Among the five cognitive functions, intelligence is the most complex and the most difficult to define. The complexity derives from the close relationships between intelligence and all other four functions—perception, memory, attention, and language. All four contribute to intelligence, though each does it in a different way and to a varying degree, depending on the individual and the circumstances. The difficulty of defining intelligence derives from the almost infinite variety of its manifestations. Here it is defined as the ability to adjust by reasoning to new changes, to solve new problems, and to create valued new forms of action and expression. This definition is broad enough to reach into the biological roots of cognition and also to reach up to the heights of human achievement. The pertinent data from cognitive neuroscience indicate that intellectual performance can be best understood as the result of neuronal transactions between perceptual and executive networks of the cerebral cortex. This chapter discusses the development of intelligence, structural anatomy and functional anatomy of intelligence, reasoning, problem solving, decision making, and creative intelligence.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.