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Malcolm Boyd

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195307719

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195307719.001.0001

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(p.283) Appendix C: Personalia

(p.283) Appendix C: Personalia

Oxford University Press

  • Abel,

    Christian Ferdinand (1682–1761) was a bass viol player in the court orchestra at Cöthen from about 1715, and thus during Bach’s period as Kapellmeister there. Bach was godfather to one of Abel’s daughters, Sophia Charlotta, in 1720, and may have written his three bass viol sonatas sonatas (Bwv 1027–9) for him. Abel’s son Carl Friedrich (1723–87) also played the bass viol. He was a member of the Dresden court orchestra from c. 1743 to c. 1758, and later became an associate of Bach’s youngest son Johann Christian in London, where they collaborated in an important series of public concerts.

  • Agricola,

    Johann Friedrich (1720–74), a composer and writer, was a pupil of Bach in Leipzig (1738–41). He then moved to Berlin, where he served Frederick the Great as court composer. He collaborated with C. P. E. Bach in writing the valuable Obituary of J. S. Bach published by Mizler in 1754.

  • Ahle,

    Johann Rudolph (1625–73) and his son Johann Georg (1651–1706) preceded Bach as organists at the Blasiuskirche, Mühlhausen. Both were composers. J. R. Ahle’s many hymn tunes include Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier and Es ist genug, both used in well-known works by Bach.

  • Albinoni,

    Tomaso Giovanni (1671–1751) was an Italian composer important, along with Vivaldi, in the development of the solo concerto in Venice. Bach used some of his music as teaching material and based keyboard fugues (Bwv 946, 950–1) on themes from Albinoni’s trio sonatas Op. 1 (1694).

  • Altnickol,

    Johann Christoph (1719–59) was a pupil of Bach and from 1744 assisted him as a bass singer in the Leipzig churches, and also as a copyist. In 1748 he was organist for a short time at Niederwiesa in Silesia, and (p.284) then from 20 July at Naumburg, where he remained until his death. In 1749 he married Bach’s daughter Elisabeth.

  • Bach,

    Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714–88) was the fifth child of J. S. Bach and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He studied law at Leipzig University and, from September 1734, at Frankfurt an der Oder. Between 1738 and 1768 he served Frederick the Great as harpsichordist, and was then Kantor and music director at Hamburg until his death. He married in 1744 and had three children, the last of whom, named Johann Sebastian after his grandfather, became an artist. Emanuel Bach inherited about a third of his father’s musical works, some of which he performed in Hamburg. His own compositions, especially the keyboard works, symphonies, concertos, and chamber music, are of supreme importance in the formation of the late eighteenth-century Classical style, and his Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, 1753–62) is a valuable source of information about performing practices of the period.

  • Bach,

    Johann Christian (1735–82) was the last son of J. S. Bach and his second wife, Anna Magdalena. After his father’s death in 1750 he went to live with his elder brother, Emanuel, in Berlin, and in 1755 he broke with family traditions by going to Italy, becoming a Roman Catholic, and composing operas. He was made organist at Milan Cathedral in 1760 but left Italy two years later to settle in London, where he wrote operas for the King’s Theatre, served as music master to Queen Charlotte, and collaborated with C. F. Abel in promoting orchestral concerts. He married the singer Cecilia Grassi in 1773. His music is still not as well known as it deserves to be, but he has long been recognized as a master of the galant style and as an important precursor of Mozart, whom he knew in London in 1764–5.

  • Bach,

    Wilhelm Friedemann (1710–84), the eldest son of J. S. Bach and his first wife, Maria Barbara, was educated at the Thomasschule and at Leipzig university. In 1773 he was appointed organist at the Sophienkirche, Dresden, and in 1746 he went to Halle as organist and music director at the Liebfrauenkirche. A few months after his father’s death he married, but he became increasingly unsettled, and in 1764 he resigned his post and earned a precarious living by teaching and performing. His last ten years were spent in Berlin, where he suffered poverty and ill-health. In the opinion of many, Friedemann inherited more of his father’s genius than any of his brothers, and in 1750 he received the largest share of his father’s manuscripts. His failure to make the best use of the former is a matter for regret, but his careless custody of the latter must have robbed the world of numerous masterpieces.

  • Birnbaum,

    Johann Abraham (1702–48) taught rhetoric at Leipzig university. He was a good keyboard player, became friendly with Bach, and was (p.285) the latter’s principal spokesman in the controversy engendered by Scheibe’s criticism of Bach’s music in 1737.

  • Böhm,

    Georg (1661–1733) was born at Hohenkirchen, near Ohrdruf. He attended Jena university, spent some time in Hamburg, and succeeded Christian Flor (1626–97) as organist of the Johanniskirche, Lüneburg, where he remained until his death. His organ music, especially the chorale settings, exercised a profound influence on Bach, who may have been his pupil in Lüneburg.

  • Buxtehude,

    Dietrich (c. 1637–1707) succeeded Franz Tunder as organist of the Marienkirche, Lübeck, in July 1668 and in the following month married one of Tunder’s daughters. He remained at the Marienkirche for the rest of his life, organizing there a famous series of evening concerts (Abendmusiken), which Bach attended in 1705. Buxtehude’s organ music and church compositions constitute one of the most potent influences on the formation of Bach’s musical style.

  • Corelli,

    Arcangelo (1653–1713) was born at Fusignano, trained at Bologna, and employed from 1675 (or earlier) in Rome, where he enjoyed the patronage of Queen Christina of Sweden, Cardinal Pamphili, and Cardinal Ottoboni. His surviving works are entirely instrumental and few in number (four volumes of trio sonatas and one each of solo violin sonatas and concerti grossi, besides a few others unpublished during his lifetime), but their popularity and dissemination were out of all proportion to their number. Bach’s Fugue in B minor for organ (BWV579) uses a subject taken from Corelli’s Trio Sonata Op. 3 No. 4, and the Italian’s influence is perceptible in several other Bach words.

  • Couperin,

    François (1668–1733), known as ‘le grand’, was the most important French composer of the generation preceding Bach. He was harpsichordist to King Louis XIV, composed over 200 pieces for the instrument, and published a famous treatise, L’art de toucher le clavecin (1716), on how to play it. His other music includes Latin motets, French songs, and chamber compositions. Bach owned some of his music and held it in high esteem.

  • Dieupart,

    Charles (d. c. 1740) was a French composer, violinist, and harpsichordist. The Six suittes (1701) that Bach copied in 1713 were dedicated to the Countess of Sandwich, an English lady who was Dieupart’s pupil in France. Shortly after these were published Dieupart went to London, where he apparently spent the rest of his life.

  • Fasch,

    Johann Friedrich (1688–1758) attended the Thomasschule and the university in Leipzig and in 1708 founded the second collegium musicum there. He was appointed court Kapellmeister at Zerbst in 1722 and competed with Bach for the post of Thomaskantor in Leipzig. His voluminous output included twelve cantata cycles (over 700 works) and almost (p.286) 100 orchestral suites, some of which Bach transcribed for his own collegium musicum in the 1730s.

  • Fischer,

    Johann Caspar Ferdinand (?c. 1670–1746) was from 1695 at the latest Kapellmeister to Ludwig Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden. His influence on Bach’s keyboard music is not confined to the Ariadne musica (1702), an important forerunner of the Well-tempered Clavier.

  • Franck,

    Salomo (1659–1725) studied law at Jena university and at Leipzig. He was at Arnstadt shortly before Bach went there and from 1701 was employed as secretary, librarian, and poet at the Weimar court. His several volumes of cantata texts include about twenty known to have been set by Bach.

  • Frescobaldi,

    Girolamo (1583–1643) was active in many Italian cities, but especially in Rome, where his patrons included the cardinals Aldobrandini and Barberini. His influence on Bach can be traced not only in the Fiori musicali (1635), which Bach owned, but through his famous pupil Froberger (see next entry) and possibly Kerll.

  • Froberger,

    Johann Jacob (1616–67) studied with Frescobaldi in Rome (1637–40/41) and was for many years court organist to Emperor Ferdinand III in Vienna. He did much to establish a German keyboard style and played an important role in the formation of the classical suite of dance movements. C. P. E. Bach included Froberger among the composers whose music his father had studied.

  • Goldberg,

    Johann Gottlieb (1727–56) may have studied with Bach at Leipzig in 1742–3, at which time he was harpsichordist to Count Keyserlingk in Dresden. In 1751 he was appointed chamber musician to Count Hein-rich von Brühl, in which post he remained until his death, from consumption, at the age of twenty-nine. His church cantatas are strongly influenced by Bach’s, while much of his other music is more galant in style. A trio sonata for two violins and continue by Goldberg was once attributed to Bach (BWV1037).

  • Görner,

    Johann Gottlieb (1697–1778) was educated at the Thomasschule and at Leipzig university. He was organist at the Paulinerkirche there from 1716, at the Nikolaikirche from 1721, and at the Thomaskirche from 1729, and during the years 1723–56 he was in charge of the collegium musicum that Fasch had founded. Although he came into dispute with Bach during the early years of the latter’s cantorate at Leipzig, the two men seem to have been on amicable terms afterwards, and when Bach died Görner served as guardian to his younger children.

  • Graupner,

    Christoph (1683–1760) attended the Thomasschule in Leipzig and after a short period of study at Leipzig university went to Hamburg and then to Darmstadt, where he was appointed Kapellmeister in 1712. After competing successfully for the cantorate at Leipzig in 1722–3, he remained at Darmstadt, with an increased salary, until his death. His huge (p.287) output included operas (all dating from before 1720), over 1,400 church cantatas, and a great deal of orchestral and chamber music.

  • Grigny,

    Nicolas de (1672–1703) was born at Rheims and became organist at the cathedral there. His only known music is the Premier livre d’orgue (1699), which Bach copied out in 1713. He was probably one of the ‘good and old Frenchman’ whose music Bach is said to have studied in his youth.

  • Handel,

    Georg Frideric (1685–1759) was born in Halle in the same year as Bach, but his career followed very different paths. He studied for a short time at the university in Halle and then joined Keiser’s opera orchestra at Hamburg. A decisive step towards realizing his ambition to be an opera composer was taken in 1706 when he went to Italy ‘with a view to improvement’ (as his first biographer, John Mainwaring, put it). But his reputation was consolidated in London, where he settled in 1712 and remained for the rest of his life. Public apathy, professional rivalry, and the unpredictability of some of the singers he had to work with finally led him to give up opera in the 1730s and to turn to the oratorios which, for 200 years after his death, were mainly responsible for keeping his name before a wide public in England. Handel never married.

  • Harrer,

    Gottlob (1703–55) studied law at Leipzig university and may have been a pupil of Hasse in Italy. Before succeeding Bach as Thomaskantor he was for nearly twenty years in the service of Count Heinrich von Brühl in Dresden, where he composed Latin church music and a fair number of instrumental works.

  • Hasse,

    Johann Adolf (1699–1783) studied with Alessandro Scarlatti in Naples and married the Venetian mezzo-soprano Faustina Bordoni. He was Kapellmeister to the Elector of Saxony in Dresden for over thirty years and became one of the most admired and respected composers in Europe. It was to the detriment of his posthumous reputation that he cultivated with skill and artistry a genre (opera seria) that became moribund even in his own lifetime.

  • Heinichen,

    Johann David (1683–1729) attended the Thomasschule in Leipzig and studied at Leipzig university (1702–6). He wrote operas for Leipzig before 1710, and after a period in Venice and Rome (where he taught Bach’s future patron, Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen) he was engaged as Kapellmeister to the Dresden court. He was the author of one of the most important Baroque treatises on music, Der General-Bass in der Composition (1728), and has sometimes been credited with the composition of the Kleines harmonisches Labyrinth, an organ work previously attributed to Bach (BWV591).

  • Henrici,

    Christian Friedrich, see ‘Picander’.

  • Hurlebusch,

    Conrad Friedrich (c. 1696–1765) was a restless, lonely musician who failed to obtain several appointments and either declined or resigned (p.288) many others before he finally settled down as organist at the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam, from 1743 until his death. He was the subject of several slanderous articles during his lifetime, and his posthumous reputation has not been helped by unjust and injurious interpretations often placed upon his behaviour when he visited Bach at Leipzig. Bach thought sufficiently highly of him to act as the Leipzig agent for some of Hurle-busch’s printed music.

  • Johann Ernst

    (1696–1715), Prince of Weimar, was taught the keyboard by Bach’s kinsman, J. G. Walther. The young prince was a gifted, though not fully developed, composer, and his Six Concertos Op. 1 were published by Telemann in 1718. Bach arranged two of them for harpsichord and two other concertos by Ernst for organ.

  • Keiser,

    Reinhard (1674–1739) was educated at the Thomasschule in Leipzig before making his name as an opera composer in Brunswick and Hamburg. A St Mark Passion which Bach performed at Leipzig was once attributed to Keiser, and Bach’s own Passion settings may reflect Keiser’s influence in certain particulars, for example in the dramatic use of accompanied recitative and arioso.

  • Kerll,

    Johann Caspar (1627–93) studied in Italy, possibly with Frescobaldi, and was appointed Kapellmeister at the electoral court of Munich in 1656. He resigned in 1673 and went to Vienna as organist at St Stephen’s Cathedral. From 1677 he served as organist at the imperial court. He returned to Munich in 1684 and died there. His keyboard music, known to Bach and admired by him, includes toccatas, ricercares, and some descriptive pieces.

  • Kirchhoff,

    Gottfried (1685–1746) was a pupil of Zachow (Handel’s teacher) and succeeded him in 1714 as organist at the Liebfrauenkirche, Halle (Bach having declined the post). He wrote mainly vocal and organ music for church use. One of his cantatas is to a text also set by Bach (BWV63).

  • Kirnberger,

    Johann Philipp (1721–83) was among the most gifted of Bach’s pupils and sought to perpetuate Bach’s teaching methods in his own treatises. He did much to promote Bach’s music and was instrumental in securing publication of the chorale harmonizations. His own copies of Bach’s works were preserved in the library of his patron Princess Anna Amalia. Kirnberger’s own music is said to be correct but uninspired.

  • Krebs,

    Johann Ludwig (1713–80) was the son of the composer and organist Johann Tobias Krebs (1690–1762). Both were pupils of Bach, the younger Krebs being particularly well thought of by him. He served Bach as singer, organist, and copyist, and in 1750 he competed unsuccessfully for the post of Thomaskantor. His own music combines Bachian polyphony with features of the new galant style; it includes an organ (p.289) fugue on the letters BACH. Both J. TV and J. L. Krebs have been suggested as possible composers of the eight short preludes and fugues for organ BWV553–60.

  • Krieger,

    Johann Philipp (1649–1725) spent most of his life as Kapellmeister at the Weissenfels court, where Bach was an occasional visitor and where he held the title of Kapellmeister von Haus aus (1729–36). His works include over 2,000 church cantatas, some of which were among the first to adopt the reforms of Neumeister, who was also at Weissenfels for a time (1704–6).

  • Kuhnau,

    Johann (1660–1722) preceded Bach as Thomaskantor in Leipzig. He was something of a polymath: a practising lawyer, a proficient mathematician, a novelist, and a fine linguist. After serving as organist of the Thomaskirche from 1684, he was appointed Kantor in 1701. More of his church cantatas have been lost than survive, and he is remembered now chiefly for his keyboard music, especially the six programmatic Biblical Sonatas (1700). His nephew Johann Andreas Kuhnan (b. 1703) studied with Bach and was one of his principal copyists.

  • Kusser,

    Johann Sigismund (1660–1727) studied with Lully in Paris and was active at Brunswick, Hamburg, Stuttgart, and other German cities before going to London in 1704/5. From there he went in 1709 to Dublin, where he remained until his death. He wrote mainly operas and other stage works.

  • Legrenzi,

    Giovanni (1626–90) was active mainly in Ferrara (1656–65) and at Venice, where he was maestro di coro at the Conservatorio dei Mendicanti from c. 1671 and maestro di cappella at St Mark’s from 1685 until his death. His works include operas, oratorios, church music, secular cantatas, and instrumental pieces. The theme on which Bach based his organ fugue BWV574 has been identified as a much-altered version of one from Legrenzi’s Trio Sonata Op. 2 No. 11.

  • Marcello,

    Alessandro (1684–1747) and his younger brother Benedetto (1686–1739) were both amateur composers of elevated rank (their father, Agostino Marcello, was a Venetian senator). Although Alessandro lived longer, Benedetto was the more prolific. As well as sacred music, oratorios, cantatas, concertos, and sonatas, he wrote a famous and amusing satire, Il teatro alla moda (c. 1720).

  • Marchand,

    Louis (1669–1732) possessed, along with an amazing keyboard technique, some less desirable personal attributes (including an inclination towards wife-beating) which make his ignominious retreat from the contest with Bach at Dresden in 1717 seem entirely in character. On his return to Paris he resumed his post as organist to the Cordeliers and devoted much of his time to teaching (his wife having by then separated from him).

  • Marpurg,

    Friedrich Wilhelm (1718–95), the German theorist, was a devoted (p.290) admirer of Bach’s music. As well as writing the preface for a new issue of the Art of Fugue in 1752, he proposed Bach’s polyphony as a model in his treatise on fugue (Abhandlung von der Fuge, 1753–4), and his other writings contain frequent and valuable references to the composer.

  • Mattheson,

    Johann (1681–1764) spent most of his life at Hamburg, where he sang tenor in the opera, enjoyed the friendship of Handel, and later served the English ambassador as secretary and diplomat. He married an English woman, Catharina Jennings, in 1709. His compositions included many operas and oratorios, but posterity has valued him for his critical writings, which include historical and biographical material of unique importance besides a good deal of polemical material.

  • Mizler,

    Lorenz Christoph (1711–78) attended the Gymnasium at Ansbach, where his teachers included. J. M. Gesner. He enrolled at Leipzig university at the same time (1731) that Gesner went there as Rektor of the Thomasschule. Along with Count Giacomo de Lucchesini, Mizler founded the Correspondierende Sozietät der Musicalischen Wissenschaften (Corresponding Society of the Musical Sciences) in 1738 and published a great deal of important material in the Musicalische Bibliothek, which became the society’s official journal. The society enrolled nineteen members (including Bach), Leopold Mozart declining an invitation to become its twentieth in 1755.

  • Muffat,

    Georg (1653–1704) was a German composer of French birth and Scottish ancestry. He studied with Lully in Paris and visited Rome, where he heard and admired the concertos of Corelli. From 1690 until his death he was Kapellmeister to Johann Philipp of Lamberg, Bishop of Passau. He did much to popularize French and Italian musical styles in Germany His son Gottlieb (1690–1770) was no less important a composer of keyboard music.

  • Neumeister,

    Erdmann (1671–1756) was a student of theology and literature, and then magister, at Leipzig university. From 1715 until his retirement in 1755 he was head pastor at the Jacobikirche, Hamburg. His nine cycles of cantata texts played a crucial role in establishing a new type of church cantata which included the frankly operatic forms of recitative and da capo aria as important constituents. The five texts set by Bach come from two cycles written for the Eisenach court and published in 1711 and 1714.

  • Pachelbel,

    Johann (1653–1706) was born at Nuremberg. He was deputy organist at St Stephen’s Cathedral, Vienna, and then organist at the Eisenach court and from 1678 at the Predigerkirche, Erfurt, where his pupils included Bach’s eldest brother Johann Christoph. In 1690 he moved to Stuttgart and then to Gotha before taking up his final appointment at St Sebald’s Church, Nuremberg. He was among the most important composers of organ music before Bach.

  • (p.291) ‘Picander’

    was the pen-name of Christian Friedrich Henrici (1700–64), Bach’s librettist at Leipzig. He studied law at Wittenberg and from 1720 worked in Leipzig as a writer, tutor, and post-office administrator. He supplied the texts for Bach’s St Matthew and St Mark Passions, and for many of his secular and occasional cantatas. Whether or not Bach composed a complete Picander cycle of church cantatas in 1728–9 has not yet been firmly established.

  • Pisendel,

    Johann Georg (1687–1755) was a member of the court orchestra at Ansbach, where he studied the violin with Torelli. He made Bach’s acquaintance at Weimar in 1790, and no doubt renewed it many times after 1712 when he joined the court orchestra in Dresden. He succeeded Volumier as Konzertmeister there in 1728.

  • Poglietti,

    Alessandro (d. 1683), an Italian composer, was employed from 1661 at the Austrian court in Vienna, where he was treated with particular favour by Emperor Leopold I. His keyboard works, for which he is best known, include both ricercares and descriptive pieces.

  • Quantz,

    Johann Joachim (1697–1773), the son of a blacksmith, became the greatest flute player of his time. He was in the service of the elector of Saxony from 1718 to 1741 and then moved to Berlin, where his privileged position at the court of Frederick the Great brought him a basic salary three times as much as Bach received altogether at Leipzig. Prominent among his compositions are the 300 flute concertos, while the interest and importance of his treatise Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen (1752) extend beyond flute technique.

  • Raison,

    André (d. 1719) was organist at the abbey of Ste Geneviève and at the a college of the Jacobins de St Jacques in Paris. He published two books of liturgical organ music (1688 and 1714), the first containing a valuable preface as well as the Trio en passacaille often invoked in discussions of Bach’s organ Passacaglia.

  • Reincken,

    Johann Adam (1643–1722) lived and worked for a time at Deventer in the Netherlands. The researches of Ulf Grapenthin have cast doubt on his longevity (he is usually said to have lived to the age of ninety-nine). He died in Hamburg, where he had been organist at the Catharinenkirche since 1663 (he was assistant organist there for five years before that). His organ improvisations attracted Bach from Lüneburg, but his surviving works are disappointingly few.

  • Rolle,

    Christian Friedrich (1681–1751) was town Kantor at Quedlinburg from 1709 until 1721, when he went to Magdeburg as Kantor of the Johanniskirche. His works included at least five Passions and some chamber music. His son Johannes Heinrich (1716–85) succeeded him at Magdeburg and became an important oratorio composer.

  • Scheibe,

    Johann Adolph (1708–76) was the son of the organ builder Johann Scheibe. (c. 1680–1748). He was educated at Leipzig university, where (p.292) he was strongly influenced by the reformist views of J. C. Gottsched. After several unsuccessful attempts between 1729 and 1736 to secure a post as organist, he established himself in Hamburg as a critic and composer, and from 1740 was active in Denmark, where he died. His criticism of Bach’s music, published in 1737, is balanced elsewhere in his writings by an unfeigned admiration for the composer.

  • Schott,

    Georg Balthasar (1686–1736), organist of the Neukirche, Leipzig, from 1720, was one of the contestants for the post of Thomaskantor in 1722–3. When he left Leipzig for Gotha in 1729 he handed over to Bach the directorship of the collegium musicum which he had held since 1720.

  • Schütz,

    Heinrich (1585–1672) was, from the age of ten, a choirboy at the court of Landgrave Moritz of Hessen-Kassel, who later arranged for him to study with Giovanni Gabrieli in Venice. Shortly after his return to Germany in 1613 he went to Dresden, where he served as Kapellmeister to the elector of Saxony. Except for frequent and sometimes prolonged absences, he remained there for the rest of his long life. Schütz excelled in most vocal genres, and in 1627 composed the first German opera, Dafne. His motets and Passions are important both in their own right and as precursors of Bach’s.

  • Silbertnann,

    Gottfried (1683–1753) came from a family of organ builders and worked for a time with his elder brother, Andreas, in Strasbourg before settling in Freiberg in 1711. He built all the major organs in Dresden as well as other important ones in Freiberg, Rötha, Zittau, and elsewhere. He also made clavichords and some of the earliest grand pianos.

  • Sorge,

    Georg Andreas (1703–78) was court and town organist at Lobenstein in Thuringia from 1722 until his death. He made his name as a composer of keyboard music (including three fugues on the letters BACH) and as a writer of treatises on music. In 1747 he was elected the fifteenth member of Mizler’s Corresponding Society of the Musical Sciences.

  • Sporck,

    Franz Anton (1662–1738) was a Bohemian count, resident at Lysá nad Labem. He was largely responsible for introducing the horn (which he had encountered on a visit to Versailles) into Bohemia and Austria, and he was also a keen promoter of opera, both at his residence in Kuks and in Prague. A connection with Bach is indicated by a note on the autograph score of the D major Sanctus (BWV232111): ‘the parts are in Bohemia with Count Sporck’. The two men may have become acquainted through Picander, who dedicated to Count Sporck his Sammlung erbaulicher Gedancken (1725).

  • Telemann,

    Georg Philipp (1681–1767) studied at the university of Leipzig, where he also founded a collegium musicum among the students and directed the Leipzig Opera. From 1708 to 1712 he was at the Eisenach court, and it was probably there that he first met Bach. He was godfather to Bach’s son Carl Philipp Emanuel in 1714. After nearly ten years as (p.293) Kapellmeister at the Barfüsserkirche, Frankfurt, he went in 1721 to Hamburg as Kantor of the Johanneum and musical director of the city’s main churches. Telemann was an indefatigable composer, publisher, writer, concert promoter, and administrator. His surviving compositions include operas, oratorios, well over 1,000 cantatas, and numerous examples of every type of orchestral and chamber music.

  • Vivaldi,

    Antonio (1678–1741) taught at the Ospedale della Pietà in Venice, and it was for that institution that many of his 500 or more concertos were written. They established the three-movement (fast-slow-fast) form of the solo concerto and the ritornello structure of the outer movements. Bach transcribed some of them at Weimar and his own stylistic development as a composer was profoundly affected by them.

  • Volumier,

    Jean Baptiste (c. 1670–1728), despite his French-sounding name, was of Flemish origin and probably born in Spain. He was a violinist and dancing-master at the electoral court in Berlin, and in 1708 moved to the Saxon court at Dresden, where he was promoted to Konzertmeister the following year. Nothing survives of the ballets and violin music he is known to have written.

  • Walther,

    Johann Gottfried (1684–1748) became organist at the Stadtkirche, Weimar, in 1707. Before that a period of study and travel had brought him into contact with several musicians, notably Werckmeister, who helped to shape his musical thinking. At Weimar he taught the young Prince Johann Ernst and, like Bach, arranged concertos for him. He also wrote some excellent organ music of his own. Spitta took the modest length of the Bach article in Walther’s famous Musicalisches Lexicon (1732) to indicate an estrangement between the two men; others have, explained it as the work of the local censor, recalling the circumstances of Bach’s ‘dismissal’. But there is no reason why Walther before 1732 should have valued Bach’s music any more highly than did most of his contemporaries and even after 1732 Bach acted as a sales agent for the Lexicon in Leipzig.

  • Weiss,

    Silvius Leopold (1686–1750), born in Breslau, was one of the finest lutenists of his day. He spent some years in Italy, and in 1717 joined the Kapelle of the Saxon court at Dresden. He travelled widely, including at least once (in 1739) to Leipzig, when he visited Bach. Bach’s Trio for violin and keyboard in A major (BWV1025) has been shown to be an arrangement of a lute sonata by Weiss (see Bach Jahrbach, lxxix [1993], pp. 47–67).

  • Werckmeister,

    Andreas (1645–1706) held posts as organist successively at Hasselfelde, near Blankenburg (1664), Quedlinburg (1675), and Halberstadt (1696). More important than his organ works are his writings, particularly those dealing with the tuning of keyboard instruments and with musical hermeneutics.