary implications of early male and satellite nest production in Polistes exclamans colony cycles. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 8:55–64.

Strassmann, J. E. 1983. Nest fidelity and group size among foundresses of Polistes annularis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 56:621–634.

Strassmann, J. E. 1985. Worker mortality and the evolution of castes in the social wasp Polistes exclamans. Insectes Sociaux 32:275–285.

(p.240) Strassmann, J. E. 1989a. Group colony foundation in Polistes annularis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Psyche 96:223–236.

Strassmann, J. E. 1989b. Early termination of brood rearing in the social wasp, Polistes annularis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 62:353–362.

Strassmann, J. E. 1996. Selective altruism towards closer over more distant relatives in colonies of the primitively eusocial wasp, Polistes. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps (pp. 190–201), edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Strassmann, J. E., A. Fortunato, R. Cervo, S. Turillazzi, J. M. Damon, and D. C. Queller. 2004. The cost of queen loss in the social wasp Polistes dominulus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 77:343–355.

Strassmann, J. E., C. R. Hughes, and D. C. Queller. 1990. Colony defense in the social wasp, Parachartergus colobopterus. Biotropica 22:324–327.

Strassmann, J. E., R. E. Lee, R. R. Rojas, and J. G. Baust. 1984a. Caste and sex differences in cold-hardiness in the social wasps, Polistes annularis and Polistes exclamans (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 31:291–301.

Strassmann, J. E., and D. C. Meyer. 1983. Gerontocracy in the social wasp, Polistes exclamans. Animal Behaviour 31:431–438.

Strassmann, J. E., D. C. Meyer, and R. L. Matlock. 1984b. Behavioral castes in the social wasp, Polistes exclamans (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Sociobiology 8:211–224.

Strassmann, J. E., and D. C. Queller. 1989. Ecological determinants of social evolution. In The genetics of social evolution (pp. 81–101), edited by M. D. Breed and R. E. Page, Jr. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Strassmann, J. E., D. C. Queller, and C. R. Hughes. 1988. Predation and the evolution of sociality in the paper wasp Polistes bellicosus. Ecology 69:1497–1505.

Strassmann, J. E., C. R. Solís, C. R. Hughes, K. F. Goodnight, and D. C. Queller. 1997. Colony life history and demography of a swarm-founding social wasp. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 40:71–77.

Strassmann, J. E., B. W. Sullender, and D. C. Queller. 2002. Caste totipotency and conflict in a large-colony social insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:263–270.

Strouthamer, R., R. F. Luck, and W. D. Hamilton. 1990. Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogamma (Hymenoptera/Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 87:2424–2427.

Stuart, R. J., and R. E. Page. 1991. Genetic component to division of labor among workers of a leptothoracine ant. Naurwissenschaften 78:375–377.

Stubblefield, J. W., and E. L. Charnov. 1985. Some conceptual issues in the origin of eusociality. Heredity 57:181–187.

Šula, J., D. Kodrik and R. Socha. 1995. Hexameric haemolymph protein related to adult diapause in the red firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus. Journal of Insect Physiology 41:793–800.

Sumner, S., M. Sasiraghi, W. Foster, and J. Field. 2002. High reproductive skew in tropical hover wasps. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:179–186.

Suzuki, T. 1985. Mating and laying of female-producing eggs by orphaned workers of a paper wasp, Polistes snelleni (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78:736–739.

Suzuki, T. 1997. Worker mating in queen-right colonies of a temperate paper wasp. Naturwissenschaften 84:304–305.

(p.241) Suzuki, T. 1998. Paradox of worker reproduction and worker mating in temperate paper wasps, Polistes chinenesis and P. snelleni (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 10:347–359.

Suzuki, T., and M. Ramesh. 1992. Colony founding in the social wasp, Polistes stigma (Hymenoptera Vespidae), in India. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 4:333–341.

Taffe, C. A. 1978. Temporal distribution of mortality in a field population of Zeta abdominale (Hymenoptera) in Jamaica. Oikos 31:106–111.

Talbot, M. 1943. Population studies of the ant, Prenolepis imparis Say. Ecology 24:31–44.

Talbot, M. 1945. Population studies of the ant, Myrmica schenckii ssp. emeryana Forel. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 38:365–372.

Talbot, M. 1951. Populations and hibernating conditions of the ant Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) rudis Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 44:302–307.

Talbot, M. 1954. Populations of the ant Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) treatae Forel on abandoned fields of the Edwin S. George Reserve. Contributions from the Laboratory of Vertebrate Biology, University of Michigan 69:1–9.

Tang-Martinez, Z. 2001. The mechanisms of kin discrimination and the evolution of kin recognition in vertebrates: a critical re-evaluation. Behavioural Processes 53:21–40.

Tarpy, D. R., and R. E. Page. 2002. Sex determination and the evolution of polyandry in honey bees (Apis mellifera). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 52:143–150.

Tarpy, D. R., and R. E. Page, Jr. 2001. The curious promiscuity of queen honey bees (Apis mellifera): evolutionary and behavioral mechanisms. Annales Zoologici Fennici 38:255–265.

Taylor, L. H. 1922. Notes on the biology of certain wasps of the genus Ancistrocerus (Eumenidæ). Psyche 29:48–65.

Terra, W. R., C. D. Santos, and A. F. Ribeiro. 1990. Ultrastructural and biochemical basis of the digestion of nectar and other nutrients by the moth Erinnyis ello. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 56:277–286.

Thomas, R. K. 2001. Lloyd Morgan’s Canon: a history of misrepresentation. http://eprints.yorku.ca/archive/00000017/00/MCWeb.htm

Trivers, R. 1985. Social evolution. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings.

Trivers, R. L., and H. Hare. 1976. Haplodiploidy and the evolution of the social insects. Science 191:249–263.

Trostle, G. E., and P. F. Torchio. 1986. Notes on the nesting biology and immature development of Euparagia scutellaris Cresson (Hymenoptera, Masaridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 59:641–647.

Truman, J. W., and L. M. Riddiford. 1999. The origins of insect metamorphosis. Nature 401:447–452.

Tschinkel, W. R., and D. F. Howard. 1978. Queen replacement in orphaned colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 3:297–310.

Tsuchida, K., N. Nagata, and J. Kojima. 2002. Diploid males and sex determination in a paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 49:120–124.

Tsuchida, K., T. Saigo, S. Tsujita, and K. Takeuchi. 2004. Early male production is not linked to a reproductive strategy in the Japanese paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis (Hymenoptera : Vespidae). Journal of Ethology 22:119–121.

Turillazzi, S. 1980. Seasonal variations in the size and anatomy of Polistes gallicus (L) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 14:63–75.

(p.242) Turillazzi, S. 1983a. Extranidal Behavior of Parischnogaster nigricans serrei (Du Buysson) (Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 63:27–36.

Turillazzi, S. 1983b. Patrolling behavior in males of Parischnogaster nigricans serrei (Du Buysson) and P. mellyi (Saussure) (Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rendiconti della Classe di Scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, Serie 8 72:153–157.

Turillazzi, S. 1985a. Brood rearing behavior and larval development in Parischnogaster nigricans serrei (Du Buysson) (Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Insectes Sociaux 32:117–127.

Turillazzi, S. 1985b. Function and characteristics of the abdominal substance secreted by wasps of the genus Parischnogaster (Hymenoptera Stenogastrinae). Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 19:91–99.

Turillazzi, S. 1985c. Egg deposition in the genus Parischnogaster (Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58:749–752.

Turillazzi, S. 1985d. Colonial cycle of Parischnogaster nigricans serrei (Du Buysson) in West Java (Hymenoptera, Stenogastrinae). Insectes Sociaux 32:43–60.

Turillazzi, S. 1986. Colony composition and social behavior of Parischnogaster alternata Sakagami (Hymenoptera Stenogastrinae). Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 20:333–347.

Turillazzi, S. 1987. Distinguishing features of the social behaviour of Stenogastrinae wasps. In Chemistry and biology of social insects (pp. 492–495), edited by J. Eder and H. Rembold. München: Verlag J. Peperny.

Turillazzi, S. 1989. The origin and evolution of social life in the Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 2:649–661.

Turillazzi, S. 1990. Social biology of Liostenogaster vechti Turillazzi 1988 (Hymenoptera Stenogastrinae). Tropical Zoology 3:69–87.

Turillazzi, S. 1991. The Stenogastrinae. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 74–98), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Turillazzi, S. 1994. Protection of brood by means of Dufours gland secretion in 2 species of stenogastrine wasps. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution (Special Issue) 3:37–41.

Turillazzi, S. 1999. New species of Liostenogaster van der Vecht 1969, with keys to adults and nests (Hymenoptera Vespidae Stenogastrinae). Tropical Zoology 12:335–358.

Turillazzi, S., and S. Carfi. 1996. Adults and nest of Liostenogaster pardii n. sp. (Hymenoptera Stenogastrinae). Tropical Zoology 9:19–30.

Turillazzi, S., R. Cervo, and F. R. Dani. 1997. Intra and inter-specific relationships in a cluster of stenogastrine wasp colonies (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 9:385–395.

Turillazzi, S., and E. Francescato. 1989. Observations on the behaviour of male stenogastrine wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Stenogastrinae). Actes Colloques des Insectes Sociaux 5:181–187.

Turillazzi, S., and E. Francescato. 1990. Patrolling behavior and related secretory structures in the males of some stenogastrine wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 37:146–157.

Turillazzi, S., and E. Francescato. 1994. Notes on the nest architecture and brood rearing of Polybioides raphigastra (Vespidae, Polistinae). Rendiconti Lincei, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze fisiche, mathematiche e naturali—Scienze fisiche e naturali 9:367–375.

Turillazzi, S., E. Francescato, A. B. Tosi, and J. M. Carpenter. 1994. A distinct caste difference (p.243) in Polybioides tabidus (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 41:327–330.

Turillazzi, S., and M. H. Hansell. 1991. Biology and social behavior of 3 species of Anischnogaster (Vespidae, Stenogastrinae) in Papua New Guinea. Insectes Sociaux 38:423–437.

Turillazzi, S., and L. Pardi. 1981. Ant guards on nests of Parischnogaster nigricans serrei (Buysson) (Stenogastrinae). Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 15:1–7.

Turillazzi, S., and L. Pardi. 1982. Social behavior of Parischnogaster nigricans serrei (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea) in Java. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 75:657–664.

Turillazzi, S., and A. Ugolini. 1979. Rubbing behavior in some European Polistes (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Monitore zoologico italiano (Nuova serie) 13:129–142.

Turillazzi, S., and M. J. West-Eberhard, editors. 1996. Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ueno, T. 1997. Host age preference and sex allocation in the pupal parasitoid Itoplectis naranyae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90:640–645.

Ueno, T. 1999. Host-size-dependent sex ratio in a parasitoid wasp. Researches on Population Ecology 41:47–57.

Uyenoyama, M. K. 1984. Inbreeding and the evolution of altruism under kin selection: effects on relatedness and group structure. Evolution 38:778–795.

Uyenoyama, M. K., and B. O. Bengtsson. 1982. Towards a genetic theory for the evolution of the sex ratio. III. Parental and sibling control of brood investment ratio under partial sib-mating. Theoretical Population Biology 22:43–68.

van Alphen, J. J. M., and L. E. M. Vet. 1986. An evolutionary approach to host finding and selection. In Insect parasitoids (pp. 23–61), edited by J. K. Waage and D. Greathead. London: Academic Press.

Van Hooser, C. A., G. J. Gamboa, and T. G. Fishwild. 2002. The function of abdominal stroking in the paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus (Hymenoptera Vespidae). Ethology, Ecology & Evolution 14:141–148.

Varman, A. R. 1978. Amino-acid and sugar composition of silk of weaver-ants, Oecophylla. Current Science 47:827–828.

Vecht, J. van der. 1977. Studies of oriental Stenogastrinae (Hymenoptera Vespoidea). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 120:55–75.

Veenendaal, R. L., and T. Piek. 1988. Predatory behaviour of Discoelius zonalis. Entomologische Bererichten 48:8–12.

Vernier, R. 1997. Essai d’analyse cladistique des generes d’Eumeninae (Vespidae, Hymenoptera) représentés en Europe septentrionale, occidentale et centrale. Bulletin de la Société Neuchâteloise des Sciences naturelles 120:87–98.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2001. Phylogeny and classification of the extant basal lineages of the Hymenoptera (Insecta). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131:393–442.

Vilhelmsen, L. 2003. Larval anatomy of Orussidae (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 12:346–354.

Vilhelmsen, L., N. Isidoro, R. Romani, H. H. Basibuyuk, and D. L. J. Quicke. 2001. Host location and oviposition in a basal group of parasitic wasps: the subgenual organ, ovipositor apparatus and associated structures in the Orussidae (Hymenoptera, Insecta). Zoomorphology 121:63–84.

Villesen, P., P. J. Gertsch, J. Frydenberg, U. G. Mueller, and J. J. Boomsma. 1999. Evolutionary (p.244) transition from single to multiple mating in fungus growing ants. Molecular Ecology 8:1819–1825.

Vinson, S. B. 1976. Host selection by insect parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 21:109–133.

Vollrath, F. 1986. Eusociality and extraordinary sex ratios in the spider Anelosimus eximius (Araneae: Theridiidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18:283–287.

Waage, J. K. 1986. Family planning in parasitoids: adaptive patterns of progeny and sex allocation. In Insect parasitoids (pp. 63–95), edited by J. K. Waage and D. Greathead. London: Academic Press.

Wade, M. J. 1980. Kin selection: its components. Science 210:665–667.

Wade, M. J. 1982. The effect of multiple inseminations on the evolution of social behaviors in diploid and haplo-diploid organisms. Journal of Theoretical Biology 95:351–368.

Wade, M. J. 1985. The influence of multiple inseminations and multiple foundresses on social evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 112:109–121.

Wade, M. J. 2001. Maternal effect genes and the evolution of sociality in haplo-diploid organisms. Evolution 55:453–458.

Wade, M. J., and F. Breden. 1981. Effect of inbreeding on the evolution of altruistic behavior by kin selection. Evolution 35:844–858.

Wafa, A. K., and S. G. Sharkawi. 1972. Contribution to the biology of Vespa orientalis Fab. [Hymenoptera: Vespidae]. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d’Egypte 56:219–226.

Waldbauer, G. P., and D. P. Cowan. 1985. Defensive stinging and Müllerian mimicry among eumenid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea; Eumenidae). The American Midland Naturalist 113:198–199.

Wasbauer, M. S. 1995. Pompilidae. In: The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica (pp. 522–539), edited by P. E. Hanson and I. D. Gauld. London: The Natural History Museum.

Watson, J. D. 1968. The double helix. New York: Atheneum.

Way, M. J. 1963. Mutualism between ants and honeydew-producing Homoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 8:307–344.

Wcislo, W. T. 1997. Are behavioral classifications blinders to studying natural variation? In The evolution of social behavior in insects and arachnids (pp. 8–13), edited by J. C. Choe and B. J. Crespi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Weber, N. A. 1966. Fungus-growing ants. Science 153:587–604.

Weis-Fogh, T. 1964a. Functional design of the tracheal system of flying insects as compared with the avian lung. Journal of Experimental Biology 41:207–227.

Weis-Fogh, T. 1964b. Diffusion in insect wing muscle, the most active tissue known. Journal of Experimental Biology 41:229–256.

Wenseleers, T., and J. Billen. 2000. No evidence for Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in the social Hymenoptera. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13:277–280.

Wenseleers, T., F. Ito, S. Van Borm, R. Huybrechts, F. Volcaert, and J. Billen. 1998. Widespread occurrence of the microorganism Wolbachia in ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 265:1447–1452.

Wenzel, J. W. 1987. Ropalidia formosa, a nearly solitary paper wasp from Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 60:679–699.

Wenzel, J. W. 1989. Endogenous factors, external cues, and eccentric construction in Polistes annularis (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 2:679–699.

Wenzel, J. W. 1990. A social wasp’s nest from the Cretaceous period, Utah, USA, and its biogeographic significance. Psyche 97:21–29.

(p.245) Wenzel, J. W. 1991. Evolution of nest architecture. In The social biology of wasps (pp. 480–519), edited by K. G. Ross and R. W. Matthews. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Wenzel, J. W. 1992. Extreme queen-worker dimorphism in Ropalidia ignobilis, a small-colony wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 39:31–43.

Wenzel, J. W. 1993. Application of the biogenetic law to behavioral ontogeny: a test using nest architecture in paper wasps. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 6:229–247.

Wenzel, J. W., and J. M. Carpenter. 1994. Comparing methods: adaptive traits and tests of adaptation. In Phylogenetics and ecology (pp. 79–102), edited by P. Eggeleton and R. I. Vane-Wright. London: Academic Press.

Werren, J. H. 1980. Sex ratio adaptations to local mate competition in a parasitic wasp. Science 208:1157–1160.

Werren, J. H. 1983. Sex ratio evolution under local mate competition in a parasitic wasp. Evolution 37:116–124.

Werren, J. H., U. Nur, and C.-I. Wu. 1988. Selfish genetic elements. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3:297–302.

West, M. J. 1967. Foundress associations in polistine wasps: hierarchies and the evolution of social behavior. Science 157:1584–1585.

West Eberhard, M. J. 1969. The social biology of polistine wasps. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 140:1–101.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1975. The evolution of social behavior by kin selection. The Quarterly Review of Biology 50:1–33.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1977. Morphology and behavior in the taxonomy of Microstigmus wasps. In: Proceedings of the eighth international congres [sic] of the International Union for the Study of Social Insects (pp. 123–125), edited by J. de Wilde. Wageningen: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1978a. Polygyny and the evolution of social behavior in wasps. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 51:832–856.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1978b. Temporary queens in Metapolybia wasps: nonreproductive helpers without altruism? Science 200:441–443.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1979. Sexual selection, social competition and evolution. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 123:222–234.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1982. The nature and evolution of swarming in tropical social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae, Polybiini). In Social insects in the tropics, vol. 1 (pp. 97–128), edited by P. Jaisson. Paris: Université Paris-Nord.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1987a. Observations on Xenorhynchium nitidulum (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera, Eumeninae), a primitively social wasp. Psyche 94:317–323.

West-Eberhard, M. J.1987b. The epigenetic origins of insect sociality. In Chemistry and biology of social insects (pp. 369–372), edited by J. Eder and H. Rembold. München: Verlag J. Peperny.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1987c. Flexible strategy and social evolution. In Animal societies: Theories and facts (pp. 35–51), edited by Y. Itô, J. L. Brown and J. Kikkawa. Tokyo: Scientific Societies Press Ltd.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1988. Phenotypic plasticity and “genetic” theories of insect sociality. In Evolution of social behavior and integrative levels (pp. 123–133), edited by G. Greenberg and E. Tobach. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1989. Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20:249–278.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1992a. Behavior and evolution. In Molds, molecules, and Metazoa: (p.246) Growing points in evolutionary biology (pp. 59–79), edited by P. R. Grant and H. S. Horn. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1992b. Genetics, epigenetics, and flexibility: a reply to Crozier. The American Naturalist 139:224–226.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 1996. Wasp societies as microcosms for the study of development and evolution. In Natural history and evolution of paper-wasps (pp. 290–317), edited by S. Turillazzi and M. J. West-Eberhard. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

West-Eberhard, M. J. 2003. Developmental plasticity and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weyrauch, W. 1935. Dolichovespula und Vespa. Vergleichende Übersicht über zwei wesentliche Lebenstypen bei sozialen Wespen. Mit Bezugnahme auf die Frage nach der fortschrittlichkeit tierischer Organisation. Biologisches Zentralblatt 55:484–524.

Wheeler, G. C., and J. Wheeler. 1979. Larvae of the social Hymenoptera. In Social Insects, vol. 1 (pp. 287–338), edited by H. R. Hermann. New York: Academic Press.

Wheeler, W. M. 1910. Ants: Their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wheeler, W. M. 1918. Study of some ant larvae with a consideration of the origin and meaning of social habits among insects. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 57:293–343.

Wheeler, W. M. 1923. Social life among the insects. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Wheeler, W. M. 1928. The social insects. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.

Whitfield, J. B. 1992a. Phylogeny of the non-aculeate Apocrita and the evolution of parasitism in the Hymenoptera. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1:3–14.

Whitfield, J. B. 1992b. The polyphyletic origin of endoparasitism in the cyclostome lineages of Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Systematic Entomology 17:273–286.

Whitfield, J. B. 1998. Phylogeny and evolution of host-parasitoid interactions in Hymenoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 43:129–151.

Wiernasz, D. C., C. L. Perroni, and B. J. Cole. 2004. Polyandry and fitness in the western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Molecular Ecology 13:1601–1606.

Wigglesworth, V. B. 1972. The principles of insect physiology, 7th ed. London: Methuen.

Williams, F. X. 1919. Philippine wasp studies: descriptions of new species and life history studies. Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association, Entomology Series 14:19–186.

Williams, F. X. 1927. Euparagia scutellaris Cresson, a masarid wasp that stores its cells with the young of a curculionid beetle. The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 4:28–29.

Williams, G. C. 1966. Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Williams, G. C. and D. C. Williams. 1956. Natural selection of individually harmful social adaptations among sibs with special reference to social insects. Evolution 11:32–39.

Wilson, E. O. 1966. Behaviour of social insects. In Insect Behaviour (pp. 81–96), edited by P. T. Haskell. London: Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London.

Wilson, E. O. 1971. The insect societies. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Wilson, E. O. 1975. Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Wilson, E. O. 1994. Naturalist. Washington, DC: Island Press/Shearwater Books.

(p.247) Wilson, E. O. 2005. Kin selection as the key to altruism: its rise and fall. Social Research 72:159–166.

Wilson, E. O., and B. Hölldobler. 2005. Eusociality: origin and consequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 102:13367–13371.

Winston, M. L. 1987. The biology of the honey bee. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wirtz, P. 1973. Differentiation in the honeybee larva: a histological, electron-microscopical and physiological study of caste induction in Apis mellifera mellifera L. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 73:1–155.

Woyke, J. 1963. What happens to diploid drone larvae in a honeybee colony. Journal of Apicultural Research 2:73–75.

Wyatt, G. R. 1961. The biochemistry of hemolymph. Annual Review of Entomology 6:75–102.

Yamane, S., S. F. Sakagami, and R. Ohgushi. 1983. Multiple behavioral options in a primitively social wasp, Parischnogaster mellyi. Insectes Sociaux 30:412–415.

Yamane, Sk. 1976. Morphological and taxonomic studies on vespine larvae, with reference to the phylogeny of the subfamily Vespinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insecta Matsumarana (new series) 8:1–45.

Yamane, Sô. 1969. Preliminary observations on the life history of two polistine wasps, Polistes Snelleni and P. biglumis in Sapporo, northern Japan. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University 17:78–105.

Yamane, Sô., and T. Kawamichi. 1975. Bionomic comparison of Polistes biglumis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) at two different localities in Hokkaido, Northern Japan, with Reference to its probable adaptation to cold climate. Kontyû 43:213–232.

Yamane, Sô., J. Kojima, and Sk. Yamane. 1983. Queen/worker size dimorphism in an Oriental wasp, Ropalidia montana Carl (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insectes Sociaux 30:416–422.

Yamane, Sô., and T. Okazawa. 1977. Some biological observations on a paper wasp, Polistes (Megapolistes) tepidus malayanus Cameron (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in New Guinea. Kontyû 45:283–299.

Yamashita, O. 1996. Diapause hormone of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: structure, gene expression and function. Journal of Insect Physiology 42:669–679.

Yanega, D. 1988. Social plasticity and early-diapausing females in a primitively social bee. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 85:4374–4377.

Yanega, D. 1989. Caste determination and differential diapause within the first brood of Halictus rubicundus in New York (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 24:97–107.

Yanega, D. 1996. Sex ratio and sex allocation in sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69 (supplement):98–115.

Yocum, G. D. 2001. Differential expression of two HSP70 transcripts in response to cold shock, thermoperiod, and adult diapause in the Colorado potato beetle. Journal of Insect Physiology 47:1139–1145.

Yocum, G. D. 2003. Isolation and characterization of three diapause-associated transcripts from the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Journal of Insect Physiology 49:161–169.

Yoshikawa, K. 1962. Introductory studies on the life economy of polistine wasps. I. Scope of problems and consideration on the solitary stage. Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History 15:3–27.

(p.248) Yoshikawa, K., R. Ohgushi, and S. F. Sakagami. 1969. Preliminary report on entomology of the Osaka City University 5th scientific expedition to southeast Asia 1966 – With descriptions of two new genera of stenogasterine [sic] wasps by J. van der Vecht. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 6:153–182.

Young, A. M. 1979. Attacks by the army ant Eciton burchelli on nests of the social paper wasp Polistes erythrocephalus in northeastern Costa Rica. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 52:759–768.

Young, A. M. 1986. Natural history notes on the social paper wasp Polistes erythrocephalus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) in Costa Rica. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 59:712–722.

Zucchi, R., S. F. Sakagami, F. B. Noll, M. R. Mechi, S. Mateus, M. V. Baio, and S. N. Shima. 1995. Agelaia vicina, a swarm-founding polistine with the largest colony size among wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of the New York Entomological Society 103:129–137.

Zucchi, R., Sô. Yamane, and S. F. Sakagami. 1976. Preliminary notes on the habits of Trimeria howardii, a Neotropical communal masarid wasp, with description of the mature larva (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea). Insecta Matsumarana, new series 8:47–57.