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Juvenile Justice in the Making$

David S. Tanenhaus

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195306507

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195306507.001.0001

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(p.215) Bibliographic Essay

(p.215) Bibliographic Essay

Juvenile Justice in the Making
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

There have been three distinct traditions in the literature on the history of juvenile justice: the progressive mythmakers, the skeptics, and the neoprogressive preservationists. All three traditions have focused their historical inquiries primarily on the rise of the juvenile court. This bibliographic essay highlights the key works that this book engages from each tradition. It also directs the reader to selected works on children, the family, public policy, and American political and legal development that help to place these three traditions into a historiographic context.

The progressive mythmakers, writing in the early twentieth century, characterized the juvenile court movement as a revolutionary, humanitarian advancement in child protection and, through their reminiscences published in the 1920s and 1930s, helped to establish the myth of its immaculate construction. Classic works in this tradition include

Timothy D. Hurley, Origins of the Illinois Juvenile Court Act: Juvenile Courts and What They Have Accomplished (Chicago: Visitation and Aid Society, 1907; reprint, New York: AMS Press, 1977);

Julian W. Mack, “The Juvenile Court,” Harvard Law Review 23 (1909–1910): 104–122;

Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge and Edith Abbott, The Delinquent Child and the Home (New York: Charities Publication Committee, 1912);

Helen Jeter, The Chicago Juvenile Court (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1922);

Harriet S. Farwell, Lucy Louisa Flower, 1837–1920: Her Contributions to Education and Child Welfare in Chicago (Chicago: Private printing, 1924);

Jane Addams, ed., The Child, the Clinic, and the Court (New York: New (p.216) Republic, 1925);

Herbert Lou, Juvenile Courts in the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1927);

Jane Addams and Alice Hamilton, My Friend, Julia Lathrop (New York: Macmillan, 1935);


Grace Abbott, The Child and the State, 2 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938).

For examinations of the role of progressive experts in state building and reform generally see

Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform: From Bryan to FDR (New York: Knopf, 1955)


Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order: 1877–1920 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1967);

David Garland, Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Strategies (Brookfield, Vt.: Gower, 1985);

Morton Keller, Regulating a New Society, 1900–1933 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994);

Daniel T. Rodgers, Atlantic Crossings: Social Politics in a Progressive Age (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998);


Michael Willrich, City of Courts: Socializing Justice in Progressive Era Chicago (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

For the development of child welfare policy in this era see

Susan Tiffin, In Whose Best Interest? Child Welfare Reform in the Progressive Era (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982);

LeRoy Ashby, Saving the Waifs: Reformers and Dependent Children, 1890–1917 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984);

Michael Grossberg, Governing the Hearth: Law and the Family in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985);

Michael B. Katz, In the Shadow of the Poorhouse: A Social History of Welfare in America (New York: Basic Books, 1986);

Margo Horn, Before It's Too Late: The Child Guidance Movement in the United States, 1922–1945 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989);

Martha Minow, Making All the Difference: Inclusion, Exclusion, and American Law (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990);

Robyn Muncy, Creating a Female Dominion in American Reform, 1900–1935 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991);

Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992);

Joan Gittens, Poor Relations: The Children of the State in Illinois, 1818–1990 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994);

Linda Gordon, Pitied But Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare, 1890–1935 (New York: Free Press, 1994);

Molly Ladd-Taylor, Mother-Work: Women, Child Welfare, and the State, 1890–1930 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994);

Mary Ann Mason, From Father's Property to Children's Rights: The History of Child Custody in the United States (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994);

Kenneth Cmiel, A Home of Another Kind: One (p.217) Chicago Orphanage and the Tangle of Child Welfare (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995);

Kathryn Kish Sklar, Florence Kelley and the Nation's Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995);

Estelle B. Freedman, Maternal Justice: Miriam Van Waters and the Female Reform Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996);

LeRoy Ashby, Endangered Children: Dependency, Neglect, and Abuse in American History (New York: Twayne, 1997);

Joanne L. Goodwin, Gender and the Politics of Welfare Reform: Mothers' Pensions in Chicago, 1911–1929 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997);

Timothy A. Hacsi, Second Homes: Orphan Asylums and Poor Families in America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997);

Kriste Lindenmeyer, A Right to Childhood: The U.S. Children's Bureau and Child Welfare, 1912–1946 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997);

Elizabeth J. Clapp, Mothers of All Children: Women Reformers and the Rise of Juvenile Courts in Progressive Era America (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998);

Matthew A. Crenson, Building the Invisible Orphanage: A Prehistory of the American Welfare System (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998);

Walter I. Trattner, From Poor Law to Welfare State: A History of Social Welfare in the United States, 6th ed. (New York: Free Press, 1999);

Sonya Michel, Children's Interests/Mothers' Rights: The Shaping of America's Child Care Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999);

Jeffrey P. Moran, Teaching Sex: The Shaping of Adolescence in the twentieth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000);

Michael Grossberg, “Changing Conceptions of Child Welfare in the United States, 1820–1935,” in A Century of Juvenile Justice, edited by Margaret K. Rosenheim, Franklin E. Zimring, David S. Tanenhaus, and Bernardine Dohrn (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002);


Maureen A. Flanagan, Seeing with Their Hearts: Chicago Women and the Vision of the Good City, 1871–1933 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2002).

For historical studies that downplay the revolutionary nature of the juvenile court and instead emphasize its continuities with nineteenthcentury youth corrections and policing see

Joseph M. Hawes, Children in Urban Society: Juvenile Delinquency in Nineteenth-Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971);

Robert M. Mennel, Thorns and Thistles: Juvenile Delinquents in the United States, 1825–1940 (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1973);

Steven L. Schlossman, Love and the American Delinquent: The Theory and Practice of “Progressive” Juvenile Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977);

Peter C. Holloran, Boston's Wayward Children: Social Services for Homeless (p.218) Children, 1830–1930 (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1989);

Eric C. Schneider, In the Web of Class: Delinquents and Reformers in Boston, 1810s–1930s (New York: New York University Press, 1992);


David Wolcott, “Juvenile Justice before Juvenile Court: Cops, Courts, and Kids in Turn-of-the-Century Detroit,” Social Science History 27 (2003): 109–136.

Although the skeptical tradition dates back to the early twentieth century, it did not blossom until after the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark decision in In Re Gault (1967). Its proponents have used the concept of social control to explain the ideological origins of the juvenile court and to call into question the benevolent motives of its architects. Many have also criticized the juvenile justice system for denying due process protections to children and their families and its limited success in rehabilitating juvenile offenders. Early works from this tradition include

Harriette N. Dunn, Infamous Juvenile Law: Crimes against Children under the Cloak of Charity (Chicago: Privately published, 1912);

Thomas D. Eliot, The Juvenile Court and the Community (New York: MacMillan, 1914);


Edward F. Waite, “How Far Can Court Procedure Be Socialized without Impairing Individual Rights?” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 12 (1921): 339–347.

The post-Gault studies include

Anthony M. Platt, The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969);

Sanford Fox, “Juvenile Justice Reform: An Historical Perspective,” Stanford Law Review 22 (1970): 1187–1239;

Ellen Ryerson, The Best-Laid Plans: America's Juvenile Court Experiment (New York: Hill and Wang, 1978);

David J. Rothman, Conscience and Convenience: The Asylum and Its Alternatives in Progressive America (Boston: Little, Brown, 1980);

Lawrence Meir Friedman and Robert V. Percival, The Roots of Justice: Crime and Punishment in Alameda County, California, 1870–1910 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981);

Andrew J. Polsky, The Rise of the Therapeutic State (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991);

Janet E. Ainsworth, “Reimagining Childhood and Reconstructing the Legal Order: The Case for Abolishing the Juvenile Court,” North Carolina Law Review 69 (1991): 1083–1133;

Thomas Bernard, The Cycle of Juvenile Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992);

Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885–1920 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1995);

Christopher P. Manfredi, The Supreme Court and Juvenile Justice (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1998);

Barry C. Feld, Bad Kids: Race and the Transformation of the Juvenile Court (New (p.219) York: Oxford University Press, 1999);

Victoria L. Getis, The Juvenile Court and the Progressives (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000);


Anne Meis Knupfer, Reform and Resistance: Gender, Delinquency, and America's First Juvenile Court (New York: Routledge, 2001).

For important historical and theoretical studies about social control and power, broadly conceived, see

Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Pantheon Books, 1977);

Christopher Lasch, Haven in a Heartless World: The Family Besieged (New York: Basic Books, 1977);

Jacques Donzelot, The Policing of Families (New York: Pantheon Books, 1979);

Linda Gordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives: The Politics and History of Family Violence: Boston, 1880–1960 (New York: Viking, 1988);

Regina G. Kunzel, Fallen Women, Problem Girls: Unmarried Mothers and the Professionalization of Social Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993);

George Chauncey, Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940 (New York: Basic Books, 1994);

Elizabeth Lunbeck, The Psychiatric Persuasion: Knowledge, Gender, and Power in Modern America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994);


Kathleen W. Jones, Taming the Troublesome Child: American Families, Child Guidance, and the Limits of Psychiatric Authority (Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1999).

Legal scholars and historians have also begun to reexamine the history of individual rights and state power in American history, see

Robert Kaczorowski, “Revolutionary Constitutionalism in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction,” New York University Law Review 61 (November 1986): 863–940;

Hendrik Hartog, “The Constitution of Aspiration” and “The Rights that Belong to All of Us,” Journal of American History 74 (1987): 1013–1034;

Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution (New York: Harper and Row, 1988);

William J. Novak, The People's Welfare: Law and Regulation in Nineteenth-Century America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996);

Akhil Reed Amar, The Bill of Rights: Construction and Reconstruction (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998);

Amy Dru Stanley, From Bondage to Contract: Wage Labor, Marriage, and the Market in the Age of Slave Emancipation (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998);

William E. Nelson, The Legalist Reformation: Law, Politics, and Ideology in New York, 1920–1980 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001);


Barbara Young Welke, Recasting American Liberty: Gender, Race, Law, and the Railroad Revolution, 1865–1920 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

(p.220) The neoprogressive preservationists view the history of juvenile justice, especially its beginnings, as a valuable site for excavating a usable past. They generally accept that the founders of the juvenile court were well intentioned but that the concerns of the skeptics about the rights of children and families must also be incorporated into the juvenile justice system. Among these studies are

Margaret K. Rosenheim, ed., Justice for the Child: The Juvenile Court in Transition (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962);

Margaret K. Rosenheim, ed., Pursuing Justice for the Child (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976);

Franklin E. Zimring, The Changing Legal World of Adolescence (New York: Free Press, 1982);

Robert J. Sampson and John H. Laub, Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993);

Simon I. Singer, Recriminalizing Delinquency: Violent Juvenile Crime and Juvenile Justice Reform (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996);

William Ayers, A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997);

Howard Snyder and Melissa Sickmund, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1999);

Jeffrey Fagan and Franklin E. Zimring, eds., The Changing Borders of Juvenile Justice: Transfer of Adolescents to the Criminal Court (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000);

Thomas Grisso and Robert G. Schwartz, eds., Youth on Trial: A Developmental Perspective on Juvenile Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000);


Margaret K. Rosenheim, Franklin E. Zimring, David S. Tanenhaus and Bernardine Dohrn, A Century of Juvenile Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002).

For an excellent introduction to the trends in criminology since the 1970s, see

David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).