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Mystics$

William Harmless

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195300383

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300383.001.0001

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Mystics
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Chapter 1 Jean Gerson: Texts and Studies

For Gerson’s original Latin and French texts, see P. Glorieux, Jean Gerson: Oeuvres complètes, 10 vols. (Paris: Descleé, 1960–1970). For a critical edition of his De mystica theologia, see André Combes, ed., Ioannis Carlerii de Gerson: De Mystica Theologia (Lugano, Switzerland: Thesarus Mundi, 1958). For a partial translation, see Brian Patrick McGuire, ed., Jean Gerson: Early Works, CWS (New York: Paulist Press, 1998). For a study of Gerson’s life, world, and thought, see Brian Patrick McGuire, Jean Gerson and the Last Medieval Reformation (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005). For an analysis of Gerson’s mystical theology, see Steven Ozment, Homo Spiritualis: A Comparative Study of the Anthropology of Johannes Tauler, Jean Gerson, and Martin Luther (1509–16) In the Context of Their Theological Thought, Studies in Medieval and Reformation Thought (Leiden: Brill, 1969). See also:

Brown, D. Catherine. Pastor and Laity in the Theology of Jean Gerson Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Combes, André. Jean Gerson: Commentateur dionysien. Paris: J. Vrin, 1940.

——. Le théologie mystique de Gerson, profil de son évolution. 2 vols. Rome: Desclée, 1963–1964.

Oakley, Francis. The Western Church in the Later Middle Ages. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979.

Posthumus Meyjes, G. H. M. Jean Gerson, Apostle of Unity: His Church Politics and Ecclesiology. Trans. J. C. Grayson. Studies in the History of Christian Thought 94. Leiden: Brill, 1999.

(p.316) Swanson, R. N. Universities, Academics, and the Great Schism. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought. 3rd ser., vol. 12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

William James: Texts and Studies

The place to start is, of course, with William James’s The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature, Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902. There are numerous reprints, but I recommend the 1985 critical edition found in the comprehensive collection of James’s writings: The Works of William James, 17 vols., ed. Frederick H. Burkhardt, Fredson Bowers, and Ignas K. Skrupskelis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975–1988). For an introduction to James, see Gerald E. Myers, William James: His Life and Thought (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986); see also the valuable essays in Ruth Anna Putnam, ed., The Cambridge Companion to William James (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). Other important studies include:

Barnard, G. William. Exploring Unseen Worlds: William James and the Philosophy of Mysticism. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1997.

Capps, Donald, and Janet L. Jacobs, eds. The Struggle for Life: A Companion to William James’s The Varieties of Religious Experience. Society for the Scientific Study of Religion Monograph Series, no. 9. Princeton: Princeton Theological Seminary, 1995.

Lambert, David C. William James and the Metaphysics of Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Proudfoot, William, ed., William James and a Science of Religions: Reexperiencing The Varieties of Religious Experience. Columbia Series in Science and Religion. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Ramsey, Bennett. Submitting to Freedom: The Religious Vision of William James. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Simon, Linda. Genuine Reality: A Life of William James. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1998.

Suckiel, Ellen Kappy. Heaven’s Champion: William James’s Philosophy of Religion. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.

Chapter 2 Thomas Merton: Texts

Merton was an extraordinarily prolific writer. The book that catapulted him to fame was his autobiography, The Seven Storey Mountain, 50th anniversary ed. (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1998). While Merton later rejected its romanticized vision of monasticism, it still may be the best place to start. Merton’s best work on mystical spirituality is New Seeds of Contemplation (New York: New Directions, 1962). The journal was a genre Merton excelled in. His two best are Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966) and the posthumously published Asian Journal of Thomas

(p.317) Merton, ed. Naomi Stone, Patrick Hart, and James Laughlin (New York: New Directions, 1973). See also the excellent anthology by Lawrence S. Cunningham, ed., Thomas Merton, Spiritual Master: The Essential Writings (New York: Paulist Press, 1992). This provides not only selections from The Seven Storey Mountain, New Seeds, and Conjectures, but also important and hard-to-find essays such as “Day of a Stranger” and “Rain and the Rhinoceros.” In the 1990s, Merton’s private journals were finally permitted to be published and are available as a seven-volume set. For a selection, see Patrick Hart and Jonathan Montaldo, eds., The Intimate Merton: His Life from His Journals (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999). Other important works include:

Merton, Thomas. The Cold War Letters. Ed. Christine M. Bochen and William H. Shannon. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2006.

——. Contemplation in a World of Action. Ed. Robert Coles. 1971. Reprint: Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1998.

——. Contemplative Prayer. New York: Doubleday / Image, 1972.

——. The Inner Experience: Notes on Contemplation. Ed. William H. Shannon. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2003.

——. Mystics and Zen Masters. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1967.

——. The Sign of Jonas. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1953.

——. Thoughts in Solitude. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1976.

——. Zen and the Birds of Appetite. New York: New Directions, 1968.

——, ed. The Way of Chuang Tzu. New York: New Directions, 1965.

——, ed. Wisdom of the Desert. New York: New Directions, 1960.

Thomas Merton: Studies

The most thorough biography of Merton is Michael Mott’s The Seven Mountains of Thomas Merton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1986). An especially valuable resource is The Thomas Merton Encyclopedia, ed. William H. Shannon, Christine M. Bochen, and Patrick F. O’Connell (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2002). See also the Merton Annual: Studies in Culture, Spirituality and Social Concerns, published since 1987 and currently edited by George A. Kilcourse, Jr. and Victor A. Kramer. Other valuable studies include:

Baker, Rob and Gray Henry, eds. Merton and Sufism: The Untold Story: A Complete Compendium. Lexington, KY: Fons Vitae, 1999.

Carr, Anne E. A Search for Wisdom and Spirit: Thomas Merton’s Theology of the Self. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, 1988.

Cunningham, Lawrence S. Thomas Merton and the Monastic Vision. Library of Religious Biography. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1999.

Finley, James. Merton’s Palace of Nowhere. 1978. Reprint: Notre Dame: Ave Maria Press, 2003.

Hart, Patrick, ed. Thomas Merton, Monk: A Monastic Tribute. CS 52. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1983.

——, ed. The Monastic Journey of Thomas Merton. CS 133. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1977.

(p.318) King, Thomas M. Merton: Mystic at the Center of America. Way of the Christian Mystics 14. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press [A Michael Glazier Book], 1992.

King, Robert H. Thomas Merton and Thich Nhat Hanh: Engaged Spirituality in an Age of Globalization. New York: Continuum, 2001.

Montaldo, Jonathan, ed. Merton and Hesychasm. Lexington, KY: Fons Vitae, 2002.

Rice, Edward. The Man in the Sycamore Tree: The Good Times and Hard Life of Thomas Merton. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.

Shannon, William H. Silent Lamp: The Thomas Merton Story. New York: Crossroad, 1992.

——. Thomas Merton’s Dark Path. rev. ed. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1987.

Chapter 3 Bernard of Clairvaux: Texts and Translations

A critical edition of the Latin text of Bernard’s writings is the eight-volume Sancti Bernardi Opera, ed. J. Leclerq, C. H. Talbot, and H. Rochais (Rome, 1957–1977). For a selection of Bernard’s mystical texts, see G. R. Evans, Bernard of Clairvaux: Selected Works, Classics of Western Spirituality (New York: Paulist Press, 1987). Cistercian Publications has been steadily translating Bernard’s complete works, as well as those of his Cistercian friends and followers. See especially:

Stiegman, Emero, trans. Bernard of Clairvaux: On Loving God; An Analytical Commentary. CF 13B. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1996.

Walsh, Kilian, and Irene Edmonds, trans. Bernard of Clairvaux: On the Song of Songs. 4 vols. CF 4, 7, 31, and 40. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1971–1980.

Bernard of Clairvaux: Studies

For an introduction to Bernard’s life, world, and thought, see G. R. Evans, Bernard of Clairvaux, Great Medieval Thinkers series (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). An excellent study of Bernard’s mysticism is Bernard McGinn’s The Growth of Mysticism: Gregory the Great Through the 12th Century. (New York: Crossroad, 1994), 158–224. A classic study, dated but still valuable, is Étienne Gilson’s Étienne Gilson’s The Mystical Theology of St. Bernard trans. A. H. C. Downs, CS 120 (1940; reprint: Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1992). For a survey of the wider historical context, see Colin Morris, The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250, Oxford History of the Christian Church (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).See also:

Berman, Constance Hoffman. The Cistercian Evolution: The Invention of a Religious Order in Twelfth-Century Europe. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Bernard de Clairvaux: Histoire, mentalités, spiritualité. Colloque de Lyon-Cîteaux-Dijon. SC 380. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1992.

Bredero, Adriaan H. Bernard of Clairvaux: Between Cult and History. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1996. A critical revisionist study of the biographical sources.

(p.319) Bynum, Caroline Walker. Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California, 1982. Valuable essays on Cistercian spirituality.

Casey, Michael.. Athirst for God: Spiritual Desire in Bernard of Clairvaux’s Sermons on the Song of Songs. CS 77. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1988.

——. “Bernard’s Biblical Mysticism.” Studies in Spirituality 4 (1994): 12–30.

Kinder, Terryl N.. Cistercian Europe: Architecture of Contemplation. CS 191. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2001.

Lekai, Louis J.. The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1977.

Leclerq, Jean.. Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercian Spirit. Trans. Claire Lavoie CS 16. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1976.

——. The Love of Learning and the Desire for God: A Study of Monastic Culture. 3rd ed. Trans. Catharine Mirsrahi. New York: Fordham University Press, 1982.

——. A Second Look at Bernard of Clairvaux. Trans. Marie-Bernard Saïd. CS 105. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1990.

——. “General Introduction to the Works of Saint Bernard,” Cistercian Studies Quarterly 40 (2005): 3–25, 243–252, 365–394.

Pennington, M. Basil, ed. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux: Studies Commemorating the Eighth Centenary of His Canonization. CS 28. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1977.

Sommerfeldt, John R.. The Spiritual Teachings of Bernard of Clairvaux. CS 125. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1991. Part anthology, part commentary.

——, ed. Bernardus Magister: Papers Presented at the Nonacentenary Celebration of the Birth of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1992.

Chapter 4 Hildegard of Bingen: Texts and Translations

Critical editions of Hildegard’s Latin texts are steadily being edited and published in the Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Medievalis (CCCM). For the Latin text of Hildegard’s Scivias, see Hildegardis Bingenis Scivias, ed. Adelgundis Führkotter and Angela Carlevaris, CCCM 43–43A (Turnhout: Brepols, 1978); for an English translation, see Columba Hart and Jane Bishop, trans., Hildegard of Bingen: Scivias, CWS (New York: Paulist Press, 1990). For a selection of her letters, see Joseph L. Baird, ed., The Personal Correspondence of Hildegard of Bingen (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). See also:

Atherton, Mark, trans. Hildegard of Bingen: Selected Writings. Penguin Classics. London: Penguin, 2001.

Baird, Joseph L., and Radd K. Ehrman, trans. The Letters of Hildegard of Bingen. 3 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994–2004.

Dronke, Peter, ed. Nine Medieval Latin Plays. Cambridge Medieval Classics 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Contains Hildegard’s Ordo Virtutum.

(p.320) Hozeski, Bruce W., trans. Hildegard of Bingen: The Book of the Rewards of Life (Liber Vitae Meritorum). New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Silvas, Anna, ed. Jutta and Hildegard: The Biographical Sources. Brepols Medieval Women Series. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998.

Hildegard of Bingen: Discography

In Hildegard’s case, it is essential not only to read her writings but also to listen to her music. The early music group Sequentia has steadily recorded all her major works. For a selections from her music, see Sequentia (director: Barbara Thornton),Hildegard von Bingen: Canticles of Ecstasy (Deutsche Harmonia mundi, 1994); see also Sequentia’s performance of Hildegard’s Ordo Virtutum (Deutsche Harmonia mundi, 1998). For Hildegard’s song texts in Latin and English, see Barbara Newman, ed., Saint Hildegard of Bingen: Symphonia; A Critical Edition of the Symphonia armonie celestium revelationum, 2nd ed. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998).

Hildegard of Bingen: Studies

For a survey of Hildegard’s wide-ranging talents and interests, see Barbara Newman, ed., Voice of the Living Light: Hildegard of Bingen and Her World (Berkeley: University of California, 1998). Also valuable is Heinrich Schipperges, The World of Hildegard of Bingen: Her Life, Times, and Visions,trans. John Cumming (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1999); this has color plates from Hildegard’s manuscripts. See also:

Beer, Frances.. Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 1992.

Bent, Ian D., and Marianne Pfau. Marianne Pfau “Hildegard of Bingen.” In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed., ed.Stanley Sadie and John Tyrell, 11:493–499. New York: Macmillan, 2001.

Burnett, Charles and Peter Dronke, eds. Hildegard of Bingen: The Context of Her Thought and Art. Warburg Colloquia. London: University of London, 1998.

Davidson, Audrey Ekdahl, ed. The Ordo Virtutum of Hildegard of Bingen: Critical Studies. Early Drama, Art, and Music Monograph Series 18. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1992.

Dronke, Peter.. Women Writers of the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Flanagan, Sabina.. Hildegard of Bingen, 1098–1179: A Visionary Life. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 1988.

Haverkamp, Alfred. “Tenxwind von Andernach und Hildegard von Bingen: Zwei ‘Weltanschauungen,’ in der Mitte des 12. Jahrhunderts.” In Institutionem, Kultur und Gesellschaft im Mittelater: Festschriften für Josef Fleckenstein, ed. L. Fenske, W. Rösener, and T. Zotz, 515–548. Sigmaringen: J. Thorbecke, 1984.

——, ed. Hildegard von Bingen in ihrem wissenschaftlicher Kongreß zum 900 jährigen Jubiläum, 13.–19. September 1998, Bigne am Rhein. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 2000.

(p.321) Hollywood, Amy. “Ca. 1147: Hildegard of Bingen Writes to Bernard of Clairvaux.” In A New History of German Literature, ed. David E. Wellbery. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004. 39–44.

Kazarow, Patricia A.. “Text and Context in Hildegard of Bingen’s Ordo Virtutum.” In Maps of Flesh and Light: The Religious Experience of Medieval Women Mystics, ed. Ulrike Wiethaus. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1993. 127–151.

King-Lenzmeier, Anne H.. Hildegard of Bingen: An Integrated Vision. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2001.

Mooney, Catherine M., ed. Gendered Voices: Medieval Saints and Their Interpreters. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.

Newman, Barbara.. Sister of Wisdom: St. Hildegard’s Theology of the Feminine. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Chapter 5 Bonaventure: Texts and Translations

For Bonaventure’s Latin text, see Doctoris Seraphici S. Bonaventurae opera omnia, 10 vols. (Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1882–1902). The Mind’s Journey into God (Itinerarium Mentis in Deum) is found in 5:295–313. The standard translation is by Ewert Cousins, Bonaventure: The Soul’s Journey into God, The Tree of Life, The Life of St. Francis, CWS (New York: Paulist Press, 1978). Also useful is the edition by Philotheus Boehner and Zachary Hayes, eds., Itinerarium Mentis in Deum, rev. ed., WSB 2 (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute Publications, 2002), which has the Latin text and an English translation on facing pages. Bonaventure’s vast corpus of theological writings is slowly being translated (or retranslated) in George Marcil and Zachary Hayes, eds., Works of Saint Bonaventure (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute, 1978–). Older but still useful is The Works of Bonaventure, trans.José de Vinck, 5 vols. (Patterson, NJ: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1960–1970). This offers the only complete translation of Bonaventure’s Collations on the Six Days (Collationes in Hexaemeron).

Bonaventure: Studies

For an introduction to Bonaventure’s theology, one that carefully balances precision, lucidity, and brevity, see Zachary Hayes, “Bonaventure: Mystery of the Triune God,” in The History of Franciscan Theology, ed. Kenan Osborne (St. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute, 1994), 39–126. Also helpful is Christopher M. Cullen, Bonaventure, Great Medieval Thinkers (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). See also:

Anderson, C. Colt. A Call to Piety: St. Bonaventure’s Collations on the Six Days. Studies in Franciscanism. Quincy, IL: Franciscan Press, 2002.

Blanco, ed. Bonaventuriana: Miscellanea in onore di Jacques Guy Bougerol. 2 vols. Rome: Edizioni Antonianum, 1988.

Brooke, Rosalind B. The Image of St. Francis: Responses to Sainthood in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

(p.322) Burr, David.. The Spiritual Franciscans: From Protest to Persecution in the Century after Saint Francis. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.

Carpenter, Charles.. Theology as the Road to Holiness in St. Bonaventure. Theological Inquiries. New York: Paulist Press, 1999.

Cousins, Ewert H. “Bonaventure’s Mysticism of Language.” In Mysticism and Language, ed. Steven T. Katz. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 236–258.

——. “Francis of Assisi: Christian Mysticism at the Crossroads.” In Mysticism and Religious Traditions, ed.Steven T. Katz. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. 163–190.

Delio, Ilia.. Crucified Love: Bonaventure’s Mysticism of the Crucified Christ. Quincy, IL: Franciscan Press, 1998.

Gilson,Étienne. The Philosophy of St. Bonaventure. Trans.Illtyd Trethowan and Frank J. Sheed. Paterson, NJ: St. Anthony Guild Press, 1965.

Hayes, Zachary.. The Hidden Center: Spirituality and Speculative Christology in St. Bonaventure. Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute, 1992.

Johnson, Timothy.. Iste Pauper Clamavit: Saint Bonaventure’s Mendicant Theology of Prayer. Europäische Hochschulschriften, Theology (ser. 23), vol. 390. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1990.

LaNave, Gregory.. Through Holiness to Wisdom: The Nature of Theology According to St. Bonaventure. Rome: Istituto Storico dei Cappuccini, 2005.

Lambert, M. D. Franciscan Poverty: The Doctrine of Absolute Poverty of Christ and the Apostles in the Franciscan Order, 1210–1323. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, 1961.

Lawrence, C. H.. The Friars: The Impact of the Early Mendicant Movement on Western Society. London and New York: Longman, 1994.

McGinn, Bernard. The Flowering of Mysticism: Men and Women in the New Mysticism, 1200–1350. Vol. 3 of The Presence of God. New York: Crossroad, 1998.

Moorman, John.. History of the Franciscan Order: From Its Origins to the Year 1517. 1965. Reprint: Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1988.

Ratzinger, Joseph.. The Theology of History in St. Bonaventure. Trans. Zachary Hayes.Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1981.

Tavard, George H.. Transciency and Permanence: The Nature of Theology According to Bonaventure. St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1954.

Turner, Denys. “Hierarchy Interiorised: Bonaventure’s Itinerarium Mentis in Deum.” In The Darkness of God: Negativity in Christian Mysticism, 102–134. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Zinn, Grover A. “Book and Word: The Victorine Background of Bonaventure’s Use of Symbols.” In San Bonaventura, 1274–1974, ed. Jacques Guy Bougerol, 5 vols. Rome / Grottaferrata: Collegio S. Bonaventura, 1974. 2:151–164.

Augustine of Hippo: Studies

The finest biography of Augustine is that of Peter Brown, Augustine of Hippo: A Biography, rev. ed. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000). For valuable studies of his works and theology, see especially Allan D. Fitzgerald, ed., Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999). The debates on Augustine as a mystic are complex. For an excellent study, see John Peter Kenney, The Mysticism of Saint Augustine: Rereading the Confessions (New York: Routledge, 2005). This will set the parameters for future discussions. See also Frederick Van Fleteren, ed., Augustine: Mystic and Mystagogue, Collectanea Augustiniana (New York: Peter Lang, 1994), especially Gerald Bonner’s essay, “Augustine and Mysticism,” 113–57.

(p.323) Pseudo-Dionysius: Texts and Studies

For the Greek text of Pseudo-Dionysius’s works, see J. P. Migne, Patrologia Cursus Completus, Series Graeca (Paris: 1857), vol. 3. For a translation, see Colm Luibheid, trans., Pseudo-Dionysius: The Complete Works, CWS (New York: Paulist Press, 1987). For an introduction to Pseudo-Dionysius as a thinker, see Andrew Louth, Denys the Areopagite, Outstanding Christian Thinkers (Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing, 1989). For a commentary, see Paul Rorem, Pseudo-Dionysius: A Commentary on the Texts and An Introduction to Their Influence (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993).

Chapter 6 Meister Eckhart: Texts and Translations

For Eckhart’s complete works, see Josef Quint and Georg Steer, eds.,Meister Eckhart: Die deutschen und lateinischen Werke heraugegeben im Auftrag der deutschen Forschungs-gemeinschaft (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1958–); there are five volumes of Latin works and five volumes of Middle High German works (several more fascicles are forthcoming). For a translation of Eckhart’s major works, see the two volumes in Classics of Western Spirituality: Meister Eckhart: The Essential Sermons, Commentaries, Treatises, and Defense, trans. Edmund Colledge and Bernard McGinn (New York: Paulist Press, 1981), and Meister Eckhart: Teacher and Preacher, trans. Bernard McGinn and Frank Tobin (New York: Paulist Press, 1986). Also dependable are the following:

Davies, Oliver ed. Meister Eckhart: Selected Writings. Penguin Classics. London: Penguin Books, 1994.

Walshe, Maurice O’C.. Meister Eckhart: Sermons and Treatises. 3 vols. Rockport, MA: Element, 1990.

Meister Eckhart: Studies

For a magisterial study of Eckhart, see Bernard McGinn, The Mystical Theology of Meister Eckhart: The Man from Whom God Hid Nothing, Edward Cadbury Lectures (New York: Herder / Crossroad, 2001). There are wide-ranging approaches and sometimes conflicting interpretations of Eckhart as a mystic and theologian. See also:

Caputo, John. “Fundamental Themes in Meister Eckhart’s Mysticism.” Thomist 42 (1978): 197–225.

(p.324) Davies, Oliver.. God Within: The Mystical Tradition of Northern Europe. 1988. Reprint: Hyde Park, NY: New City Press, 2006.

——. Meister Eckhart: Mystical Theologian. London: SPCK, 1991.

——.“Why Were Meister Eckhart’s Propositions Condemned?” New Blackfriars 71 (1990): 433–445.

Dierkens, Alain and Benoit Beyer de Ryke, eds. Maître Eckhart et Jan van Ruusbroec: Etudes sur la mystique ‘rhéno-flamande’. Problemes d’histoire des religions. Editions de l’université de Bruxelles, 2004.

Hollywood, Amy M.. The Soul as Virgin Wife: Mechthild of Magdeburg, Marguerite Porete, and Meister Eckhart. Studies in Spirituality and Theology. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001.

Kelley, C. F.. Meister Eckhart on Divine Knowledge. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.

Kertz, Karl “Meister Eckhart’s Teaching on the Birth of the Divine Word in the Soul.” Traditio 15 (1959): 327–363.

Kieckhefer, Richard. “Meister Eckhart’s Conception of Union with God.” Harvard Theological Review 71 (1978): 203–225.

Lerner, Robert.. The Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Later Middle Ages. 2nd ed. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1997.

——.“New Evidence for the Condemnation of Meister Eckhart.” Speculum 72 (1997): 347–366.

Libera, Alain de. Eckhart, Suso, Tauler ou la divinisation de l’homme. Paris: Bayard Édition, 1996.

——.“L’Un ou la Trinité.” Revue des sciences religieuses 70 (1996): 31–47.

Milem, Bruce.. The Unspoken Word: Negative Theology in Meister Eckhart’s German Sermons. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2002.

McGinn, Bernard. The Harvest of Mysticism in Medieval Germany, 94–194. Vol. 4 of Presence of God: A History of Western Christian Mysticism. New York: Herder & Herder, 2005.

——.“Eckhart’s Condemnation Reconsidered.” Thomist 44 (1980): 390–414.

——.“ The God Beyond God: Theology and Mysticism in the Thought of Meister Eckhart.” Journal of Religion 61 (1981): 1–19.

——. “Meister Eckhart on God as Absolute Unity.” In Neoplatonism and Christian Thought, ed. Dominic O’Meara. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1982. 128–139.

McGinn, Bernard, ed. Meister Eckhart and the Beguine Mystics: Hadewijch of Brabant, Mechtild of Magdeburg, and Marguerite Porete. New York: Continuum, 1994.

Mjojsisch, Burkhard.. Meister Eckhart: Analogy, Univocity, and Unity. Trans. Orrin F. Summerell. Amsterdam: B. R. Grüner, 2001.

Ruh, Kurt.. Meister Eckhart: Theologe, Prediger, Mystiker. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck, 1985.

Steer, Georg, and Loris Sturlese, eds. Lectura Eckhardi: Predigten Meister Eckharts von Fachgelehrten gelesen und gedeutet. 2 vols. Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1998, 2003.

(p.325) Stirnimann, Hienrich, and Ruedi Imbach, eds. Eckhardus Theutonicus, homo doctus et sanctus: Nachweise und Berichte zum Prozeß gegen Meister Eckhart. Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 11. Freiburg, Schweiz: Universitätver-lag Freiburg, 1992.

Tobin, Frank.. Meister Eckhart: Thought and Language. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1986.

Woods, Richard.. Eckhart’s Way. Way of the Christian Mystics. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1990.

Chapter 7 Evagrius Ponticus: Texts and Translations

Critical editions of Evagrius’s works are gradually being published by the Sources chrétiennes (SC). These include the Greek text with a parallel French translation and a commentary. The place to start is with Evagrius’s The Monk (Praktikos): Antoine Guillaumont and Antoine Guillaumont Claire Guillaumont, eds., Évagre le Pontique: Traité pratique ou le Moine, SC 170–171 (Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1971). Others Sources chrétiennes volumes are listed below. Several of Evagrius’s major works have still not yet received a critical edition, but can be found in the Patrologia Graeca under the name of Nilus of Ancyra: Chapters on Prayer (De oratione, PG 79:1165–1200) and On the Eight Spirits of Evil (De octo spiritibus malitiae, PG 79:1145–1164). A fairly complete translation of Evagrius’s surviving Greek works is now available in Robert Sinkewicz, ed., Evagrius of Pontus: The Greek Ascetic Corpus, Oxford Early Christian Studies (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). Other key works, including his Letter to Melania and Letter on the Faith, are now available in the anthology by A. M. Casiday, Evagrius Ponticus, Early Church Fathers (New York: Routledge, 2006). One brief but important work is Evagrius’s Reflections (Skemmata); for a translation and detailed commentary, see William Harmless and Raymond R. Fitzgerald, “‘The Sapphire Light of the Mind’: The Skemmata of Evagrius Ponticus,” Theological Studies 62 (2001): 498–529. See also:

Bamberger, John Eudes, trans. Evagrius Ponticus: The Praktikos; Chapters on Prayer. CS 4. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1971.

Bunge, Gabriel, ed. Evagrios Pontikos: Briefe aus der Wüste. Sophia 24. Trier: Paulinus-Verlag, 1985.

Driscoll, Jeremy, trans. Evagrius Ponticus: Ad Monachos. ACW 59. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2003.

Frankenberg, Wilhelm, ed. Euagrios Ponticus, Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen; Philol. His. Klasse, Neue Folge, 13.2. Berlin, 1912. This contains Evagrius’s texts, such as his Letter to Melania and other letters, preserved only in Syriac.

Géhin, Paul, ed. Évagre le Pontique: Scholies aux Proverbes. SC 340. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1987.

——. Évagre le Pontique: Scholies à l’Ecclésiaste. SC 397. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1993.

(p.326) Géhin, Paul, Claire Guillaumont, and Antoine Guillaumont, eds. Évagre le Pontique: Sur les pensées. SC 438. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1998.

Guillaumont, Antoine, ed. Évagre le Pontique: Le gnostique ou a celui qui est devenu digne de la science. SC 356. Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1989.

——, ed. Les six centuries des “Kephalaia gnostica” d’Évagre le Pontique: Édition critique de la version syriaque commune et édition d’une nouvelle version syriaque. PO 28, fasc. 2. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1958.

Parmentier, Martin. “Evagrius of Pontus and the ‘Letter to Melania.’” Bijdragen: Tijdschrift voor filosofie en theologie 46 (1985): 2–38.

Reprinted in Forms of Devotion: Conversion, Worship, Spirituality, and Asceticism, ed. Everett Ferguson. New York: Garland, 1999. 272–309.

Evagrius Ponticus: Studies

For a survey of Evagrius’s life and theology, as well as an overview of the world of early Egyptian monasticism, see William Harmless, Desert Christians: An Introduction to the Literature of Early Monasticism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). See also Antoine Guillaumont and Claire Guillaumont, introduction, Évagre le Pontique: Traité pratique ou le Moine, SC 170:21–125. An excellent recent study of Evagrius’s spirituality is Luke Dysinger, Psalmody and Prayer in the Writings of Evagrius Ponticus, Oxford Theological Monographs (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). See also:

Balthasar,Hans Urs von.“Metaphysik und Mystik des Evagrius Ponticus.” Zeitschrift für Aszeze und Mystik 14 (1939): 31–47.

Brakke, David. Demons and the Making of the Monk: Spiritual Combat in Early Christianity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006.

Bunge, Gabriel. Akedia: Die geistliche Lehre des Evagrios Pontikos vom Überdruß. Cologne: Luthe-Druck, 1989.

——. “Evagre le Pontique et les deux Macaires.” Irénikon 56 (1983): 215–227, 323–360.

——. Geistliche Vatershaft. Christliche Gnosis bei Evagrios Pontikos. Studia Patristica et Liturgica 23. Regensburg: 1988.

——.“ ‘Priez sans cesse’: Aux origines de la prière hésychaste.” Studia Monastica 30 (1988): 7–16.

——.“The ‘Spiritual Prayer’: On the Trinitarian Mysticism of Evagrius of Pontus.” Monastic Studies 17 (1987): 191–208.

Driscoll, Jeremy. Steps to Spiritual Perfection: Studies on Spiritual Progress in Evagrius Ponticus. Mahwah, NJ: Newman Press/Paulist Press, 2005. This reprints a number of his valuable studies.

——. “Apatheia and Purity of Heart in Evagrius Ponticus.” In Purity of Heart in Early Ascetic and Monastic Literature: Essays in Honor of Juana Rausch, O.S.B., ed. Harriet Luckman and Linda Kulzer. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1999. 141–159.

Dysinger, Luke. “The Logoi of Providence and Judgment in the Exegetical Writings of Evagrius Ponticus.” Studia Patristica 37 (2001): 462–471.

(p.327) Elm, Susanna. “Evagrius Ponticus’ Sententiae ad Virginem.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 45 (1991): 97–120.

Guillaumont, Antoine. Aux origines du monachisme chrétien: pour une phénoménologie du monachisme. Spiritualité orientale 30. Bégrolles-en-Mauges: Abbaye de Bellefontaine, 1979.

——. Études sur la spiritualite de l’Orient chrétien. Spiritualité orientale 66. Bégrolles-en-Mauges: Abbaye de Bellefontaine, 1996.

——. Les Kephalaia gnostica d’Évagre le Pontique et l’histoire de l’origénisme chez les grecs et chez les syriens. Patristica Sorbonensia 5. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1962.

Harmless, William. “‘Salt for the Impure, Light for the Pure’: Reflections on the Pedagogy of Evagrius Ponticus.” Studia Patristica 37 (2001): 514–526.

Haushcrr, Irénéc. Les leçons d’un contemplative: Le Traitc dc 1 oraison a Evagre le Pontique. Paris: Bcauchcsnc, 1960.

——. “L’origine de la théorie orientale des huit péchés capitaux.” Orientalia Christiana Analecta 30 (1933): 164–175.

Refoulé, François. “La mystique d’Évagre et l’Origénisme,” Vie spirituelle supplemente 64 (1963): 453–472.

——. “Rêves et vie spirituelle d’après Évagre le Pontique,” Vie spirituelle supplemente 56 (1961): 470–516.

Spidlik, Tomás. The Spirituality of the Christian East: A Systematic Handbook. Trans. Anthony P. Gythiel. CS 79. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1986.

——. Prayer. The Spirituality of the Christian East. Vol. 2. Trans. Anthony P. Gythiel. CS 206. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2005.

Stewart, Columba. “Evagrius on Prayer and Anger.” In Religions of Late Antiquity in Practice, ed. Richard Valantasis. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. 65–81.

——.“ Imageless Prayer and the Theological Vision of Evagrius Ponticus.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 9 (2001): 173–204.

Young, Robin Darling. “Evagrius the Iconographer: Monastic Pedagogy in the Gnostikos.” Journal of Early Christian Studies 9 (2001): 53–72.

Chapter 8 Rumi: Texts and Translations

For critical editions of Rumi’s works, see M. Estelami, ed, Masnavi, 7 vols. (Tehran, 1999) and Badī al-Zamān Furūzānfar, Kullīyāt-i Shams, 8 vols. (Tehran, 1957–1966). For a good selection of Rumi’s ghazals from the Divan-e Shams, see A. J. Arberry, trans. Mystical Poems of Rūmī, First Selection, Poems 1–200 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968) and Mystical Poems of Rūmī: Second Selection, Poems 201–400 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). For a recent, partial translation of the Masnavi, see Jawid Mojaddedi, trans., Rumi: The Masnavi: Book 1, Oxford World’s Classic (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); for an older, complete translation, see Reynold A. Nicholson, The Mathnawī of Jalālu’ddin Rūmī, 3 vols. (1926; reprint: Warminster, Wiltshire: Aris & Phillips, 1990). For a remarkable rendering of Rumi in contemporary American free verse, see Coleman Barks, trans., The Essential Rumi, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2004), and The Soul of Rumi: A New Collection of Ecstatic Poems (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2001); note that Barks sometimes abbreviates things and glosses over the traditional themes and over technical theological terminology in an effort to make Rumi accessible to a modern audience. See also:

(p.328) Aflākī, Shams al-Dīn Ahman-e. The Feats of the Knowers of God (Manāqeb al-’arefīn), trans. John O’Kane. Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, vol. 43. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Arberry, A. J. Discourses of Rumi [Fihe mā Fih]. 1961. Reprint: Surrey: Curzon Press, 1993.

Barks, Coleman, and John Moyne, trans. The Drowned Book: Ecstatic and Earthy Reflections of Bahauddin, The Father of Rumi [Ma’āref]. New York: Harper Collins, 2004.

Chittick, William C., ed. Me and Rumi: The Autobiography of Shams-i Tabrizi [Maqāref]. Louisville, KY: Fons Vitae, 2004.

Rumi: Studies

The finest survey of Rumi in English is by Franklin Lewis, Rumi: Past and Present, East and West (Oxford: OneWorld, 2000). This is virtually a Rumi encyclopedia. Lewis has remarkable mastery of the sources and carefully roots Rumi in his Sunni Islamic, Hanafi, and Sufi traditions. Lewis also analyzes the contemporary Rumi craze and alerts readers to its biases and deficiencies. For a fuller analysis of Rumi as a thinker and a poet, see especially Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun: A Study of the Works of Jalāloddin Rumi, Persian Studies 8 (Albany, NY: SUNY, 1993). See also:

Banani, Amin, Richard Hovannisian, and Georges Sabagh, eds. Poetry and Mysticism in Islam: The Heritage of Rumi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Bürgel, Johann Christoph. “Ecstasy and Order: Two Structural Principles in the Ghazal Poetry of Jalāl al-Dīn Rumi.” In The Legacy of Medieval Persian Sufism, ed. Leonard Lewisohn. Oxford: Oneworld, 2000. 61–74.

Chittick, William C. The Sufi Path of Love: The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1983. This is both a study and a thematic anthology.

———. “Rūmī and the Mawlawiyyah.” In Islamic Spirituality II: Manifestations, ed. Seyyed Nasr Hossein. World Spirituality 20. New York: Crossroad, 1991. 105–126.

Keshavarz, Fatemeh, Reading Mystical Lyric: The Case of Jalāl al-Dīn Rumi. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

Renard, John. All the King’s Falcons: Rumi on Prophets and Revelations. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1994.

Schimmel,Annemarie. Rumi’s World: The Life and Works of Rumi. Boston: Shambhala, 2001. (Previously published in 1996 under the title I Am Wind, You Are Fire).

Sufism: Texts and Studies

For a good compilation of classical Sufi texts prior to Rumi, see Michael A. Sells, ed. and trans., Early Islamic Mysticism: Sufi, Qur’an, Mi’raj, Poetic and Theological Writings, CWS (New York: Paulist Press, 1996), and John Renard, ed. and trans., Knowledge of

(p.329) God in Classical Sufism: Foundations of Islamic Mystical Theology, CWS (New York: Paulist Press, 2004). For a valuable introduction to Sufism, see Carl W. Ernst, The Shambhala Guide to Sufism (Boston: Shambhala, 1997); and Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975). See also:

Abrahamov, Binyamin. Divine Love in Islamic Mysticism: The Teachings of al-Ghazali and al-Dabbagh. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Chittick, William C. Sufism: A Short Introduction. Oxford: One World, 2000.

——. The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-’Arabi’s Metaphysics of Imagination. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1989.

Ernst, Carl W. Words of Ecstasy in Sufism. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1985.

Hossein, Seyyed Nasr, ed. Islamic Spirituality I: Foundations. World Spirituality 19. New York: Crossroad, 1987.

——. Islamic Spirituality II: Manifestations. World Spirituality 20. New York: Crossroad, 1991.

Lewisohn, Leonard, and David Morgan, eds. The Heritage of Sufism. 3 vols. Oxford: One World, 1992–2000.

Massignon, Louis. Hallaj: Mystic and Martyr. Trans., ed., and abridged Herbert Mason. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Moosa, Ebrahim. Ghazali and the Poetics of Imagination. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 2005.

Renard, John. Seven Doors to Islam: Spirituality and the Religious Life of Muslims. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Schimmel, Annemarie. As Through a Veil: Mystical Poetry in Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Sells,Michael. “Bewildered Tongue: The Semantics of Mystical Union in Islam.” In Mystical Union in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: An Ecumenical Dialogue, ed. Moshe Idel and Bernard McGinn. 1989. Reprint: New York: Continuum, 1999. 87–124.

Chapter 9 Dōgen: Texts and Translations

For a critical edition of Dogen’s works, see Kagamishima Genry?, et al., Dōgen zenji zenshū, 7 vols. (Tokyo: Shunjūsha, 1988–1993). For a valuable selection of Dogen’s writings, see Kazuaki Tanahashi’s two anthologies: Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dōgen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999); and Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dōgen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985). Given the difficulty of Dōgen’s Shōbōgenzō, the best place to start is the carefully selected translations of Norman Waddell and Masao Abe, eds., The Heart of Dogen’s Shobogenzo (New York: SUNY, 2002). Dōgen’s other major work has been translated into English only recently: see Taigen Daniel Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen’s Extensive Record: A Translation of Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2004). Other key texts include:

(p.330) Bielefeldt, Carl. “Reading Others’ Minds.” In Buddhism in Practice, ed. Donald S. Lopez, Jr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 69–79.

Leighton, Taigen Daniel and Shohaku Okamura, trans. Dogen’s Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A Translation of Eihei Shingi. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1996.

Masunaga, Reihō, trans. A Primer of Sōtō Zen: A Translation of Dōgen’s Shōbōgenzō Zuimonki. Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1971.

Tanahashi, Kazuaki and John Daido Loori, trans. The True Dharma Eye: Zen Master Dōgen’s Three Hundred Kōans. With commentary and verse by John Daido Loori. Boston: Shambhala, 2005.

Dōgen: Studies

For an excellent historical-critical study of Dōgen’s life and writings, see Steven Heine, Did Dōgen Go to China? What He Wrote and When He Wrote It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006). For a survey of Dogen’s mystical thought, see the newly revised work of Hee-Jin Kim, Eihei Dogen: Mystical Realist, 3rd ed. (Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2004). A more philosophical approach is the important study by the Japanese philosopher Masao Abe, A Study of Dogen: His Philosophy and Religion, ed. Steven Heine (Albany, NY: SUNY, 1992). See also:

Bielefeldt, Carl, Dōgen’s Manuals of Zen Buddhism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988. This offers a superb study of Dogen’s Fukanzazengi.

Bodiford, William M. Sōtō Zen in Medieval Japan. Kuroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism 8. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Heine, Steven. Dōgen and the Kōan Tradition: A Tale of Two Shōbōgenzō Texts. SUNY Series in Philosophy and Psychotherapy. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1994.

——. “An Analysis of Dogen’s Eihei Goroku: Distillation or Distortion?” In Zen Classics: Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism, ed. Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 113–136.

——.“The Eihei Kōroku: The Record of Dōgen’s Later Period at Eihei-ji Temple.” In The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts, ed. Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. 245–274.

——. “Empty-Handed, but Not Empty-Headed: Dōgen’s Kōan Strategies.” In Discourse and Ideology in Medieval Japanese Buddhism, ed. Richard K. Payne and Taigen Dan Leighton. New York: Routledge, 2006. 218–239.

Zen Action, Zen Person. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1981.

Kim, Hee-Jin. Dōgen on Meditation and Thinking: A Reflection on His View of Zen. Albany, NY: SUNY, 2006.

Kodera, Takashi James. Dōgen’s Formative Years in China: An Historical Study and Annotated Translation of the ‘Hōkyōki’. Boulder: Prajña Press, 1980.

LaFleur, William R., ed. Dōgen Studies. Koroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism 2. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985. Includes excellent essays by Abe, Bielefeldt, Kim, and Karulis.

(p.331) Leighton, Taigen Dan. “The Lotus Sūtra as a Source for Dōgen’s Discourse Style.” In Discourse and Ideology in Medieval Japanese Buddhism, ed. Richard K. Payne and Taigen Dan Leighton. New York: Routledge, 2006. 195–217.

Zen Buddhism: Texts and Studies

For a survey of the history of Zen, see Heinrich Dumoulin, Zen Buddhism: A History, 2 vols. trans. James W. Heisig and Paul Knitter (1988–1990; reprint: Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, 2005). Recently Dumoulin has been criticized for being insufficiently critical in his use of sources; still, his narrative offers much of value in introducing newcomers to leading figures, schools, and developments. Kōans are, of course, the most famous form of Zen literature. The best contemporary introduction to them is Steven Heine, Opening a Mountain: Kōans of the Zen Masters (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), which offers not only a translation, but also a helpful historical-critical commentary that puts these mind-teasing stories back into their literary and historical context. This equips one to appreciate the fine essays in Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright, eds., The Kōan: Texts and Context in Zen Buddhism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). For other important studies of Zen and its history, see also:

Broughton, Jeffrey L. ed. The Bodhidharma Anthology: The Earliest Records of Zen. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

Buswell, Robert E. ed. Encyclopedia of Buddhism. 2 vols. New York: Thomson / Gale, 2002.

Faure, Bernard. Chan Insights and Oversights: An Epistemological Critique of the Chan Tradition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

——. The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

——, ed., Chan Buddhism in Ritual Context. London: Routledge Curzon, 2003.

Heine, Steven and Dale S. Wright, eds. The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

——, eds. Zen Classics: Formative Texts in the History of Zen Buddhism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Kapleau, Philip. The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice, and Enlightenment. Rev. expanded ed. New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1989.

McRae, John R. Seeing Through Zen: Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

——. The Northern School and the Formation of Early Ch’an Buddhism. Kuroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism 3. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

Sekida, Katsuki, trans. Two Zen Classics: The Gateless Gate and The Blue Cliff Records. Boston: Shambhala, 2005.

Stone, Jacqueline I. Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.

(p.332) Williams, Duncan Ryken. The Other Side of Zen: A Social History of Soto Zen Buddhism in Tokugawa Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Williams, J. P. Denying Divinity: Apophasis in the Patristic Christian and Sōtō Zen Buddhist Traditions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Yampolsky, Philip, ed. and trans. Platform Sutra of the 6th Patriarch: The Text of the Tun-Huang Manuscript. Records of Civilization, Sources and Studies 76. 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978.

Chapter 10 Christian Mysticism: Texts and Anthologies

The most important collection of mystical texts in English is the 100 + volume, Classics of Western Spirituality (New York: Paulist Press, 1978–). Each volume offers complete or near complete works by individual authors (or important movements) in the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic traditions. Many readers find it helpful to start with a one-volume collection of sources. Here are some of the best anthologies:

Dupré Louis, and James A. Wiseman, eds. Light from Light: An Anthology of Christian Mysticism. 2nd ed. New York: Paulist Press, 2001.

Egan, Harvey. An Anthology of Christian Mysticism. 2nd ed. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press/Pueblo, 1991.

Madigan, Shawn, and Benedicta Ward, eds. Mystics, Visionaries, and Prophets: A Historical Anthology of Women’s Spiritual Writings. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998.

McGinn, Bernard, ed. The Essential Writings of Christian Mysticism. New York: The Modern Library, 2006.

Tyson, John R., ed. Invitation to Christian Spirituality: An Ecumenical Anthology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Christian Mysticism: Historical Surveys

The most thorough and up-to-date survey of the Western mystical tradition is the massive, multivolume, but still incomplete history by Bernard McGinn, The Presence of God: A History of Western Christian Mysticism (New York: Crossroad, 1991–). Volume 1, The Foundations of Mysticism: Origins to the Fifth Century (1991) covers both the Greek and Hebrew roots of Christian mysticism and surveys early Christian mysticism through Pseudo-Dionysius; volume 2, The Growth of Mysticism: Gregory the Great through the 12th Century (1996) focuses on the early Middle Ages and includes in-depth studies of leading figures such as Gregory the Great and Bernard of Clairvaux; volume 3, The Flowering of Mysticism: Men and Women in the New Mysticism, 1200–1350 (1998) focuses on the Franciscans and Beguines; volume 4, The Harvest of Mysticism in Medieval Germany, focuses on Meister Eckhart, Johannes Tauler, and Heinrich Suso, as well as their Dominican predecessors, Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas. The most important reference work on Christian mysticism is the seventeen-volume Dictionnaire de Spiritualité: Ascetique et mystique, doctrine et histoire, ed. Marcel Viller, F.

Callavera and J. de Guibert (Paris: Beauchesne, 1932–1991). This massive study—some sixty years in the making—examines every dimension of Christian spirituality, with articles on all major figures, movements, and themes. Each article is done by a leading specialist, and many of them have been written since the 1970s, so the scholarship is generally up to date. See also:

(p.333) Bouyer, Louis, ed. A History of Christian Spirituality. 3 vols. New York: Seabury, 1962–1964.

Certeau, Michel de. The Mystic Fable. Vol. 1. The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Trans. Michael B. Smith. Religion and Postmodernism Series. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Dupré, Louis, and Don E. Saliers, eds. Christian Spirituality III: Post-Reformation and Modern. New York: Crossroad / Herder & Herder, 1991.

Egan, Harvey. Christian Mysticism: The Future of a Tradition. New York: Pueblo, 1986.

Fanning, Steven. Mystics of the Christian Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Jones, Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, eds. The Study of Spirituality. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

McGinn, Bernard, and John Meyendorff, eds. Christian Spirituality I: Origins to the Twelfth Century. New York: Crossroad / Herder & Herder, 1985.

Raitt, Jill, ed. Christian Spirituality II: High Middle Ages and Reformation. New York: Crossroad/Herder & Herder, 1987.

Mysticism: Classic Studies

In chapter 1, we examined William James and his influential classic, The Varieties of Religious Experience. There are other classic studies, which, while sometimes deficient in terms of the historical scholarship on which they depend and in terms of aspects of their theoretical apparatus, still have much of value. For a survey and analysis of the last 100 years of the scholarly study of mysticism, see Bernard McGinn, “Theoretical Foundations: The Modern Study of Mysticism,” in Foundations of Mysticism, 263–343. Here are a handful of classic studies:

Butler, Cuthbert. Western Mysticism: The Teachings of Saints Augustine, Gregory and Bernard on Contemplation and The Contemplative Life: Neglected Chapters in the History of Religion. New York: Dutton, 1923.

Maréchal, Joseph. Studies in the Psychology of the Mystics [Études sur le psychologie des mystiques, 2 vols., 1926, 1937]. Trans. Algar Thorold. London: Burns, Oakes & Washbourne, 1927.

Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry Into the Non-Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine and Its Relation to the Rational [Das Heilige, 1917]. Trans. John W. Harvey. New York: Oxford University Press, 1958.

Scholem, Gershom. Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism. New York: Schocken, 1961.

Stolz, Anselm. The Doctrine of Spiritual Perfection [Theologie der Mystik, 1936]. Trans. Aidan Williams. Milestones in the Study of Mysticism and Spirituality. 1938. Reprint: New York: Herder & Herder, 2001.

(p.334) Underhill, Evelyn. Mysticism: A Study in the Nature and Development of Man’s Spiritual Consciousness. 1901. Reprint: Oxford: OneWorld, 1999.

——. The Essentials of Mysticism and Other Essays. New York: Dutton. 1920.

von Hügel, Friedrich. The Mystical Element of Religion: As Studied by Catherine of Genoa and Her Friends. Ed. Michael Downey. Milestones in the Study of Mysticism and Spirituality. 2nd ed., 1923. Reprint: New York: Herder & Herder, 1999.

Zaehner, R. C. Concordant Discord: The Interdependence of Faiths, Being the Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion Delivered at St. Andrews, 1967–1969. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.

——. Mysticism Sacred and Profane. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.

Mysticism: Theoretical Issues, Disputed Questions, and Special Topics

The broader theoretical literature on mysticism is vast. What follow is a modest selection of works on a variety of topics. A good entry point into this sometimes complex literature is via the essay collections edited by Steven Katz; each volume offers contributions by major scholars on specific topics, and the perspectives address questions of mysticism across the breadth of the world’s religions: Mysticism and Philosophical Analysis (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), Mysticism and Language (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), Mysticism and Religious Traditions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), and Mysticism and Sacred Scriptures (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). Another important area of research has been on mystical apophaticism; on this, see especially Michael Anthony Sells, Mystical Languages of Unsaying (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994). Some of the most creative reflection in recent decades has focused on asceticism, for example: Gavin Flood, The Ascetic Self: Subjectivity, Memory, and Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004). Other helpful works are:

Davies, Oliver, and Denys Turner, eds. Silence and the Word: Negative Theology and Incarnation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Forman, Robert K. C. Mysticism, Mind, Consciousness. Albany, NY: SUNY, 1999.

——, ed. The Innate Capacity: Mysticism, Psychology, Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Hägg, Henry Fiska. Clement of Alexandria and the Beginnings of Christian Apophaticism. Oxford Early Christian Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Hollywood, Amy. Sensible Ecstasy: Mysticism, Sexual Difference, and the Demands of History. Religion and Postmodernism Series. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Idel, Moshe, and Bernard McGinn, eds. Mystical Union in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: An Ecumenical Dialogue. 1989. Reprint: New York: Continuum, 1999.

Jantzen, Grace. Power, Gender, and Christian Mysticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Kessler, Michael, and Christian Sheppard, eds. Mystics: Presence and Aporia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

(p.335) Marshall, Paul. Mystical Encounters with the Natural World: Experiences and Explanations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

McIntosh, Mark A. Mystical Theology: The Integrity of Spirituality and Theology. Challenges in Contemporary Theology. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998.

Russell, Norman. The Doctrine of Deification in the Greek Patristic Tradition. Oxford Early Christian Studies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

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