This chapter investigates the contours of those theories that assume that a single cognitive competence, for instance, inductive reasoning, is underwritten by several cognitive processes (a branch of theories called here “multi-process theories”). Three types of multi-process theories (including, Ashby's theory of categorization, dual-process theories of reasoning and decision-making, and Gigerenzer's adaptive toolbox) are examined critically. The relevance of dissociations for multi-process theories is discussed.
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