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Chosen PeopleThe Rise of American Black Israelite Religions$

Jacob S. Dorman

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780195301403

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195301403.001.0001

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(p.291) Index

(p.291) Index

Source:
Chosen People
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
A.B.B. (African Blood Brotherhood), 118, 126
Abilene, Kansas, 43
Abolitionist movement, 25, 27, 43, 67–68
Abyssinia. See Ethiopia
Atchison, Kansas, 42
African Americans
Christian, 4, 5, 7, 8, 37, 42, 45, 46, 50–53, 61, 83, 91, 113, 155, 159–161, 180, 183, 206–207 n96, 209 n138
cultural formation of, 4–7, 16
as descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel, 45, 56, 90–91
Ethiopian colonization efforts, 137–145
and the Holiness movement, 82, 83, 85–86, 88, 110–111, 114–115, 220 n3
migrations of, 9–10, 29, 48, 80, 114–115, 137–138
African Apostolic Church of John Maranke, 54
African Blood Brotherhood (A.B.B.), 118, 126, 228–229 n28
African Church of Israel, 54
African Diaspora, 5–6, 10, 13, 56–59, 119, 154, 168
African Initiated Churches (A.I.C.s), 53, 54–55
African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, 37, 51, 53, 83, 209 n138
African Remnant of Israel Church, 54
Africanus, Leo, 57
African Zionist churches, 54
Afro-Athlycan Constructive Gaathly (church), 150
Afro-Caribbean
immigration, 115
polycultural bricolage, 74, 150, 157–159, 160, 164–165, 167
Revival religion, 150
A.I.C.s (African Initiated Churches), 53, 54–55
Aldred, Ebenezer, 69
Aleide, Irene, 161
Allen, Eveline “Artie,” 29
Allen, Richard, 83
A.M.E. (African Methodist Episcopal) Church, 37, 51, 53, 83, 209 n138
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 67
American Holiness Church, 53
American imperialism, 71–72, 80, 95–96, 102–103, 113
American Judaism of white Jews, 60–61, 67, 76, 198–199 n42
(p.292) American Methodist Church, 83
American Negro Labor Congress, 127
American Orientalism, 10, 91–92, 99–102, 225 n78
A.M.E. Zion Church, 83
Ami, Ben, 111
Anderson, Marion, 66
Anglican Church, 83
Anglo-Israelite movement
beginnings of, 104
biblical theories of, 69–72
Black Israelite movement similarity, 7, 184
and Freemasonry, 74–76, 77–79
and “identity” churches, 72–73
and imperialism, 71–72, 95–96, 102–103
Israelite identity of, 58
in millennial churches, 68, 69–71, 95–96, 101
narratives of, 8
and polycultural bricolage, 69–73, 77–79
Anti-Defamation League, 76
anti-racism, 50
anti-Semitism, 133
anti-slavery societies, 67
Apostolic Faith Mission, 54
Arkansas City, Kansas, 43
Armhurstburg (Ontario), Canada, 47
Atchison, Kansas, 43
Aurienoth Club, 134–135, 140, 143
Azusa Street Mission, 90, 105–106, 106, 107–110, 108
Bailey, Headley Edmund, 145
Bamalaki sect, 55
Baptist Church, 37, 42, 206–207 n96
Baptist Foundation of Oklahoma, 37
Barnabas, Alaika, 141
Bartleman, Frank, 103, 105–106, 109
Baton, Buju, 151
Battle of Adwa (Adowa), 9, 114, 135
Bayudaya Jewish community, 55
B.B.A. (Beth B’nai Abraham) congregation, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 126–130, 131, 134, 155
Beckford, Lawrence, 143–144
Beecher, Edward, 72
Beecher, Henry, 72
Belleville, Virginia, 52, 53, 210 n145
Benedict, Ruth, 15
Ben-Israel, Asiel, 4, 193n
ben Israel, Menasseh, 69
Benjamin, Judah Philip, 64, 65
Benton Harbor, Michigan, 104
Berson, E. J., 178
Best, Wallace, 111
Beta Israel (House of Israel), 58, 136–137, 141–143
Beth B’nai Abraham (B.B.A.) congregation, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 126–130, 131, 155 See also Valentine, Samuel
Beth B’Nai Israel congregation, 121
Bethel A. M. E., 85–86
Beth-El Bible School, Topeka, Kansas, 97, 98
Beth-El Healing Home, Topeka, Kansas, 93
Beth Hamidrash religious school, 176–177
Biondi, Martha, 22
biracial churches, 43
“Bishop Eshof BenDoved”/“The Rev. St. Bishop the Vine,” 166–167, 172
Bishop's Ecclesiastical School of the Commandment Keeper's Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of the Truth, Inc., 163
Black Atlantic, 3, 16, 51, 69–70, 74, 170
(p.293) Black Atlantic Dialogue, 3, 7, 51, 81, 194 n10
Black churches, 37–38, 41 See also specific churches
Black Diaspora Ethiopianism, 135–136, 149
Black empowerment, 50
Black Islam, 10, 89, 151, 154, 179
Black Israelite movement
ancestry theories of, 56–59
Anglo Israelite movement similarity, 7, 184
belief system of, 4
cultural empowerment of, 173
defined, 4
Ethiopian colonization attempts of, 113, 131, 137–148, 236 n167
founding of, 23, 31
in Harlem, 113, 115, 137, 151, 184, 185, 186
Holiness movement roots of, 87, 90, 91, 114–115, 184
ideational resonances of, 57–58
identification with Hebrew Israelites, 68, 79–80, 113, 152
in Kansas, 24
Mosaic law adoption by, 81
patriarchal gender politics within, 113, 174
polyculturalism of, 4, 5, 10–11, 21, 130, 153–154, 180, 193 n3
popularity fade of, 183
and Elder Warien Roberson, 115–117
polycultural bricolage, 113, 152–158, 163–166, 179–181, 184–186
Black Jesus, 41, 179
Black Jews, narratives of, 8
Black Judaism
in the ante-bellum South, 65–66
as Black Israelite variant, 21
origins of, 10
polycultural theology of, 130
post Harlem Renaissance, 179
term use, 4
The Blackman's Bible or The Holy Piby (Rogers), 150
Black Masonic lodges, 53
Black Muslim faith, 4, 12
Black Nationalism, 113, 115, 117–121, 127–128, 173, 175 See also Garvey, Marcus Mosiah
Black newspapers, 43
Black Orientalism, 10, 19, 91–92, 99–100, 112, 113, 225 n78
Black Pioneers, 26–28
Black pioneers, 29–36, 37–38, 114, 202 n25
Black Power movement, 5, 179, 183, 184–185, 246 n99
Black religious interplanetary millennialism, 151
Black Star steamship line, 119, 121
Black towns, 29–31, 33, 34–37, 40,44, 185
Black Zionism, 10, 131–133, 134, 173
Blum, Edward, 72
Blyden, Edward Wilmot, 56, 64, 128, 150
B’Nai Abraham Progressive Corporation, 131
Boas, Franz, 15, 16
Bonnie Brae Street Mission, 105, 108, 109
Book of Creation (Sefer Yetsirah), 76
Book of Splendor (Sefer Ha-Zohar), 76
Bowling, Richard, 65
Bresee, Phineas, 105, 107
Brooks, Cyril, 118
Brooks, Eliezer, 63, 121
Brooks, Gwendolyn, 46
Brothers, Richard, 69, 70
Brotz, Howard, 163–164, 166
(p.294) Brown, John, 25, 27
Bruder, Edith, 57
Bulhoek Massacre, 54
Burning Spear, 151
Burrell, Ben, 119
Callund, Sister, 86
Campbell, Alexander, 88
Cane Ridge Festival, 85
Cape Colony, South Africa, 50, 51
Caribbean Black-Jewish relations, 63
Carpenter, William, 77–79
Chanute, Kansas, 43
Cherry, Prophet, 91
Chilembwe, John, 54
Chisley Hill plantation, Maryland, 23–24
Christian, Albert B., 7, 50–51, 52, 54, 208–209 n132
Christian, Eva, 50
Christian, William, 8, 79–80, 88–92, 104, 114, 185
Christian and Missionary Alliance, 94
Christian Catholic Church in Zion, 53–54
Christian Faith Band, 86
Christian Friendship Work, 89
Christian perfectionism, 82–84
Christian Recorder (A. M. E. newspaper), 37
Church of Canaanites, 54
Church of Christ Presbyterian Church, 37
Church of Dabreh Michoo, 141
Church of God, 54, 86, 87, 89, 92
Church of God, the Full Gospel, and the Apostolic Faith Mission, 54
Church of God and Saints of Christ
adoption of Mosaic laws, 45, 50
1899 assembly of, 50
growth of, 5, 50, 51, 208 n131
practices of, 9, 39, 45–46
schism of, 53, 183, 194 n5, 210 n145, 219n 145
teachings of, 8, 45, 91, 135
white converts to, 41, 43, 47 See also Crowdy, William Saunders
Church of God in Christ (COGIC), 53, 90, 210 n144
Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith, 161
Church of the Living God, 89, 91, 159, 160
Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth, 159–160, 166
Church of the Nazarene, 107
Clark, A. W., 178
Cleage, Albert, 179
Cleveland, Ohio, 53
Cleveland Jewish Independent, 60
Clifford, James, 19, 20
clothing, as depiction of biblical past, 100–101
Coffeyville, Kansas, 43
Coffie, Hattie, 146
COGIC (Church of God in Christ), 53, 90, 210 n144
Colorado Territory, 29
color-based caste systems, 64
Colored Agricultural and Normal University, 34–35
Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, 37
Commandment Keepers Church of the Living God the Pillar and Ground of Truth and the Faith of Jesus Christ, 152, 153, 153, 155, 156, 159, 161–162, 163–166, 167
The Commandment Keepers Royal Order of Ethiopian Hebrews, the Sons and Daughters of Culture, Inc., 163, 172, 176–177, 241 n40, 245 n90
(p.295) Communism, 127, 132, 133, 149
Comoroff, Jean, 7
Comoroff, John, 7
Compromise of 1877, 26–27
Congregation Kaal Kodesh Beth Elohim, Charleston, S.C., 65, 66
conjure, 10, 11, 49, 155, 163–168, 183, 184, 186
Cook, Glenn A., 106
Cordoza, Francis Lewis, 64–65
Cordoza, Jacob Nuñez, 64
Cordoza, Lydia Williams, 64
Cowan, F. A., 143–144
Cox, Thomas J., 86
Crash of 1887, 87
Crawford, Florence, 106
Crawford, Mildred, 106
Crockett, Norman L., 35
Crowdy, August, 29
Crowdy, Basil, 23
Crowdy, Estella, 50
Crowdy, Eveline “Artie” Allen, 29
Crowdy, Isaac, 29, 39
Crowdy, Joseph, 52
Crowdy, Lovey J. Higgins, 29, 39, 44, 202 n27
Crowdy, Mattie Leah, 29
Crowdy, Sarah Ann, 23
Crowdy, William Saunders, 44
about, 55
biblical interpretations of, 40, 53, 81, 88, 91, 100, 104, 185
birth name of, 23, 24
as a black pioneer, 30, 33–34, 35, 36, 37–38, 114, 202 n25
death of, 46, 52, 183, 209 n139, 209 n141
early years of, 7, 9, 23, 29, 33–34
Freemasonry of, 8, 79, 80
ill treatment of, 39–40, 42–43, 48
military career of, 24, 200 n4
preaching career of, 39–41, 42–43, 47–48
on racial discrimination, 46
polycultural bricolage of, 45
religious epiphany of, 3, 7, 12, 90
sermons (“epistles”) of, 46
spiritualist encounter of, 49
spiritual visions and communications of, 7, 38–39, 40–41, 47
teachings of, 55
view of alcohol consumption, 44–45
white converts of, 41, 43, 47, 48–49
The Crusader (magazine), 118
cultural hegemony, 20–21
Curacao, 61
Curriculum of the Ethiopian Hebrew Rabbinical College of the Royal Order of Ethiopian Hebrews and the Commandment Keepers Congregation of the Living God, Inc. (Matthew), 163
Daniels, David D. III, 85
Darhe Jesarim (The Way of the Righteous) organization, 62
Davis, Jefferson, 64
The Dearborn Independent, 133
de Certeau, Michel, 20
Declaration of Rights of Negro Peoples of the World, 119
Decree Book (Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth), 159–160
de Laurence, Lauron William, 148, 167, 168–170, 173–174, 186
Deleuze, Gilles, 6–7
Der Judenstaat (Herzl), 73
Detroit, Michigan, 47
dialects, African, 61
Diaspora theories, African, 3, 5, 10, 16, 51, 56–59
Dickens, W. O., 178
(p.296) Dickerson, Abel S., 52
Divine, Bishop Saint John, 185
Divine, M. J. “Father Divine”
beliefs of, 167
as charismatic leader, 111
millenarian movement of, 179
Peace Mission movement of, 154
polycultural bricolage of, 183–184
practices of, 115, 117
transracial appeal of, 48
Djoe-tongo language, 61
Dodge City, Kansas, 43
Dore, David, 172
Douglas, Aaron, 46
Dowie, John Alexander, 53–54, 94, 100, 135
Du Bois, W. E. B., 13
Dunkley, Henry, 149
Dutch West India Company, 59
East Indian revivalism, 103, 104
Eliade, Mircea, 174
Ellis, Philip, 161
Emmanuel, Taamarat, 138
Emporia, Kansas, 41, 43
England, 71–72
Enterprise, Kansas, 43
Ethiopia
in 1930s, 139
American Diplomatic Legation to, 140–141
Battle of Adwa (Adowa), 9, 114, 135
Beta Israel in, 58, 136–137, 141–143
biblical founding story, 136, 137
Black Diaspora Ethiopianism, 135–136, 149
Black Israelite colony in, 113, 131, 137–148, 149, 151, 185, 236 n167
capital of, 139–140
Marcus Msiah Garvey on, 136
practice of Mosaic laws in, 58
racism in, 137
as Zion of Africa, 135–136
ethnic cleansing, 87
eugenics movement, 13, 15
Evans, Brother, 106
Evans, Jennie, 109
Evans, Sister, 106
Exodusters, 23, 26–28, 87, 185, 201 n21
faith healing, 93
Faitlovitch, Jacques, 137
Falashas, 58, 136–137, 141–143
Fels, Tony, 76
Fire Baptized Holiness Church, 88, 94
First Baptist Church, 105
First Identity Church of Brooklyn, 72–73
Five Civilized Tribes of the Western Indian Territory, 30
Florence, Kansas, 43
Ford, Abiyi, 147
Ford, Arnold Josiah, 123, 125, 126
and the Aurienoth Club, 134–135
and the B.B.A., 126–130, 134, 155
death of, 147, 183
early years of, 118
and Ethiopian colonization, 137, 139, 140–147, 149, 151, 185
family life of, 120, 147
as a Freemason, 120, 122, 127
and Haile Selassie I (Ras Tafari Makonnen), 10, 113, 137, 139, 141, 146
history of, 10, 113–114
polycultural bricolage theology of, 130–131
public speaking skills of, 129
theories and teachings of, 122–126, 128–129, 153, 185
and the U.N.I.A., 121, 126, 127, 173
Zionism of, 134
Ford, Gwendolyn Aenid, 118
Ford, Mignon Innis, 147
(p.297) Ford, Olive Nurse, 118, 120
Ford, Violet Arlene, 118, 120
Ford, Yoseph, 147
Forrest, Henry, 178
Fourfold Gospel, 85
Francis, Yisrael, 62–63
The Freemason (Masons), 78
Freemasonry
African American establishment of, 53, 74, 75
American (York) Rite, 75
and Anglo-Israelism, 74–76, 77–79
as Black Israelism inspiration, 8, 154, 176, 184
as Black Orientalism inspiration, 10
Blue Lodges, 74
and William Sanders Crowdy, 8, 79, 80
development of, 73–74, 218–219 n101
elements of, 8, 50, 176, 177–178
and Arnold Josiah Ford, 120, 122, 127
historical theories of, 58, 68, 74–76, 121
ideology of, 74–77, 218–219 n101
and Jews, 75–76
Jews and, 75–76
Masonic Holy Land League of, 77
Moorish Zionist Movement in, 23n 50, 121–122, 122, 173
narratives of, 7, 8
Scottish Rite, 31–32, 74, 75, 77, 120
spread of, 74
Freemasonry in Holy Lands (Morris), 77
Free Soil, 27, 43
Fuller, William E., 88
Full Gospel Church, 54
Gabrou, Kentiba, 138, 140, 141, 145
Gaines, Kevin, 144
Galena, Kansas, 99
Garden City, Kansas, 43
Garvey, Marcus Mosiah
about, 12
anti-Semitism of, 133
as Black Nationalist leader, 114, 119–121, 127–128, 131–133, 141, 144–145, 173, 184
as religious prophet, 150
on Ethiopia, 136
and Rastafarianism, 148, 149
religious circle of, 10, 166
and the U.N.I.A., 119–120, 173
on Zionism, European Jewish 134
General Conference of Methodist Episcopal Churches for the Southern United States, 86
German Jews, in 19th century America, 40
gift of tongues. See glossolalia and xenoglossia
Girard, Kansas, 43
Glassey, Jennie, 93–94, 97
Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689, 69
glossolalia
as evidence of sanctification, 109, 114
explanation of, 224 n64
in the Holiness movement, 9, 81, 82, 92, 109–110, 224 n64
and the Holiness-Pentecostalism shift, 9, 109–111
in Pentecostalism, 9, 92, 109–110
as performative innovation, 81
shift to, from xenoglossia, 82
Gnosticism, 76
Goff, James R. Jr., 99
Good Tidings (Hephzibah Faith Missionary Society), 92
Grace, Sweet Daddy, 111
Gramsci, Antonio, 20
The Great Book of Magical Arts, Hindu Magic, and East Indian Occultism (de Laurence), 148
(p.298) Great Depression, 131
Great Migration, 9–10, 29, 48, 80, 185
Great Plains, settlement of, 87
Great Revival of 1860, 158
Great Zimbabwe ruins, 57
Groves, J. M., 41, 43, 44, 52–53
Guattari, Félix, 6–7
Guglielmo, Thomas, 21
Guthrie, Oklahoma, 31–33
Haile Selassie I (Ras Tafari Makonnen)
belief in the divinity of, 148, 149, 151
Arnold Josiah Ford and, 10, 113, 137, 139, 141, 146
racial discrimination in the kingdom of, 142
Hailu, Ras, 140, 141
Haitian Revolution of 1791, 9
Halevy, Joseph, 136–137
Haley's Comet, 150–151
Hall, Prince, 74
Harlem
Black Israelite culture in, 115, 137, 151, 184, 185, 186
as Black Israelite epicenter, 113
post Renaissance, 179
Rastafarianism leader in, 148–149
Renaissance of, 13, 130, 131, 154, 175–176, 180
Workers’ Center, 127
Harrel, Charles, 178
Harrison, Benjamin, 33
Harrison, Hubert, 12, 13, 173, 180
Harvey, Annie M., 149
Harvey, David, 149
Hawkins, Coleman, 46
Hebrew Bible, 10
Hephzibah Faith Missionary Society, 92
Herman, Mordecai, 121, 122, 173
Herskovits, Frances, 14, 17
Herskovits, Melville Jean, 13, 14, 15, 16–18, 111, 186–187
Herzl, Theodore, 73, 101
Hibbert, Joseph Nathaniel, 148
Hickerson, John “Bishop Eshof Benoved”/“The Rev. St. Bishop the Vine,” 166–167, 172
Higgins, Lovey J., 29, 202 n27
Hill, Robert, 149
Hillel Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, 76
Holiness movement
African American influence on, 82, 83, 85–86, 88, 110–111, 114–115, 220 n3
backlash against, 86
and Black Israelite movement, 87, 90, 91, 114–115, 184
Black West Indian influence on, 115
and Christian millennialism, 97
Christian practices adoption by, 87, 122
and clothing, as depiction of biblical past, 100–101
“come-outism” faction of, 85
doctrinal innovations of, 87–88, 111
elements of, in the COGASOC, 50, 53
Ethiopianism of, 114
female clergy in, 114
formation of, 5, 82–83, 84–88
and glossolalia, 9, 81, 82, 92, 109–110, 224 n64
growth of, 25, 39, 84–87, 90, 94–97, 99, 100, 205 n81, 221 n21
Hebraic practices adoption by, 8, 85, 86, 89–90, 114, 122, 184
missionaries, 92–93
in New York, 94
overseas spread of, 92
polyculturalism in, 81–82, 110
post-Reconstruction era, 81, 82, 84–85
and racial discrimination, 86, 89
(p.299) racial integration in, 43–44
shift into Pentecostalism, 109–111, 135
The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition (Synan), 82
The Holy Piby or The Blackman's Bible (Rogers), 150
“Holy Rollers.” See Holiness movement
Homesteading Act of 1862, 26
The Hope of Israel (ben Israel), 69
House of God, Holy Church of the Living God, the Pillar and Ground of Truth, the House of Prayer of All People Church, 114
House of Israel (Falashas), 58, 136–137, 141–143
Houston, Texas, 99
Houston Chronicle, 101
Howell, Leonard Percival, 148–150, 184, 185
Huggins, Willis Nathaniel, Sr., 13
Hughes, Carrie Mercer Langston, 32
Hughes, James Nathaniel, 32
Hughes, Langston, 32, 46
Hurston, Zora Neale, 13, 14, 15, 166
Hutchins, Julia, 105
Ibandla lase Tiyopiya (South African church), 53
“identity” churches, 72–73
immigration, U.S., 21
imperialism, 10, 71–72, 80, 95–96, 102–103, 113
Independent Order of B’nai B’rith, 75–76
Independent Order of the Free Sons of Abraham, 75
Independent Order of the Free Sons of Judah, 75
Independent Order of the Sons of Benjamin, 75
Indian Territory, 29
The Influence of Sea Power on World History (Mahan), 92
Innis, Mignon, 143, 147
Inskip, John S., 86
Intercollegiate Cosmopolitan Club and the Fellowship of Reconciliation, 127
International Apostolic Church of Cincinnati Ohio, 92
The Irish Prince and the Hebrew Prophet (ancient manuscript), 77
Irwin, Benjamin, 88, 94
Islam, 10, 53, 89, 130, 151, 154, 179, 184
Israelite House of David, Benton Harbor, Michigan, 104
The Israelites Found in the Anglo-Saxons (Carpenter), 77–78
Jackson, Edna, 138
Jackson, John L., 13
Jacobson, Matthew Frye, 21
Jamaica, 60, 69–70, 113, 148, 213 n34
James II, 69
Jehovah's Witness movement, 135
Jesus, 4, 41, 45, 46, 179
Jews of European descent
in 19th century America, 66–68, 80
abolitionist, 67–68
in the ante-bellum South, 63–64, 65–66
Ashkenazi, 4, 5, 21, 58, 59–60, 61–62, 66–68, 123, 129, 180, 198 n42
Barbadian, 60, 213 n34
Black Jews, narrative of, 8
Ethiopian, 58, 136–137, 141–143
Freemasonry and, 75–76
Jamaican, 60, 213 n34
Mediterranean, 56–57
(p.300) mixed race descendants of, 60–63, 62–63, 64–65, 212 n17, 215 n52
nationalist, 73, 101–102, 131
New World, 59–67, 213 n24
of patrilineal descent, 63
post-World War I anti-Semitism and, 133
pre-twentieth century identification of, 57
role in slave trade, 59, 60, 61, 64, 214 n45
Sephardic, 4, 21, 59, 60–62, 63, 66, 125, 180
whiteness and, xii, 4, 11, 21, 59–63, 66–68, 80, 121, 123–124, 153–154, 175, 183, 185
worship segregation of, 65–66
Jews and Negro Slavery in the Old South, 1789–1865 (Korn), 63
Jim Crow era, 7, 174
Joden Savanna settlement, 62
Johnson, R. A. R., 114, 117, 151, 160, 161, 183, 241 n31
Jones, John G., 53
Judaic rituals, adoption of, 45–46, 154–155
Judaism
American, 60–61
Black, 4, 10, 21, 65–66, 130, 179
Junction City, Kansas, 43
Kabbalah, 76, 143 n60, 154, 163–166, 168–172, 169, 171
Kakungulu, Semei, 54–55, 58
Kansas
19th century population of, 26, 42, 97, 99, 206 n95
19th century religious presence in, 42–43, 206–107 n96, 206 n95
Black exodus to, 24–28, 87
black population of, 42
revivalism in, 99
Kansas City, Kansas/Missouri, 29, 42
Kansas Exodus, 26–28
Kasa, Ras, 141
Kelley, Robin D.G., 18–19, 20
Kessler, David Francis, 136
Knights Templar, 74, 75
Korn, Bertram Wallace, 63, 66
Labiel, George, 47, 208 n126
Ladino language, 61
Landes, Ruth, 116, 166
Lange, Dierk, 57
Langston, Carrie Mercer, 32
Langston, John Mercer, 32
Langston, Oklahoma, 32, 34, 35, 37
Langston City Herald, 32, 33–34
Lankford, Sarah A., 84
Larned, Kansas, 43
Latter-Day Saints, 47, 184
Lavender, Elder, 48, 49, 208 n126
Lawrence, Kansas, 25, 41, 42, 43, 46, 49–50
Lawson, R. C., 161, 241 n36
Lazarus, Joseph, 179
League of Struggle for Negro Rights, 127
Leavenworth, Kansas, 42, 43
Levine, Lawrence, 174
Levy, Sholomo B., 11
Lewis, John Solomon, 28
Liberia, 29
Liberty Hall, 119, 120, 121, 173
Liburd, Florence Docher, 159
Lincoln, Abraham, 24
Lincoln, Bruce, 16
Lipsitz, George, 20
Locke, Alaine, 17
Los Angeles, California, 104–106
Los Angeles Daily Times, 109
Lost Israelites of Kenya church, 54
(p.301) Lost Tribes of Israel, 9, 45, 56–58, 69, 90–91, 113, 184, 212 n17
Lum, Clara, 106
Luria, Isaac, 76
Lynch, Mary, 143
Lyons, Kansas, 43
Mack Julian, 133
Mahamad (Jewish governmental authority), 62
Mahan, Alfred T., 92
The Making of the English Working Class (Thompson), 71
Makonnen, Ras Tafari. See Haile Selassie I
Malcolm X, 12, 184
Manhattan, Kansas, 43
Maragh, Gangunguru (G.G.), See Howell, Leonard Percival
Marcus, Jacob R., 60
Marley, Bob, 151
Marsh, Mark, 48
Maryam, Sahle, 135
Maryland, 23–24
Masai people, 57
Mason, Charles H., 53, 90, 210 n144
Masonic Holy Land League, 77
Masons. See Freemasonry
Matory, J. Lorand, 51
Matthew, Annie, 160, 240 n31
Matthew, Florence Docher Liburd, 159
Matthew, Frances Cornelious, 156
Matthew, Joseph, 156
Matthew, Wentworth Arthur, 152
about, 10–11, 12–13, 91, 111, 129
apocalyptic beliefs of, 174–175
Black Israelite Ethiopian colonization and, 140–141
Black Israelite network of, 178–179
cosmology of, 152–153, 161
death of, 156, 180, 183
early years of, 156–158, 159
ethnological theories of, 175
Kabbalistic diagrams of, 143 n60, 168–172, 169, 171
New Thought beliefs of, 167–173
polycultural bricolage of, 152–154, 155–156, 157–158, 163–166, 179–181, 186
religious practices of, 161–162, 176–178
and the U.N.I.A., 173, 175
work environment of, 172–173
Mayer, Maurice, 66
McCabe, Edward (Edwin) P., 30–34, 33
McCabe, E. P., 46
McCalman, Ian, 69
McKethan, L. A. “Levi Ben Levy,” 173–174, 180
Mead, Margaret, 15
Menelik II, 135
Merriweather, Lee J., 38
Methodist Church
in the American South, 84–85
Black influence on, 82, 83
growth of, 42, 81, 83, 206–207n
as Israelite identity source, 58, 68, 69–70
narratives of, 8
sanctification process within, 83, 110, 227 n8
Southern, 84
Michaux, Elder, 111
Micheaux, Oscar, 46
Migijima, Enoch, 54
Mikve Israel synagogue, 61
Miles, Agnes, 161
Millennialism
in the 1790s, 69
African Zionist, 54
in the American South, 27–28
Anglo Israelite, 68, 69–71, 95–96, 101
in the antebellum South, 27–28
Black religious interplanetary, 150–151
(p.302) in the British 1790s, 69
Christian missionary, 57
in the C.O.G.A.S.O.C., 54
and the Holiness movement, 97
and revivalism, 103–104
Frank Sandford and, 95–97
Msikinya, John, 54
missionaries, 7, 83, 92–93, 103, 113, 135
Mokone, Mangena, 53
Moody, James, 138
Moore, Jennie Evans, 106, 109
Moorish Zionist Temple (M.Z.T.), 121–122, 122, 173, 230 n50
Moravian Pietists, 83
More, Hannah, 158
Mormonism, 47, 184, 207 n96
Morris, Robert, 77
Mosaic laws
Black Israelite adoption of, 81
and the COGASOC, 45, 50
Holiness movement adoption of, 88
practice of, in Ethiopia, 58
and Seventh Day Adventists, 47–48
Muhammad, Elijah, 184
music, 151, 160, 162, 178–179
Myal (Jamaican occult practice), 158–159
Myrdal, Gunnar, 18
The Myth of the Negro Past (Herskovits), 15, 16, 18
M.Z.T. (Moorish Zionist Temple), 121–122, 122, 173, 230 n50
N.A.M.A. (New Amsterdam Musical Association), 118
National Camp Meetings for the Promotion of Holiness, 84, 86
National Holiness Association, 87
Nation of Islam, 53, 89, 130, 151, 179, 184
The Negro World (newspaper), 119
New Amsterdam Musical Association (N.A.M.A.), 118
New Hope Baptist Church, 37
The New Negro (Locke), 17
New Testament, 45
New Thought beliefs, 167–173, 180, 184, 185–186
Newton, Kansas, 43
New York, 25, 48, 94, 115, 119
New York Times, 24, 35
Nurse, Olive, 118, 120
Obeah (African occult practice), 158
occultism, 148–149
Oklahoma Missionary Episcopal Church, 37
Oklahoma Territory, 29, 30–31, 33, 34–37
Oneida, New York, 47, 49
Oriental and Biblical Journal, 91
Orientalism
American, 10, 91–92, 99–102, 225 n78
Black, 10, 19, 91–92, 99–100, 112, 113, 225 n78
Holiness-Pentecostalism and, 91–92, 112, 184
Masonic, 75
millennialism and, 101
patriarchal gender politics and, 113
and Charles Fox Parham, 97–103, 104, 109, 225 n78
subversive imperialist ideology of, 10
Western framing of, 102–103
xenoglossia and, 81–82, 99–100, 108, 109
Ortiz, Fernando, 18
Osage City, Kansas, 43
Ottawa, Kansas, 43
Ottley, Roi, 177
Ozman, Agnes, 97–98
Padmore, George, 149
Painter, Nell Irvin, 27, 201 n19
(p.303) Palestine Foundation Fund, 134
Palmer, Phoebe Worrall, 84
Panic of 1893, 87
Parham, Charles Fox, 93
about, 8, 9
break with the Pentecostal movement of, 109–110
early years of, 93
“latter rain” theology of, 104–105
Orientalism of, 97–103, 104, 109, 225 n78
xenoglossia and, 82, 93–95
Parham, Sarah Thistlewaite, 93
Paris, Eudora, 142, 147
Paris, Hailu, 147–148, 236 n175
Passover, 43, 45–46, 50, 154
patriarchal gender politics, 113, 144–145, 174, 185
Peabody, Kansas, 43
Peace Mission movement, 154
Pentecost, 94
Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, 105
Pentecostal movement
and African Initiated Churches, 53
apostolic faith within, 100, 106–108
contribution to Black Israelism, 154, 180
early years of, 90, 91, 93
and glossolalia, 9, 92, 109–110
Holiness movement shift to, 9, 109–111, 135
in Los Angeles, 104–106
move to radical egalitarianism of, 108–109
Orientalism in, 91–92, 108, 184
polycultural development of, 81–82, 110
rise of theology of, 9, 24, 25, 81–82
role of Black women in, 107
segregation in, 108
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 49–51
Philadelphia Revival of 1877–1879, 85–86
Phylon (Brotz), 166
Pierce, Franklin, 64
Pinnacle community, 149
Pioneers of Aethiopia, 143–144
polyculturalism and polycultural bricolage
about, 19–20, 197 n33
and Africanisms/retentions/survivals, 5, 16, 18, 81, 220, 226
Afro-Caribbean, 74, 150, 157–159, 160, 164–165, 167
Anglo-Israelite, 69–73, 77–79
Black Jewish, 152–154, 155–156
Caribbean Christian, 157–158
conjure and, 163–166
of William Saunders Crowdy, 45
of M. J. Divine, 183–184
of Arnold Josiah Ford, 130–131
Holiness movement, 81–82, 110
of Wentworth Arthur Matthew, 152–154, 155–156, 157–158, 163–166, 179–181, 186
Pentecostal movement, 81–82, 110
and rhizomatic cultural systems, 5–7, 58, 194 n10
and syncretism, 16, 19–20, 186–187, 197 n33
polygamy, 145
Poor Pilgrim's Work (Christian), 79
Populist movement, 87
post-Reconstruction era, 81, 82, 84–85
Prashad, Vijay, 18, 19, 148, 150
Prince, Sister, 106
Prince Hall Freemasonry, 178
(p.304) Princess Zännäbä Wärq school, 147
print culture, 69
Prohibition movement, 44
The Promise Key (Maragh), 149–150
Prophet Cherry, 91
Prosser, Gabriel, 68
Protestant Reformation, 68
Protestant Revivalism, 67
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, 133
Purnell, Benjamin, 104
Purnell, Mary, 104
Quirin, James, 137
Ra, Sun, 151
race-consciousness, 89
racial discrimination, 46, 86, 89
racial integration, 43–44, 104, 106, 108
racism, 25–28, 137
radical theology, 54
Ramabai, Pandita Sarasvati, 104
Rastafarianism
depiction of, 12
and Marcus Mosiah Garvey, 148
leader in Harlem, 148–149
and New Thought concept of God, 167
occultism in, 148–149
roots of, 10, 53, 113, 150–151, 184, 185
traditions of, 150
use of term, 4
view of Haile Selassie I, 148 see also Howell, Leonard Percival
Rechabites, 66
Reconstruction era, 8, 25, 26, 29
Reform Judaism, 67, 76
reggae music, 151
Reuben, Abihu, 179
Revivalism
Afro-Caribbean, 150
Kansas, 99
Myal, 158
Protestant, 67
The Rev. St. Bishop the Vine “Bishop Eshof Bendoved,” 166–167, 172
rhizomatic cultural systems, 5–7, 58, 194 n10. See polyculturalism
Roberson, Elder Warien (a.k.a. E. W., Eli, Warren, or Ishi), 115–117, 121, 183, 184
Roberson, Fanny, 117
Roberts, Evan, 103–104
Rodney, Winston Godfrey, 151
Rogers, Joel Augusts, 133
Rogers, Robert Athlyi, 150
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 138
Rosenwald, Julius, 34
Rosh Hashanah, 154
Rusape, Zimbabwe, 54
Said, Edward, 71
Salina, Kansas, 43
Samarin, William J., 99–100
Sanborn, John, 30
Sandeford, Brother, 143
Sandford, Frank, 9, 93, 94–97, 95, 100, 103, 104
San Francisco Hebrew, 76
Santeria, 74, 164, 165, 167
Schneider, Xavier, 47
Scott, H. C., 178
Scott, James, 11, 154
Scott, William R., 134
Scottish Rite Freemasonry, 31–32, 77, 120
Sefer Ha-Zohar (Book of Splendor), 76
Sefer Yetsirah (Book of Creation), 76
segregation, 7, 65–66, 108, 174
Sermon on the Mount, 45
Sernett, Milton, 111
Seven Keys, 38–39, 44, 205 n80
(p.305) Seventh Day Adventists, 47–48, 54, 135, 158
Seymour, Jennie Evans Moore, 106, 109
Seymour, William Joseph, 82, 105–108, 106, 107, 107–108, 110
Shack, William A., 135
Shiloh Holiness school, 93, 94–95, 96, 96–97, 230 n50
Shomburg, Arturo, 13
Shriners, 10
Simons, Billy, 66
Simpson, A. B., 94
Sister's Unity Gideon Band, 160
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (de Laurence), 168–170, 169, 173–174, 186
slaves and slavery
and color-based caste systems, 64
escapes and rebellions, 68
in Indian Territory, 30
in Maryland, 23–24
and religious exclusion, 65–66
role of Jews of European descent in slave trade, 59, 60, 61, 64, 214 n45 See also Abolitionist movement
Smale, Joseph, 105
Smith, Elias Dempsey, 114, 117
Smith, Hiram W., 106
Smith, Joseph, 47
Smythe, Howard, 11
social perfectionism teachings, 84
Société de l’Alliance Israélite Universelle, 137, 138
Society for Promoting Christianity among the Jews, 136
South Africa, 50, 51, 53
Southard, Addison, 138, 141, 145, 146
Southcott, Joanna, 69, 104, 184
speaking in tongues. See glossolalia
Spiritualism, 5, 49, 54, 154, 164–165
SS St. Louis, 147
Stein, Judith, 144
Stein, Robert, 59
Stern, Henry, 136
Stewart, R. Emmett, 34
St. George's United Methodist Church, 83
St. Louis, Missouri, 27
St. Louis Globe-Democrat, 27
St. Mary's County, Maryland, 23–24, 199–200 n2
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 72
Straw, Violet Arlene Ford, 118, 120
Strong City, Kansas, 43
Surinam, 61–62
Synan, Vinson, 82
syncretism, 16, 19–20, 186–187, 197 n33
Syracuse, New York, 47
Tabernacle meetings, 84
Tacitus (Roman historian), 56
Tate, Mary L., 159–160
Temperance movement, 44
Temple of the Gospel of the Kingdom of the Ever-Live-and-Never-Die Church, 115
Terry, Mrs. Neely, 107
Texas, 99, 100, 107
Theosopist teachings, 186
Thislewaite, Sarah, 93
Thomas,—Mrs., 143
Thompson, E. P., 71
Thornton, Jesse B., 53
Thornton, John, 74
Thurman, Wallace, 46
Titus,—Mrs., 47, 48
Topeka, Kansas, 41–42, 43
Topeka Daily Capital, 97
Topeka State Journal, 99
Totten, C.A.L., 95
transculturation, use of term, 18
Triumph, the Church and Kingdom of God in Christ Church, 114
Truth, Sojourner, 85
(p.306) Tsana Lake Dam project, 138–139, 140, 141
Turner, Nat, 68
Uganda, 55
Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory, 33
United Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A.)
about, 10, 118, 119–120
Arnold Ford and, 121, 126, 127, 173
Leonard Percival Howell and, 149
ideology of, 134, 173
Wentworth Arthur Matthew and, 173, 175
Robert Athlyi Rogers and, 150 See also Garvey, Marcus Mosiah
Valentine, Samuel, 124
as B.B.A. founder, 121–122, 122–123, 124, 126, 131
and the B.B.A. schism, 173
early years of, 120
Valley Falls, Kansas, 43
Varick, James, 83
Vesey, Denmark, 68
Vineland, New Jersey, 84
Vodou, 74, 164, 165, 167, 172
The Voice of the Negro (literary journal), 65
Waitzkin, Howard, 165, 166
Walker, Flora, 47, 48, 205 n26
Walzer, Michael, 71
Wamego, Kansas, 43
War of 1898, 92, 96
Washington, Booker T., 34–36, 119, 143, 173
Washington, George, 74
Watchtower movement, 135
Watts, Jill, 166
The Way of the Righteous (Darhe Jesarim) organization, 62
Webb, James, 76
Wedderburn, Robert, 70
Welsh revivalism, 103–104
Weisbord, Robert G., 59
Wesley, John, 81, 82–83, 84, 85, 110, 184
West Africans, 12
West Indians, 4, 60, 69–70, 115
Whitefield, George C., 85–86
White Hebrew Israelites, 68
Wichita, Kansas, 43
Williams, Emma, 86
Williams, Lydia, 64
Willington, A. S., 66
Wilson, John, 71
Wise, Isaac Meyer, 76
Wolf, Edward G., 117
women
in the B.B.A., 131
Black Caribbean immigration of, 115
Black Israelite, 12, 174
Black Nationalist, 175
as clergy, 114
in the Commandment Keepers, 152, 153, 160, 162
Pentecostal, 107
in Elder Roberson's church, 117
religious dress style, 114
World War I, 9, 80
World's Columbian International Exposition, Chicago, 1893, 10
xenoglossia
as evidence of sanctification, 92–94, 95, 97–99, 105
in the Holiness-Pentecostalism transition, 9, 110
and Orientalism, 81–82, 99–100, 108, 109
shift to glossolalia, 82
theory of, 224 n64
(p.307) Xhosa people, 57
Yates, Frances, 76
Yom Kippur, 154
Zimbabwe, 54
Zion City, Illinois, 53
Zionism
African, 54
Anglo Israelite, 68–74, 101–102
Black Israelite, 10, 131–133, 134, 173
and Jews of European descent, 69, 101, 232 n97
Moorish Zionist Temple, 121–122, 173
Zulu people, 57