Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Aggression in the Sports WorldA social psychological perspective$

Gordon W. Russell

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195189599

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195189599.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2017. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 26 February 2017

(p.233) References

(p.233) References

Aggression in the Sports World
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Adang, O. M. J., & Stott, C. J. (2004). Preparing for Euro 2004: Policing international football matches in Portugal. Unpublished report for the Portuguese Public Security Police.

Allport, G. W. (1965). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Altshuler, E., Ramos, O., Núnez, Y., Fernández, J., Batista-Leyva, A. J., & Noda, C. (2005). Symmetry breaking in escaping ants. The American Naturalist, 166, 643–649.

Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1988). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Anderson, C. A. (1987). Temperature and aggression: Effects on quarterly, yearly, and city rates of violent and nonviolent crime. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1161–1173.

Anderson, C. A. (1989). Temperature and aggression: Ubiquitous effects of heat on occurrence of human violence. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 74–96.

Anderson, C. A., Benjamin, A. J., & Bartholow, B. D. (1998). Does the gun pull the trigger? Automatic priming effects of weapon pictures and weapon names. Psychological Science, 9, 308–314.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (1997). External validity of “trivial” experiments: The case of laboratory aggression. Review of General Psychology, 1, 19–41.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.

Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 960–971.

Anderson, C. A., & DeNeve, K. M. (1992). Temperature, aggression, and the negative affect escape model. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 347–351.

Anderson, C. A., & Morrow, M. (1995). Competitive aggression without interaction: Effects of competitive versus cooperative instructions on aggressive behavior in video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1020–1030.

(p.234) Apter, M. J. (1982). The experience of motivation: The theory of psychological reversals. London: Academic Press.

Apter, M. J. (1992). The dangerous edge: The psychology of excitement. New York: Free Press.

Archer, D., & Gartner, R. (1984). Violence and crime in cross-national perspective. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Ardrey, R. (1966). The territorial imperative. New York: Antheneum.

Arms, R. L., & Russell, G. W. (1997). Impulsivity, fight history and camaraderie as predictors of a willingness to escalate a disturbance. Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, 15, 279–285.

Arms, R. L., Russell, G. W., & Sandilands, M. L. (1979). Effects of viewing aggressive sports on the hostility of spectators. Social Psychology Quarterly, 42, 275–279.

Armstrong, J. (2005, June 17). Hockey enforcers: Next big sport or goon show? The Globe and Mail, pp. S1–S2.

Aveni, A. F. (1977). The not-so-lonely crowd: Friendshi groups in collective behavior. Sociometry, 40, 96–99.

Averill. L. A. (1950). The impact of a changing culture upon pubescent ideals. School and Society, 72, 49–53.

Bailey, A. A., & Hurd, P. L. (2005). Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biological Psychology, 68, 215–222.

Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575–582.

Bar fight pictures to avoid race riots. (1910, July 6). The New York Times, p. 3.

Barash, D. (1979). The whisperings within. New York: Harper & Row.

Barnett, S. A. (1988). Biology and freedom. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Barney, R. K. (1985). The hailed, the haloed, and the hallowed: Sport heroes and their qualities—An analysis and hypothetical model for their commemoration. In N. Muller & J. Ruhl (Eds.), Sport history (pp. 88–103). Niederhausen, Germany: Schors-Verlag.

Baron, R. A. (1974). Sexual arousal and physical aggression: The inhibiting influence of “cheesecake” and nudes. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 3, 337–339.

Baron, R. A. (1976). The reduction of human aggression: A field study of the influence of incompatible reactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 260–274.

Baron, R. A. (1977). Human aggression. New York: Plenum Press.

Baron, R. A. (1978). Aggression-inhibiting influence of sexual humor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 189–197.

Baron, R. A. (1979). Heightened sexual arousal and physical aggression: An extension to females. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 91–102.

Baron, R. A. (1987). Effects of negative ions on interpersonal attraction: Evidence for intensification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 547–553.

Baron, R. A., & Bell, P. A. (1976). Aggression and heat: The influence of ambient temperature, negative affect, and a cooling drink on physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 245–255.

Baron, R. A., & Bell, P. A. (1977). Sexual arousal and aggression by males: Effects of type of erotic stimuli and prior aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 79–87.

(p.235) Baron, R. A., & Byrne, D. (1997). Social psychology (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Baron, R. A., & Richardson, D. R. (1994). Human aggression (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum Press.

Baron, R. A., Russell, G. W., & Arms, R. L. (1985). Negative ions and behavior: Impact on mood, memory, and aggression among Type A and Type B persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 746–754.

Barrett, L. (1993, July 23–29). Room at the top. The European, p. 27.

Bartholow, B. D., Sestir, M. A., & Davis, E. B. (2005). Correlates and consequences of exposure to video game violence: Hostile personality, empathy, and aggressive behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1573–1586.

Barton, R. A., & Hill, R. A. (2005). Hill & Barton reply, Nature, 437, E10–E11.

Bateup, H. S., Booth, A., Shirtcliff, E. A., & Granger, D. A. (2002). Testosterone, cortisol, and women's competition. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 181–182.

Baumrind, D. (1964). Some thoughts on the ethics of research: After reading Milgram's “Behavioral study of obedience.” American Psychologist, 19, 421–423.

Beal, D. J., O'Neal, E. C., Ong, J., & Ruscher, J. B. (2000). The ways and means of interracial aggression: Modern racists’ use of covert retaliation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1225–1238.

Becker, C. B. (1982). Philosophical perspectives on the martial arts in America. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 9, 19–29.

Beisser, A. R. (1979). The sports fan and recreational violence. Psychiatric Annals, 9, 78–85.

Bell, P. A. (1992). In defense of the negative affect escape model of heat and aggression. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 342–346.

Bell, P. A., & Baron, R. A. (1976). Aggression and heat: The mediating role of negative affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 6, 18–30.

Bell, P. A., Fisher, J. D., Baum, A., & Green, T. E. (1990). Environmental psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Benedict, J., & Yaeger, D. (1998). Pros and cons: The criminals who play in the NFL. New York: Warner Books.

Bennett, R. M., Buss, A. H., & Carpenter, J. A. (1969). Alcohol and human physical aggression. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 30, 870–877.

Ben-Porath, D. D., & Taylor, S. P. (2002). The effects of diazepam (valium) and aggressive disposition on human aggression: An experimental investigation. Addictive Behavior, 27, 167–177.

Benthorn, L., & Frantzich, H. (1999). Managing evacuating people from facilities during a fire emergency. Facilities, 17, 325–330.

Benton, D. (1992). Hormones and human aggression. In K. Björkqvist & P. Niemelä (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. 37–48). New York: Academic Press.

Berkowitz, L. (1962). Aggression: A social psychological analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Berkowitz, L. (1969). The frustration-aggression hypothesis revisited. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Roots of aggression: A re-examination of the frustration-aggression hypothesis (pp. 1–28). New York: Atherton Press.

Berkowitz, L. (1973). Sports, competition, and aggression. Physical Educator, 30, 59–61.

Berkowitz, L. (1974). Some determinants of impulsive aggression: Role of mediated associations with reinforcements for aggression. Psychological Review, 81, 165–176.

Berkowitz, L. (1981). How guns control us. Psychology Today, 15, 11–12.

(p.236) Berkowitz, L. (1984). Some effects of thoughts on anti- and prosocial influences of media events: A cognitive-neoassociation analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 419–427.

Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59–73.

Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Berkowitz, L., & Alioto, J. T. (1973). The meaning of an observed event as a determinant of its aggressive consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28, 206–217.

Berkowitz, L., & Geen, R. G. (1966). Film violence and the cue properties of available targets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 525–530.

Berkowitz, L., & Le Page, A. (1967). Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 202–207.

“Berlin's Olympic Stadium …” (2006, April 7). Toronto Globe and Mail.

Berman, M., Gladue, B., & Taylor, S. (1993). The effects of hormones, Type A behavior pattern, and provocation on aggression in males. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 125–138.

Bernhardt, P. C., & Dabbs, J. M. (1998, May). Testosterone increases in basketball fans. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.

Bernhardt, P. C., Dabbs, J. M., Fielden, J. A., & Lutter, C. D. (1998). Testosterone changes during vicarious experiences of winning and losing among fans at sporting events. Physiology and Behavior, 65, 59–62.

Bernthal, M. J. (2003). The effect of professional wrestling viewershi on children. The Sport Journal, 6.

Berscheid, E., Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (1989). The relationship Closeness Inventory: Assessing the closeness of interpersonal relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 792–807.

Bettencourt, B. A., Talley, A., Benjamin, A. J., & Valentine, J. (2006). Personality and aggressive behavior under provoking and neutral conditions: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 751–777.

Björkqvist, K., & Niemelä, P. (1992). New trends in the study of female aggression. In K. Björkqvist & P. Niemelä (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. 3–16). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1994). Sex differences in covert aggression among adults. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 27–33.

Black, S. L., & Bevan, S. (1992). At the movies with Buss and Durkee: A natural experiment on film violence. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 37–45.

Blass, T. (1991). Understanding behavior in the Milgram obedience experiment: The role of personality, situations, and their interactions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 398–413.

Boeringer, S. B. (1996). Influences of fraternity membership, athletics, and male living arrangements on sexual aggression. Violence Against Women, 2, 134–137.

Bohstedt, J. (1994). The dynamics of riots: escalation and diffusion/contagion. In M. Potegal & J. F. Knutson (Eds.), The dynamics of aggression: Biological and social processes in dyads and groups (pp. 257–306). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Booth, A., Shelley, G., Mazur, A., Tharp, G., & Kittock, R. (1989). Testosterone, and winning and losing in human competition. Hormones and Behavior, 23, 556–571.

Borden, R. J. (1975). Witnessed aggression: Influence of an observer's sex and values on aggressive responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 567–573.

(p.237) Borden, R. J., & Taylor, S. P. (1973). The social instigation and control of physical aggression. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 3, 354–361.

Boy, 10, stoned police after football match (2004, May 27). The Scotsman.

Boyanowsky, E. O., & Griffiths, C. T. (1982). Weapons and eye contact as instigators or inhibitors of aggressive arousal in police-citizen interaction. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 398–407.

Boyanowsky, E. O., Newtson, D., & Walster, E. (1974). Film preferences following a murder. Communications Research, 1, 32–43.

Branscombe, N. R., & Wann, D. L. (1992). Physiological arousal and reactions to outgroup members that implicate an important social identity. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 85–93.

Bredemeier, B. J., Weiss, M. R., Shields, D. L., & Cooper, B. A. B. (1986). The relationship of sport involvement with children's moral reasoning and aggression tendencies. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 304–318.

Brennan, C. (1994, January 7). Skater attacked at Olympic trials. The Washington Post, p. A1.

Brissett, M., & Nowicki, S., Jr. (1973). Internal versus external control of reinforcement and reaction to frustration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25, 35–44.

Brown, R. (1965). Social psychology. New York: The Free Press.

Brown, T. J., Sumner, K. E., & Nocera, R. (2002). Understanding sexual aggression against women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17, 937–952.

Bryan, C., & Horton, R. (1976). School athletics and fan aggression. Educational Researcher, 5, 2–11.

Bryant, J. (1989). Viewers’ enjoyment of televised sports violence. In L. A. Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports, and society (pp. 270–289). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Bryant, J., Brown, D., Comisky, P. W., & Zillmann, D. (1982). Sports and spectators: Commentary and appreciation. Journal of Communication, 32, 109–119.

Bryant, J., Comisky, P., & Zillmann, D. (1981). The appeal of rough-and-tumble play in televised professional football. Communication Quarterly, 29, 256–262.

Burnham, J. R. (1968). Effects of experimenter's expectancies on children's ability to learn to swim. Unpublished master's thesis. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

Burns, R., & Crawford, C. (1999). School shootings, the media, and public fear: Ingredients for a moral panic. Crime, Law and Social Change, 32, 147–168.

Bushman, B. J. (2002). Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame? Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger and aggressive responding. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 724–731.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001a). Is it time to pull the plug on the hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Psychological Review, 108, 273–279.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001b). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56, 477–489.

Bushman, B. J., Baumeister, R. F., & Stack, A. D. (1999). Catharsis, aggression, and persuasive influence: Self-fulfilling or self-defeating prophecies? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 367–376.

Bushman, B. J., Bonacci, A. M., Pederson, W. C., Vasquez, E. A., & Miller, N. (2005). Chewing on it can chew you up: Effects of rumination on triggered displaced aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 969–983.

Bushman, B. J., & Cooper, H. M. (1990). Effects of alcohol on human aggression: An integrative research review. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 341–354.

Bushman, B. J., & Wells, G. L. (1998). Trait aggressiveness and hockey penalties: Predicting hot tempers on the ice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 969–974.

(p.238) Buss, A. H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. New York: Wiley.

Buss, A. H., Booker, A., & Buss, E. (1972). Firing a weapon and aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, 296–302.

Buss, A. H., & Durkee, A. (1957). An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 343–349.

Buss, A. H., & Perry, M. (1992). The aggression questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452–459.

Butz, D. A., Plant, E. A., & Doerr, C. E. (2007). Liberty and justice for all? Implications of exposure to the U.S. flag for intergroup relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 396–408.

Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago: Rand McNally.

Canter, D., Comber, M., & Uzzell, D. L. (1989). Football in its place: An environmental psychology of football grounds. New York: Routledge.

Cantril, H. (1943). Causes and control of riot and panic. Public Opinion Quarterly, 7, 669–679.

Caplow, T. (1964). Princiles of organization. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.

Carlsmith, J. M., & Anderson, C. A. (1979). Ambient temperature and the occurrence of collective violence: A new analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 337–344.

Carlson, M., Marcus-Newhall, A., & Miller, N. (1990). Effects of situational aggression cues: A quantitative review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 622–633.

Caron, S. L., Halteman, W. A., & Stacy, C. (1997). Athletes and rape: Is there a connection? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85, 1379–1393.

Carver, C. S., Coleman, A. E., & Glass, D. C. (1976). The coronary-prone behavior pattern and the suppression of fatigue on a treadmill test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 460–466.

Carver, C. S., DeGregorio, E., & Gillis, R. (1981). Challenge and Type-A behavior among intercollegiate football players. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 140–148.

Carver, C. S., Gandellen, R. J., Froming, W. J., & Chambers, W. (1983). Modeling: An analysis in terms of category accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 403–421.

Carver, C. S., & Glass, D. C. (1978). Coronary-prone behavior pattern and interpersonal aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 361–366.

Cavanaugh, B. S., & Silva, J. M., III. (1980). Spectator perceptions of fan misbehavior: An attitudinal inquiry. In C. H. Nadeau, W. R. Halliwell, K. M. Newell, & G. C. Roberts (Eds.), Psychology of motor behavior and sport, 1979 (pp. 189–198). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Chakotin, S. (1941). The rape of the masses. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Cherek, D. R. (1981). Effects of smoking different doses of nicotine on human aggressive behavior. Psychopharmacology, 75, 339–345.

Cherek, D. R., Lane, S. D., & Pietras, C. J. (2003). Laboratory measures: The point subtraction aggression paradigm. In E. F. Coccaro (Ed.), Aggression: Psychiatric assessment and treatment (pp. 215–228). New York: Dekker.

Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., & Brauchi, J. T. (1984). Consumption of regular or decaffeinated coffee and subsequent human aggressive behavior. Psychiatry Research, 11, 251–258.

Cherek, D. R., Steinberg, J. L., Kelly, T. H., & Robinson, D. E. (1986). Effects of d-amphetamine on human aggressive behavior. Psychopharmacology, 88, 381–386.

(p.239) Cherek, D. R., Tcheremissine, O. V., & Lane, S. D. (2006). Psychopharmacology of human aggression: Laboratory and clinical studies. In R. J. Nelson (Ed.), Biology of aggression (pp. 424–446). New York: Oxford University Press.

Christie, R., & Geis, F. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.

Christy, C. A., & Voigt, H. (1994). Bystander responses to public episodes of child abuse. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 824–847.

Cleckley, H. (1976). The mask of sanity (5th ed.) St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.

Coalter, F. (1985). Crowd behaviour at football matches: A study in Scotland, Leisure Studies, 4, 111–117.

Coates, J. F. (1972). Wit and humor: A neglected aid in crowd and mob control. Crime and Delinquency, 18, 184–191.

Cohen, S. (1973). Folk devils and moral panics. London: Paladin.

Cohen, D., Nisbett, R. E., Bowdle, B. E., & Schwarz, N. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the Southern culture of honor: An “experimental ethnography.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945–960.

Comisky, P., Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (1977). Commentary as a substitute for action. Journal of Communication, 27, 150–153.

Court-Brown, W. M. (1968). Males with an XYY sex chromosome complement. Journal of Medical Genetics, 5, 341–359.

Cresswell, P. (1992, December 10–13). Attacked by thugs on a crowded street. The European, p. 30.

Crews, D. J., Shirreffs, J. H., Thomas, G., Krahenbuhl, G. S., & Helfrich, H. M. (1986). Psychological and physiological attributes associated with performance of selected players of the Ladies Professional Golf Association tour. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 235–238.

Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1964). The approval motive: Studies in evaluative dependence. New York: Wiley.

Curtin, J. S. (2004, August 10). Japan 3 China 1—but both are losers. Asia Times Online.

Curtis, J., Loy, J., & Karnilowicz, W. (1986). A comparison of suicide-di effects of major sport events and civil holidays. Sociology of Sport Journal, 3, 1–14.

Daniels, K., & Thornton, E. W. (1990). An analysis of the relationship between hostility and training in the martial arts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 8, 95–101.

Darrah, E. M. (1898, May). A study of children's ideal. Popular Science Monthly, 53, 88–98.

Darrow, C., & Lowinger, P. (1968). The Detroit uprising: A psychological study. In J. Masserman (Ed.), The dynamics of dissent: Science and psychoanalysis (Vol. 13). New York: Grune & Stratton.

Darwin, C. (1872/1965). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (Original work published 1872).

Davis, H. IV. (1990). Cognitive style and nonsport imagery in elite ice hockey performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 795–801.

Dechesne, M., Greenberg, J., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2000). Terror management and the vicissitudes of sports fan affiliation: The effects of mortality salience. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 813–835.

De Freitas, B., & Schwartz, G. (1979). Effects of caffeine in chronic psychiatric patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1337–1338.

Dengerink, H. A. (1976). Personality variables as mediators of attack-instigated aggression. In R. G. Geen & E. C. O'Neal (Eds.), Perspectives on aggression (pp. 61–98). New York: Academic Press.

(p.240) Deutsch, M. (1949). The effects of cooperation and competition upon group processes. Human Relations, 2, 199–231.

Dewar, C. K. (1979). Spectator fights at professional baseball games. Review of Sport & Leisure, 4, 12–25.

Diab, L. N. (1970). A study of intragroup and intergroup relations among experimentally produced small groups. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 82, 49–82.

Diener, E. (1980). Deindividuation: The absence of self-awareness and self-regulation in group members. In P. B. Paulus (Ed.), The psychology of group influence (pp. 209–242). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Diener, E., & DeFour, D. (1978). Does television violence enhance program popularity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 333–341.

Diener, E., & Woody, L. W. (1981). Television violence, conflict, realism, and action. Communication Research, 8, 281–308.

Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller, N., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Donnerstein, E., Donnerstein, M., Simon, S., & Ditrichs, R. (1972). Variables in interracial aggression: Anonymity, expected retaliation, and a riot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, 236–245.

Donnerstein, E., & Wilson, D. W. (1976). Effects of noise and perceived control on ongoing and subsequent aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 774–781.

Doob, A., & Macdonald, G. (1979). Television viewing and fear of victimization: Is the relationship causal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 170–179.

Drake, B., & Pandey, S. (1996). Do child abuse rates increase on those days on which professional sporting events are held? Journal of Family Violence, 11, 205–218.

Dunand, M. A. (1986). Violence et panique dans le stade de football de Bruxelles en 1985: Approche psychosociale des evenements. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 6, 235–266.

Dunning, E., Murphy, P., & Williams, J. (1986). Spectator violence at football matches: Towards a sociological explanation. British Journal of Sociology, 37, 221–255.

DuRant, R. H., Champion, H., & Wolfson, M. (2006). The relationship between watching professional wrestling on television and engaging in date fighting among high school students. Pediatrics, 118, 265–272.

Dzieweczynski, T. L., Earley, R. L., Green, T. M., & Rowland, W. J. (2005). Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behavioral Ecology, 16, 1025–1030.

Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 309–330.

Earley, R. L., Druen, M., & Dugatkin, L. A. (2005). Watching fights does not alter a bystander's response towards naive conspecifics in male green swordtail fish, Xihophorus helleri. Animal Behaviour, 69, 1139–1145.

Earley, R. L., Tinsley, M., & Dugatkin, L. A. (2003). To see or not to see: Does previewing a future opponent affect the contest behavior of green swordtail males (Xihophorus helleri)? Naturwissenschaften, 90, 226–230.

Ebbesen, E. B., Duncan, B., & Konecni, V. J. (1975). Effects of content of verbal aggression on future verbal aggression: A field experiment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 192–204.

(p.241) Edwards, D. A. (2006). Competition and testosterone. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 681–683.

Edwards, D. A., Wetzel, J., & Wyner, D. R. (2006). Intercollegiate soccer: Saliva cortisol and testosterone are elevated during competition, and testosterone is related to status and social connectedness with teammates. Physiology and Behavior, 87, 135–143.

Eisinger, P. K. (1973). The conditions of protest behavior in American cities. American Political Science Review, 67, 11–28.

Elias, M. (1981). Serum cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone-binding globulin responses to competitive fighting in human males. Aggressive Behavior, 7, 215–224.

Elliott, D. S., & Ageton, S. S. (1980). Reconciling age and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45, 95–110.

Elliott, D., & Smith, D. (1993). Football stadia disasters in the United Kingdom: Learning from tragedy? Industrial & Environmental Crisis Quarterly, 7, 205–229.

Ellsworth, P. C. (1975). Direct gaze as a social stimulus: The example of aggression. In P. Pliner, L. Krames, & T. Alloway (Eds.), Nonverbal communication of aggression (Vol. 2). New York: Plenum.

Ellsworth, P. C., Carlsmith, J. M., & Henson, A. (1972). The stare as a stimulus to flight in human subjects: A series of field experiments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 302–311.

Endean, C. (1993, September 23–26). Racism takes a turn for the worse. The European, p. 4.

Ennis, R., & Zanna, M. P. (1990, June). Hockey assault: Constitutive versus normative violations. Paper presented at the meeting of the Canadian Psychological Association, Ottawa.

Evans, R. I. (1974). A conversation with Konrad Lorenz about aggression, homosexuality, pornography, and the need for a new ethic. Psychology Today, 8, 82–93.

Everett, A. (1988). The role of personality in violent relationships. In G. W. Russell (Ed.), Violence in intimate relationships (pp. 135–148). Great Neck, NY: PMA Publishing.

Eysenck, H. J., Nias, D. K. B., & Cox, D. N. (1982). Sport and personality. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 4, 1–56.

Farrington, D. P., Berkowitz, L., & West, D. J. (1982). Differences between individual and group fights. British Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 323–333.

Fenigstein, A. (1979). Does aggression cause a preference for viewing media violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2307–2317.

Ferris, C. F. (2006). Neuroplasticity and aggression: An interaction between vasopressin and serotonin. In R. J. Nelson (Ed.), Biology of aggression (pp. 163–175). New York: Oxford University Press.

Festinger, L., Pepitone, A., & Newcomb, T. (1952). Some consequences of deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 382–389.

Fischer, P., & Greitemeyer, T. (2006). Music and aggression: The impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1165–1176.

Folkesson, P., Nyberg, C., Archer, T., & Norlander, T. (2002). Soccer referees’ experience of threat and aggression: Effects of age, experience, and life orientation on outcome of coping strategy. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 317–327.

Foundation for Child Development. (1977). National survey of children. New York.

Foy, E., & Harlow, A. F. (1928). Clowning through life. New York: E. P. Dutton.

(p.242) Frank, M. G., & Gilovich, T. (1988). The dark side of self-and social perception: Black uniforms and aggression in professional sports. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 74–85.

Freedman, J. L. (1984). Effect of television on aggressiveness. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 227–246.

Freedman, J. L., Levy, A. S., Buchanan, R. W., & Price, J. (1972). Crowding and human aggressiveness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8, 528–548.

French, J. (1941). Experimental study of group panic. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 57, 195.

French, J. (1944). Organized and unorganized groups under fear and frustration. University of Iowa Studies: Studies in Child Welfare. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.

Frodi, A. (1975). The effect of exposure to weapons on aggressive behavior from a cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Psychology, 10, 283–292.

Frodi, A. (1977). Sexual arousal, situational restrictiveness, and aggressive behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 48–58.

Frodi, A., Macauley, J., & Thome, P. R. (1977). Are women always less aggressive than men?: A review of the experimental literature. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 634–660.

Gaebelein, J. (1973). Third-party instigation of aggression: An experimental approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 389–395.

Gaebelein, J., & Taylor, S. P. (1971). The effects of competition and attack on physical aggression. Psychonomic Science, 24, 65–67.

Gantner, A. B., & Taylor, S. P. (1988). Human physical aggression as a function of diazepam. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 479–484.

Gantner, A. B., & Taylor, S. P. (1992). Human physical aggression as a function of alcohol and threat of harm. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 29–36.

Gantz, W., Wenner, L. A., Carrico, C., & Knorr, M. (1995). Assessing the football widow hypothesis: A coorientation study of televised sports on long-standing relationships. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 19, 352–376.

Garrick, J. G., Collins, G. S., & Requa, R. K. (1977). Out of bounds in football: Player exposure to probability of collision injury. Journal of Safety Research, 9, 34–38.

Geen, R. G. (1990). Human aggression. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Geen, R. G. (2001). Human aggression (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Geen, R. G., & McCown, E. J. (1984). Effects of noise and attack on aggression and physiological arousal. Motivation and Emotion, 8, 231–241.

Geen, R. G., & O'Neal, E. C. (1969). Activation of cue-elicited aggression by general arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 289–292.

Gentile, D. A., & Sesma, A. (2003). Developmental approaches to understanding media effects on individuals. In D. A. Gentile (Ed.), Media violence and children (pp. 19–38). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Giancola, P. R., & Zeichner, A. (1995). Construct validity of a competitive reaction-time aggression paradigm. Aggressive Behavior, 21, 199–204.

Gilmour, R. (1988). Crowd panic: Competing and cooperating in groups. In G. M. Breakwell, H. Foot, & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Doing social psychology (pp. 279–290). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Girard, D. (2005, August 29). Hockey reduced to basic blood sport. Toronto Star

Giulianotti, R. (1995). Football and the politics of carnival: An ethnographic study of Scottish fans in Sweden. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 30, 191–217.

(p.243) Glass, D. C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress, and coronary disease. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Glass, D., & Singer, J. (1972). Urban stress. New York: Academic Press.

Goldenson, R. M. (Ed.). (1984). Longman dictionary of psychology and psychiatry. New York: Longman.

Goldstein, A. P. (1996). Violence in America: Lessons on understanding the aggression in our lives. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.

Goldstein, J. H. (Ed.). (1983). Sports violence. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Goldstein, J. H. (1989). Violence in sports. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 279–297). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Goldstein, J. H. (1998). Immortal Kombat: War toys and violent video games. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Why we watch: The attractions of violent entertainment (pp. 53–68). New York: Oxford University Press.

Goldstein, J. H., & Arms, R. L. (1971). Effects of observing athletic contests on hostility. Sociometry, 34, 83–90.

Goldstein, J. H., Davis, R. W., & Herman, D. (1975). Escalation of aggression: Experimental studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 162–170.

Goldstein, J. H., Davis, R. W., Kernis, M., & Cohn, E. S. (1981). Retarding the escalation of aggression. Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 65–70.

Goode, E. (2000). Moral panic: Changing concepts of the child molester in modern America. Sociological Forum, 15, 543–552.

Greene, B. (1986, November). Bar wars: Guns and moving targets in a new kind of combat zone. Esquire, pp. 61–62.

Greenwell, J., & Dengerink, H. A. (1973). The role of perceived versus actual attack in human physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 66–71.

Greer, D. L. (1983). Spectator booing and the home advantage: A study of social influence in the basketball arena. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46, 252–261.

Grimes, P. W., & Ray, M. A. (1995). Career winnings and gender in thoroughbred racing. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12, 96–104.

Gross, D. E., Kelley, H. H., Kruglanski, A. W., & Patch, M. E. (1972). Contingency of consequences and type of incentive interdependent escape. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 8, 360–377.

Gustafson, R. (1999). Male alcohol-related aggression as a function of type of drink. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 401–408.

Guten, S., & Allen, V. L. (1972). Likelihood of escape, likelihood of danger, and panic behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 29–36.

Guttmann, A. (1983). Roman sports violence. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 7–17). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Guttmann, A. (1991). Women's sports: A history. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hain, P. (1971). Don't play with apartheid: The background to the stop the seventy tour campaign. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.

Haley, A. J. (2001, Summer). British soccer superhooligans: Emergence and establishment. The Sport Journal, 4.

Hall, E. T. (1966). The hidden dimension. New York: Doubleday.

Hardy, C. J., & Latané, B. (1988). Social loafing in cheerleaders: Effects of team membershi and competition. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 109–114.

Hare, R. D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: Pocket Books.

Harmon-Jones, E., Simon, L., Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & McGregor, H. (1997). Terror management theory and self-esteem: Evidence that increased (p.244) self-esteem reduces mortality salience effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 24–36.

Harris, M. B. (1974). Mediators between frustration and aggression in a field experiment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 561–571.

Harrison, P. (1974). Soccer's tribal wars. New Society, 29, 602–604.

Hartmann, D. P. (1969). Influence of symbolically modeled instrumental aggression and pain cues on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 11, 280–288.

Hastings, D. E., Cameron, J., Parker, S. M., & Evans, J. (1974). A study of hockey injuries in Ontario. Ontario Medical Review, November, 686–698.

Hayduk, L. A. (1978). Personal space: An evaluative and orienting overview. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 117–134.

Hayduk, L. A. (1981). The permeability of personal space. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 13, 274–287.

Heavyweight heroes of Hastings (2005, November 9). The Province, p. A50.

Helbing, D., Farkas, I., & Vicsek, T. (2000). Simulating dynamical features of escape panic. Nature, 407, 465–466.

Helmreich, R. L., & Spence, J. T. (1978). The work and family orientation questionnaire: An objective instrument to assess components of achievement motivation and attitudes toward family and career. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 8, 35 (Ms. No. 1677).

Hicks, D. J. (1968). Effects of co-observer's sanctions and adult presence on imitative aggression. Child Development, 39, 303–309.

Higgins, E. T. (2000). Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55, 1217–1230.

Hill, R. A., & Barton, R. A. (2005). Red enhances human performance in contests. Nature, 435, 293.

Hoaken, P. N. S., & Stewart, S. H. (2003). Drugs of abuse and the elicitation of human aggressive behavior. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 1533–1554.

House, P. (1992, December 10–13). Fanning flames of hatred. The European, p. 30.

Houston, B. K., & Snyder, C. R. (Eds.). (1988). Type A behavior pattern: Research, theory, and interventions. New York: Wiley.

Howe, N. (1988). Metaphor in contemporary American political discourse. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 87–104.

Huarte-Mendicoa, E. (1993, October 14–17). Hooligans who need an outlet (Letter to the editor). The European.

Husman, B. F. (1955). Aggression in boxers and wrestlers as measured by projective techniques. Research Quarterly, 26, 421–425.

In this corner wearing heels and a tiara. (1989, January 18). The New York Times.

Ito, T. A., Miller, N., & Pollock, V. E. (1996). Alcohol and aggression: A meta-analysis on the moderating effects of inhibitory cues, triggering events, and self-focused attention. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 60–82.

Jacobson, S. (1975). “Chelsea Rule-Okay.” New Society, 27, 780–783.

Janis, I. (1951). Air war and emotional stress. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jenkins, C. D., Zyzanski, S. J., & Rosenman, R. H. (1979). Jenkins activity survey. New York: Psychological Corporation.

Jerome, J. K. (1900). Three men on the bummel. Bristol, England: Arrowsmith.

Johnes, M. (2004). ‘Heads in the sand’: Football, politics and crowd disasters in twentieth-century Britain. Soccer and Society, 5, 134–151.

(p.245) Johnson, N. R. (1987a). Panic and the breakdown of social order: Popular myth, social theory, empirical evidence. Sociological Focus, 20, 171–183.

Johnson, N. R. (1987b). Panic at “The Who Concert Stampede”: An empirical assessment. Social Problems, 34, 362–373.

Johnson, D. W., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R., Nelson, D., & Skon, L. (1981). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 47–62.

Jones, J. C. H., Ferguson, D. G., & Stewart, K. G. (1993). Blood sports and cherry pie: Some economics of violence in the National Hockey League. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 52, 63–78.

Jones, M. V., Bray, S. R., & Olivier, S. (2005). Game location and aggression in rugby league. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 387–393.

Jones, M. V., Paull, G. C., & Erskine, J. (2002). The impact of a team's aggressive reputation on the decisions of association football referees. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 991–1000.

Josephson, W. L. (1987). Television violence and children's aggression: Testing the priming, social scrit, and disinhibition predictions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 882–890.

Kaare, R. (1973, January 1). The murky time. Time, 101, 57–58.

Keating, J. (1982, May). The myth of panic. Fire Journal, 57–61.

Keefer, R., Goldstein, J. H., & Kasiarz, D. (1983). Olympic games particiation and warfare. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 183–193). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kelley, H. H., Condry, J. C., Dahlke, A. E., & Hill, A. H. (1965). Collective behavior in a simulated panic situation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 20–54.

Kenrick, D. T., & MacFarlane, S. W. (1986). Ambient temperature and horn honking: A field study of the heat/aggression relationship. Environment and Behavior, 18, 179–191.

Kenrick, D. T., & Sheets, V. (1993). Homicidal fantasies. Ecology and Sociobiology, 14, 231–246.

Kerr, J. H. (1994). Understanding soccer hooliganism. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Kerr, J. H. (2005a). Rethinking aggression and violence in sport. London: Routledge.

Kerr, J. H. (2005b). Soccer hooligan violence: Making sense of older ‘respectable’ hooligans. Forensic Update, 81, 9–13.

Kerr, J. H. (2006). Examining the Bertuzzi-Moore NHL ice hockey incident: Crossing the line between sanctioned and unsanctioned violence in sport. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11, 313–322.

Kerr, J. H. (2007). Zidane's head-butt: Anger violence in the 2006 Football World Cup Final. Sport and Exercise Psychology Review, 3, 32–39.

Kerr, J. H., & de Kock, H. (2002). Aggression, violence, and the death of a Dutch soccer hooligan: A reversal theory explanation. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 1–10.

King, A. (1995). Outline of a practical theory of football violence. Sociology, 29, 635–651.

Kingsmore, J. M. (1970). The effect of a professional wrestling and a professional basketball contest upon the aggressive tendencies of spectators. In G. S. Kenyon (Ed.), Contemporary psychology of sport (pp. 311–315). Chicago: Athletic Institute.

Kinzel, A. F. (1970). Body-buffer zone in violent prisoners. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 59–64.

(p.246) Klein, A. L. (1976). Changes in leadershi appraisal as a function of the stress of a simulated panic situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1143–1154.

Klinesmith, J., Kasser, T., & McAndrew, F. T. (2006). Guns, testosterone, and aggression: An experimental test of a mediational hypothesis. Psychological Science, 17, 568–571.

Klötz, F., Garle, M., Granath,F., & Thiblin, I. (2006). Criminality among individuals testing positive for the presence of anabolic androgenic steroids. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1274–1279.

Koss, M. P., & Gaines, J. A. (1993). The prediction of sexual aggression by alcohol use, athletic particiation, and fraternity affiliation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 94–108.

Krahé, B., & Fenske, L. (2002). Predicting aggressive driving behavior: The role of macho personality, age, and power of car. Aggressive Behavior, 28, 21–29.

Kruglanski, A. W. (1969). Incentives in interdependent escape as affecting the degree of group incoordination. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 454–466.

Kuhlmann, W. (1975). Violence in professional sports. Wisconsin Law Review, 3, 771–790.

Lagerspetz, K. M. J. (1979). Modification of aggression in mice. In S. Feshbach & A. Fraczek (Eds.), Aggression and behavior change (pp. 66–82). New York: Praeger.

Laird, D. A. (1923). Changes in motor control under the influence of razzing. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6, 236–246.

Lamarre, B. W., & Nosanchuk, T. A. (1999). Judo-the gentle way: A replication of studies on martial arts and aggression. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 88, 992–996.

Lang, K., & Lang, K. E. (1961). Collective dynamics. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Lange, A. R., Goeckner, D. J., Adesso, V. J., & Marlatt, G. A. (1975). Effects of alcohol on aggression in male social drinkers. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 508–518.

La Pierre, R. T. (1938). Collective behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Latané, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 215–221.

Lefkowitz, M. M., Walder, L. O., Eron, L. D., & Huesmann, L. R. (1973). Preference for televised contact sports as related to sex differences in aggression. Developmental Psychology, 9, 417–420.

Lehman, D. R., & Reifman, A. (1987). Spectator influence on basketball officiating. Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 673–675.

Lehmann-Haupt, C. (1992, June 23). Studying soccer violence by the civilized British. New York Times, p. C17.

Levenson, M. R. (1990). Risk taking and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1073–1080.

Lewis, G. (1983). Real men like violence. Kenthurst, Australia: Kangaroo Press.

Lewis, G., & Redmond, G. (1974). Sport heritage: A guide to halls of fame, special collections and museums in the United States and Canada. New York: Barnes.

Lewis, J. M. (1975, August). Sports riots: Some research questions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, San Francisco, CA.

Lewis, J. M. (1982a). Crowd control at English football matches. Sociological Focus, 15, 417–423.

Lewis, J. M. (1982b). Fan violence: An American social problem. In M. Lewis (Ed.), Research in social problems and public policy (Vol. 2, pp. 175–206). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Lewis, J. M., & Veneman, J. M. (1987). Crisis resolution: The Bradford fire and English society. Sociological Focus, 20, 155–168.

(p.247) Lieberman, J. D., Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., & McGregor, H. A. (1999). A hot new way to measure aggression: Hot sauce allocation. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 331–348.

Linesman head-butted. (1993, July 16–22). The European, p. 31.

Lockwood, P., Jordan, C. H., & Kunda, Z. (2002). Motivation by positive or negative role models: Regulatory focus determines who will best inspire us. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 854–864.

Loew, C. A. (1967). Acquisition of a hostile attitude and its relationship to aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 335–341.

Lorenz K. (1966). On aggression. London: Methuen.

Loy, J. W., Jr., McPherson, B. D., & Kenyon, G. (1978). Sport and social systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

MacDonald, J. M. (1961). The murderer and his victim. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.

Mann, L. (1974). On being a sore loser: How fans react to their team's failure. Australian Journal of Psychology, 26, 37–47.

Mann, L. (1977). Field studies of spectator hostility at sports events. Unpublished manuscrit. Flinders University, Australia.

Mann, L. (1979). Sports crowds viewed from the perspective of collective behavior. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (pp. 337–368). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mann, L. (1989). Sports crowds and the collective behavior perspective. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (2nd ed., pp. 299–331). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Mann, L., Newton, J. W., & Innes, J. M. (1982). A test between deindividuation and emergent norm theories of crowd aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 260–272.

Mann, L., & Pearce, P. (1978). Social psychology of the sports spectator. In D. J. Glencross (Ed.), Psychology and sport (pp. 173–201). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Manning, J. T. (2002a). Digit ratio: A pointer to fertility, behavior and health. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Manning, J. T. (2002b). The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length and performance in skiing. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 446–450.

Manning, J. T., & Taylor, R. P. (2001). Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport: Implications for sexual selection in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22, 61–69.

Marsh, P., Fox, K., Carnibella, G., McCann, J., & Marsh, J. (1996). Football violence in Europe. Amsterdam: The Amsterdam group.

Marsh, P., Rosser, E., & Harré, R. (1978). The rules of disorder. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Marshall, J. E., & Heslin, R. (1975). Boys and girls together: Sexual composition and the effect of density and group size on cohesiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 952–961.

Martens, R. (1976). The paradigmatic crises in American sport psychology. In A. Fisher (Ed.), Psychology of sport: Issues and insights (pp. 415–431). Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.

Marx, G. T. (1972). Issueless riots. In J. F. Short, Jr. & M. E. Wolfgang (Eds.), Collective violence (pp. 46–59). Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

Mason, A. (1980). Association football and English society, 1863–1915. Brighton: Harvester.

Mathes, E. W., & Kahn, A. (1975). Diffusion of responsibility and extreme behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 881–886.

(p.248) Maxwell, J. P. (2004). Anger rumination: An antecedent of athlete aggression? Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 279–289.

Mazur, A., Booth, A., & Dabbs, J. M. (1992). Testosterone and chess competition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 70–77.

Mazur, A., & Lamb, T. A. (1980). Testosterone, status, and mood in human males. Hormones and Behavior, 14, 236–246.

McClintock, T., Shields, T. J., Rtland, T. R., & Leslie, J. (1999–2000). Dishabituation and stimulus equivalence could make all emergency fire exits familiar. Journal of Applied Fire Science, 9, 125–134.

McDougall W. (1908/1960). An introduction to social psychology. Edinburgh: Morrison & Gibb Ltd.

McGregor, H. A., Lieberman, J. D., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Simon, L. (1998). Terror management and aggression: Evidence that mortality salience motivates aggression against worldview-threatening others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 590–605.

McGregor, P. K., & Peake, T. M. (2000). Communication networks: Social environments for receiving and signalling behavior. Acta Ethology, 2, 71–81.

McGuire, W. J. (1964). Inducing resistance to persuasion: Some contemporary approaches. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 191–229). New York: Academic Press.

McPhail, C. (1994). The dark side of purpose: Individual and collective violence in riots. Sociological Quarterly, 35, 1–32.

Mehta, P. H., & Josephs, R. A. (2006). Testosterone change after losing predicts the decision to compete again. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 684–692.

Meier, N. C., Mennenga, G. H., & Stoltz, H. Z. (1941). An experimental approach to the study of mob behavior, Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 36, 506–524.

Melnick, M. J., & Jackson, S. J. (1998). The villain as reference idol: Selection frequencies and salient attributes among New Zealand teenagers. Adolescence, 33, 543–554.

Milgram. S. (1964). Group pressure and action against a person. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 137–143.

Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority. New York: Harper & Row.

Milgram, S., & Toch, H. (1969). Collective behavior: Crowds and social movements. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 507–610). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Miller, N. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological Review, 48, 337–342.

Miller, S. (1976). Personality correlates of football fandom. Psychology, 14, 7–13.

Millon, T. (1969). Modern psychopathology. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.

Mills, B. D., & French, L. M. (1996). Assertive behavior and jersey color in the National Hockey and Football Leagues: The black uniform myth and reality. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 31, 47–60.

Mintz, A. (1951). Non-adaptive group behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46, 150–159.

Mischel, W. (1977). On the future of personality measurement. American Psychologist, 32, 246–254.

Moore, M. (2006, July 13). Zidane says “harsh” insults by Italian led to head butt. The Washington Post, p. E01.

Moorhouse, H. F. (1984). Professional football and working class culture: English theories and Scottish evidence. Sociological Review, 32, 285–315.

(p.249) Moorhouse, H. F. (1991). Football hooligans: Old bottle new whines? The Sociological Review, 39, 489–502.

Mosher, D. L., & Sirkin, M. (1984). Measuring a macho personality constellation. Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 150–163.

Moyer, K. E. (1987). Violence and aggression: A physiological perspective. New York: Paragon House.

Muecher, H., & Ungeheuer, H. (1961). Meteorological influence on reaction time, flicker-fusion frequency, job accidents, and medical treatment. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 12, 163–168.

Mullen, B. (1986). Atrocity as a function of lynch mob composition: A self-attention perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 187–197.

Mungo, D. A., & Feltz, D. L. (1985). The social learning of aggression in youth football in the United States. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, 10, 26–35.

Murphy, P., Williams, J., & Dunning, E. G. (1990). Football on trial. London: Routledge.

Murray, H. A., et al. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mustonen, A., Arms, R. L., & Russell, G. W. (1996). Predictors of sports spectators’ proclivity for riotous behavior in Finland and Canada. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 519–525.

Myers, D. G. (1996). Social psychology (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Myerscough, R., & Taylor, S. (1985). The effects of marijuana on human physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1541–1546.

Narancic, V. G. (1972). The psychology of swearing among sportsmen. Journal of Sports Medicine, 12, 207–210.

Nash, J. E., & Learner, E. (1981). Learning from the pros: Violence in youth hockey. Youth & Society, 13, 229–244.

Nazi fans will be jailed. (1993, November 12–18). The European, p. 4.

Nelson, R. J. (Ed.). (2006). Biology of aggression. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nepalese look for survivors of stampede at soccer game (1988, March 14). The New York Times.

Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the south. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Norlander, T., Nordmarker, A., & Archer, T. (1998). Effect of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 201–207.

Nosanchuk, T. A. (1981). The way of the warrior: The effects of traditional martial arts training on aggressiveness. Human Relations, 34, 435–444.

Nosanchuk, T. A., & MacNeil, M. L. C. (1989). Examination of the effects of tra- ditional and modern martial arts training on aggressiveness. Aggressive Behavior, 15, 153–159.

Nowicki, S., Jr. (1982). Competition-cooperation as a mediator of locus of control and achievement. Journal of Research in Personality, 16, 157–164.

O'Brien, R., & Hersch, H. (1998, June 1). Go figure. Sports Illustrated, p. 22.

Ohbuchi, K., & Izutsu, T. (1984). Retaliation by male victims: Effects of physical attractiveness and intensity of attack of female attacker. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 216–224.

Old-timer wins his final battle. (1993, May 20–23). The European, p. 29.

Olweus, D. (1979). Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 852–875.

(p.250) O'Neal, E. C., & McDonald, P. J. (1976). The environmental psychology of aggression. In R. G. Geen & E. C. O'Neal (Eds.), Perspectives on aggression (pp. 169–192). New York: Academic Press.

Orne, M. T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17, 776–783.

Orne, M. T., & Evans, F. J. (1965). Social control in the psychological experiment: Antisocial behavior and hypnosis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 189–200.

Österman, K., Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., Charpentier, S., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1999). Locus of control and three types of aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 25, 61–65.

Owens, L., Shute, R., & Slee, P. (2000). “Guess what I just heard!”: Indirect aggression among teenage girls in Australia. Aggressive Behavior, 26, 67–83.

Page, R. A., & Moss, M. K. (1976). Environmental influences on aggression: The effects of darkness and proximity of victim. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 126–133.

Paik, H., & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 21, 516–546.

Palmer, C. T. (2006). “Shit happens”: The selling of risk in extreme sport. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 13, 323–336.

Park, R., & Burgess, E. (1924). Introduction to the science of sociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Pasman, W. J., van Baak, M. A., Jeukendrup, A. E., & de Haan, A. (1995). The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 16, 225–230.

Paulhus, D., Molin, J., & Schuchts, R. (1979). Control profiles of football players, tennis players, and nonathletes. Journal of Social Psychology, 108, 199–205.

Pennebaker, J. W., Burnam, M., Schaeffer, M. A., & Harper, D. C. (1977). Lack of control as a determinant of perceived symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 167–174.

Perrow, C. (1984). Normal accidents: Living with high-risk technologies. New York: Basic Books.

Phillis, D. P. (1983). The impact of mass media violence on U.S. homicides. American Sociological Review, 48, 560–568.

Phillis, D. P. (1986). Natural experiments on the effects of mass media violence on fatal aggression: Strength and weaknesses of a new approach. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 19, pp. 207–250). New York: Academic Press.

Pihl, R. O., Smith, M., & Farrell, B. (1984). Alcohol and aggression in men: A comparison of brewed and distilled beverages. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 278–282.

Pilz, G. A. (1981). Sport and violence. Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany: Federal Institute for Sport Science.

Pope, H. G., Jr., & Katz, D. L. (1988). Affective and psychotic symptoms associated with anabolic steroid use. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 487–490.

Pope, H. G., Jr., Katz, D. L., & Champoux, R. (1988). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among 1010 college men. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 16, 75–78.

Pope, H. G., Jr., Kouri, E. M., Powell, K. F., Campbell, C., & Katz, D. L. (1996). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among 133 prisoners. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 37, 322–327.

Price, V. A. (1982). Type A behavior pattern. New York: Academic Press.

(p.251) Price, W. H., & Whatmore, P. B. (1967). Behavior disorders and pattern of crime among XYY males identified at a maximum security hospital. British Medical Journal, 1, 533–536.

Profusek, P. J., & Rainey, D. W. (1987). Effects of Baker-Miller pink and red on state anxiety, gri strength, and motor perception. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 65, 941–942.

Proulx, G. (1993). A stress model about people facing a fire. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 137–147.

Proulx, G. (1996, July/August). Critical factors in high-rise evacuations. Fire Prevention, 291, 24–27.

Proulx, G. (2002). Cool under fire. Fire Protection Engineering, 16, 23–25.

Quarantelli, E. L. (1954). The nature and conditions of panic. American Journal of Sociology, 60, 267–275.

Quarantelli, E. L. (2001). The sociology of panic. In N. J. Smelser and P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 11020–11030). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Quirk, K. (1997). Not now honey, I'm watching the game. New York: Fireside.

Rabbie, J. M. (1989). Football violence in the Heizel Stadium: A management crisis. (Review of Het Heizel drama: Rampzalig organiseren en kritieke beslissingen). Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 8, 50–56.

Rainey, D. W. (1994a). Assaults on umpires: A statewide survey. Journal of Sport Behavior, 17, 148–155.

Rainey, D. W. (1994b). Magnitude of stress experienced by baseball and softball umpires. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 79, 255–258.

Rainey, D. W. (1995). Sources of stress among baseball and softball umpires. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7, 1–10.

Rainey, D. W., & Duggan, P. (1998). Assaults on basketball referees: A statewide survey. Journal of Sport Behavior, 21, 113–120.

Rally crowd's stupidity threatens drivers’ lives (1994, January 28). The European, p. 14.

Ray, M. A., & Grimes, P. W. (1993). Jockeying for position: Winnings and gender discrimination on the thoroughbred track. Social Science Quarterly, 74, 46–61.

Reifman, A. S., Larrick, R. P., & Fein, S. (1991). Temper and temperature on the diamond: The heat-aggression relationship in major league baseball. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 580–585.

Renfrew, J. W. (1997). Aggression and its causes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (1968). Patterns of disorder. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Rhodewalt, F., & Strube, M. J. (1985). A self-attribution-reactance model of recovery from injury in Type A individuals. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 330–344.

Richardson, D., Leonard, K., Taylor, S., & Hammock, G. (1985). Male violence toward females: Victim and aggressor variables. Journal of Psychology, 119, 129–135.

Ritter, D., & Eslea, M. (2005). Hot sauce, toy guns, and graffiti: A critical account of current laboratory aggression paradigms. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 407–419.

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (Eds.). (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. New York: Academic Press.

Rogers, R. W., & Prentice-Dunn, S. (1981). Deindividuation and anger-mediated interracial aggression: Unmasking regressive racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 63–73.

Roloff, M. E., & Solomon, D. H. (1989). Sex typing, sports interests, and relational harmony. In L. A. Wenner (Ed.), Media, sports, and society (pp. 290–311). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

(p.252) Rosenfeld, M. J. (1997). Celebrating, politics, selective looting and riots: A microlevel study of the Bulls riot of 1992 in Chicago. Social Problems, 44, 483–502.

Rosenthal, R., & Rosnow, R. L. (1975). The volunteer subject. New York: Wiley.

Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (1996). Beginning behavioral research (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ross, L., Greene, D., & House, P. (1977). The “false consensus effect”: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 279–301.

Rotmil, A. (1992, December 10–13). “I have been humiliated.” The European, p. 30.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No. 609).

Rotter, J. B. (1973). Internal-external locus of control scale. In J. P. Robinson & R. P. Shaver (Eds.), Measures of social psychological attitudes. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research.

Rotton, J., & Frey, J. (1985). Air pollution, weather, and violent crimes: Concomitant time-series analysis of archival data. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1207–1220.

Rotton, J., Frey, J., Barry, T., Milligan, M., & Fitzpatrick, M. (1979). The air pollution experience and physical aggression. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 397–412.

Rotton, J., & Kelly, I. W. (1985). Much ado about the full moon: A meta-analysis of lunar-lunacy research. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 286–306.

Roversi, A. (1991). Football violence in Italy. International Review for Sociology of Sport, 26, 311–331.

Rowe, C., Harris, J. M., & Roberts, S. C. (2005). Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context. Nature, 437, E10.

Rushton, J. P., Fulker, D. W., Neale, M. C., Nias, D. K. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Altruism and aggression: The heritability of individual differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1192–1198.

Russell, G. W. (1972). The perception and classification of collective behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 219–227.

Russell, G. W. (1974). Machiavellianism, locus of control, aggression, performance and precautionary behavior in ice hockey. Human Relations, 27, 825–837.

Russell, G. W. (1981a). Aggression in sport. In P. F. Brain & D. Benton (Eds.), Multidiscilinary approaches to aggression research (pp. 431–446). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.

Russell, G. W. (1981b). Spectator moods at an aggressive sports event. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 217–227.

Russell, G. W. (1983a). Crowd size and density in relation to athletic aggression and performance. Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 9–15.

Russell, G. W. (1983b). Psychological issues in sports aggression. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports violence (pp. 157–181). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Russell, G. W. (1986). Does sports violence increase box office receits? International Journal of Sports Psychology, 17, 173–183.

Russell, G. W. (Ed.). (1988). Violence in intimate relationships. New York: PMA Publishing.

Russell, G. W. (1991). Athletes as targets of aggression. In R. Baenninger (Ed.), Targets of violence and aggression (pp. 211–252). New York: Elsevier.

Russell, G. W. (1992a). Battling amazons: Responses to female fighters. In K. Björkqvist & P. Niemelä (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. 251–260). New York: Academic Press.

(p.253) Russell, G. W. (1992b). Response of the macho male to viewing a combatant sport. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 631–638.

Russell, G. W. (1993). The social psychology of sport. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Russell, G. W. (1995). Personalities in the crowd: Those who would escalate a sports riot. Aggressive Behavior, 21, 91–100.

Russell, G. W. (2001). Sport science secrets: From myth to facts. Victoria, BC: Trafford.

Russell, G. W. (2004). Sport riots: A social-psychological review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9, 353–378.

Russell, G. W., & Arms, R. L. (1995). False consensus effect, physical aggression, anger, and a willingness to escalate a disturbance. Aggressive Behavior, 21, 381–386.

Russell, G. W., & Arms, R. L. (1998). Toward a social psychological profile of would-be rioters. Aggressive Behavior, 24, 219–226.

Russell, G. W., & Arms, R. L. (2001). Calming troubled waters: Peacemakers in a sports riot. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 292–296.

Russell, G. W., & Arms. R. L. (2002). The sport widow hypothesis: A research note. North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 249–252.

Russell, G. W., Arms, R. L., Dwyer, R. S., & Josuttes, D. (2006). Females as targets of male aggression in the Bungled Procedure Paradigm. Unpublished manuscrit.

Russell, G. W., Arms, R. L., & Bibby, R. W. (1995). Canadians’ belief in catharsis. Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 223–228.

Russell, G. W., Arms, R. L., Loof, S. D., & Dwyer, R. S. (1996). Men's aggression toward women in a bungled procedure paradigm. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 729–738.

Russell, G. W., Arms, R. L., & Mustonen, A. (1999). When cooler heads prevail: Peacemakers in a sports riot. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 40, 153–155.

Russell, G. W., & Baenninger, R. (1996). Murder most foul: Predictors of an affirmative response to an outrageous question, Aggressive Behavior, 22, 175–181.

Russell, G. W., & de Graaf, J. P. (1985). Lunar cycles and human aggression: A replication. Social Behavior and Personality, 13, 143–146.

Russell, G. W., Di Lullo, S. L., & Di Lullo, D. (1988–1989). Effects of viewing competitive and violent versions of a sport. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 7, 312–321.

Russell, G. W., & Drewry, B. R. (1976). Crowd size and competitive aspects of aggression in ice hockey: An archival study. Human Relations, 29, 723–735.

Russell, G. W., & Dua, M. (1983). Lunar influences on human aggression. Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 41–44.

Russell, G. W., & Goldstein, J. H. (1995). Personality differences between Dutch football fans and nonfans. Social Behavior and Personality, 23, 199–204.

Russell, G. W., & Goldstein, J. H. (in press). Sports. In Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict.

Russell, G. W., Horn, V. E., & Huddle, M. J. (1988). Male responses to female aggression. Social Behavior and Personality, 16, 47–53.

Russell, G. W., Huddle, M. J., & Corson, M. C. (1988). At close quarters: Personal space requirements of men in intimate sexual dyads. In G. W. Russell (Ed.), Violence in intimate relationships (pp. 253–267). New York: PMA Publishing.

Russell, G. W., & McClusky, M. G. (1985, May). The exemplars of adolescents: Their influence and quality. Paper presented at the meeting of the Banff Annual Seminar in Cognitive Science, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

Russell, G. W., & Mustonen, A. (1998). Peacemakers: Those who would intervene to quell a sports riot. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 335–339.

(p.254) Russell, G. W., Wann. D. L., & Russell, G. (2007). [Peacemakers and law and order]. Unpublished raw data.

Sachs, C. J., & Chu, L. D. (2000). The association between professional football games and domestic violence in Los Angeles county. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 1192–1201.

Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Particiant roles and their relations to social status within the group. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 1–15.

Salvador, A., Simón, V., Suay, F., & Llorens, L. (1987). Testosterone and cortisol responses to competitive fighting in human males: A pilot study. Aggressive Behavior, 13, 9–13.

Sandiford, K. A. P. (1982). English cricket crowds during the Victorian age. Journal of Sport History, 9, 5–22.

Sauvey, P. (2006, March 9). Tennis dad gets eight years in drug death. Seattle Post-Intelligencer.

Savage, J. (2004). Does viewing violent media really cause criminal violence?: A methodological review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 99–128.

Scaramella, T. J., & Brown, W. A. (1978). Serum testosterone and aggressiveness in hockey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 262–265.

Schauss, A. G. (1979). Tranquilizing effect of color reduces aggressive behavior and potential violence. Journal of Orthomolecular Psychology, 8, 218–221.

Schechter, M. D., & Rand, M. J. (1974). Effect of acute deprivation of smoking on aggression and hostility. Psychopharmacology, 35, 19–28.

Schultz, D. P. (1964a). Panic behavior. New York: Random House.

Schultz, D. P. (1964b). Panic in organized collectives. Journal of Social Psychology, 63, 353–359.

Schultz, D. P. (1965). Theories of panic behavior: A review. Journal of Social Psychology, 66, 31–40.

Segrave, J. O. (1997). A matter of life and death: Some thoughts on the language of sport. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 21, 211–220.

Semyonov, M., & Farbstein, M. (1989). Ecology of sports violence: The case of Israeli soccer. Sociology of Sport Journal, 6, 50–59.

Sherif, M., & Sherif, C. W. (1969). Social psychology. New York: Harper & Row.

Sime, J. D. (1980). The myth of panic. In J. D. Sime (Ed.), Fires and human behavior (pp. 63–81). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Sime, J. D. (1983). Affiliative behaviour during escape to building exits. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 21–41.

Sime, J. D. (1995). Crowd psychology and engineering. Safety Science, 21, 1–14.

Simons, Y., & Taylor, J. (1992). A psychosocial model of fan violence in sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23, 207–226.

Sipes, R. G. (1973). War, sports and aggression: A empirical test of two rival theories. American Anthropologist, 75, 64–68.

Sipes, R. G. (1989). Sports as a control for aggression. In D. S. Eitzen (Ed.), Sports in contemporary society: An anthology (3rd ed., pp. 56–62). New York: St. Martin's Press.

Sivarajasingam, V., Moore, S., & Shepherd, J. P. (2005). Winning, losing, and violence. Injury Prevention, 11, 69–70.

Six at City College crushed to death (1991, December 29). The New York Times, p. 1.

Skelton, W. D. (1969). Prison riot: Assaulters vs defenders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 21, 359–362.

(p.255) Slater, M., Antley. A, Davison, A., Swapp, D., Guger, C., & Barker, C., et al. (2006). A virtual reprise of the Stanley Milgram obedience experiments. PLoS ONE, 1, 1–16.

Smeaton, G., & Byrne, D. (1987). The effects of R-rated violence and erotica, individual differences, and victim characteristics on acquaintance rape proclivity. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 171–184.

Smelser, N. (1963). Theory of collective behavior. New York: Free Press.

Smith, M. D. (1975). Sport and collective violence. In D. W. Ball & J. W. Loy (Eds.), Sport and social order: Contributions to the sociology of sport (pp. 277–330). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Smith, M. D. (1978). From professional to youth hockey violence: The role of the mass media. In M. A. B. Gammon (Ed.), Violence in Canada (pp. 269–281). Toronto: Metheun.

Smith, M. D. (1983). Violence and sport. Toronto: Butterworths.

Smith, R. E. (1993). Psychology. New York: West Publishing.

Smith, R. J. (1978). The psychopath in society. New York: Academic Press.

Smith, S. L., Nathanson, A. I., & Wilson, B. J. (2002). Prime-time television: Assessing violence during the most popular viewing hours. Journal of Communication, 52, 84–111.

Smith, G. J., Patterson, B., Williams, T., & Hogg, J. (1981). A profile of the deeply committed male sports fan. Arena Review, 5, 26–44.

Spence, J. T., Pred, R. S., & Helmreich, R. L. (1989). Achievement strivings, scholastic aptitude, and academic performance: A follow-up to “Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 176–178.

Stallings, W. M., & Gillmore, G. M. (1972). Estimating the interjudge reliability of the Ali-Frazier fight. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 435–436.

Steele, C. M., & Southwick, L. (1985). Alcohol and social behavior I: The psychology of drunken excess. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 18–34.

Stone, K. (1992, December 10–13). Germany fights back at racists. The European, p. 30.

Stott, C., & Adang, O. M. J. (2004). Disorderly conduct? Social psychology and the control of football ‘hooliganism’ at Euro 2004. The Psychologist, 17, 318–319.

Stott, C., Adang, O. M. J., Livingstone, M., & Schreiber, M. (2007). Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: “Hooliganism,” public order policing and social change. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 75–100.

Stott, C., Hutchinson, P., & Drury, J. (2001). ‘Hooligans’ abroad?: Inter-group dynamics, social identity and particiation in collective “disorder” at the 1998 World Cup Finals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 359–384.

Stott, C., & Reicher, S. (1998). Crowd action as intergroup process: Introducing the police perspective. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 509–529.

Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press.

Strauss. A. (1944). The literature on panic. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 29, 317–328.

Sullivan, D. B. (1991). Commentary and viewer perception of player hostility: Adding punch to televised sports. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 35, 487–504.

Tamborini, R., Skalski, P., Lachlan, K., Westerman, D., Davis, J., & Smith S. L. (2005). The raw nature of televised professional wrestling: Is the violence a cause for concern? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 49, 202–220.

Tannenbaum, P. H., & Noah, J. E. (1959). Sportugese: A study of sports page communication. Journalism Quarterly, 36, 163–170.

(p.256) Tavris, C. (1988). Beyond cartoon killings: Comments on two overlooked effects of television. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Television as a social issue (pp. 189–197). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Taylor, I. (1987). Putting the boot into a working-class sport: British soccer after Bradford and Brussels. Sociology of Sport Journal, 4, 171–191.

Taylor, S. P. (1967). Aggressive behavior and physiological arousal as a function of provocation and the tendency to inhibit aggression. Journal of Personality, 35, 297–310.

Taylor, S. P., & Epstein, S. (1967). Aggression as a function of the interaction of the sex of the aggressor and the sex of the victim. Journal of Personality, 35, 474–486.

Taylor, S. P., & Gammon, C. B. (1975). Effects of type and dose of alcohol on human physical aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 169–175.

Taylor, S. P., Gammon, C. B., & Capasso, D. R. (1976). Aggression as a function of the interaction of alcohol and threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 938–941.

Taylor, S. P., & Leonard, K. E. (1983). Alcohol and human physical aggression. In R. G. Geen & E. I. Donnerstein (Eds.), Aggression: Theoretical and empirical reviews (Vol. 2, pp. 77–101). New York: Academic Press.

Taylor, S. P., Vardaris, R. M., Rawtich, A. B., Gammon, C. B., Cranston, J. W., & Lubetkin, A. I. (1976). The effects of alcohol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human physical aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 2, 153–161.

Tedeschi, J. T., & Quigley, B. M. (1996). Limitations of laboratory paradigms for studying aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1, 163–177.

Tesler, B. S., & Alker, H. A. (1983). Football games: Victory, defeat, and spectators’ power preferences. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 72–80.

‘t Hart, P., & Pijnenburg, B. (1988). Het Heizel drama: Rampzalig organiseren en kritieke beslissingen. Brussels, Belgium: H. D. Samson.

Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.

Thiblin, I., & Petersson, A. (2004). Pharmacoepidemiology of anabolic androgenic steroids: A review. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 19, 27–44.

Timmerman, T. A. (2002). Violence and race in professional baseball: Getting better or getting worse? Aggressive Behavior, 28, 109–116.

Timmerman, T. A. (2007). “It was a thought pitch”: Personal, situational, and target influences on hit-by-pitch events across time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 876–884.

Tinbergen, N. (1968). On war and peace in animals and man. Science, 160, 1411–1418.

Toch, H. (1984). Violent men. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

Trivizas, E. (1980). Offences and offenders in football crowd disorders. The British Journal of Criminology, 20, 276–288.

Trulson, M. E. (1986). Martial arts training: A novel “cure” for delinquency. Human Relations, 39, 1131–1140.

Turner, R. H., & Killian, L. M. (1972). Collective behavior (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Twemlow, S. W., & Sacco, F. C. (1998). The application of traditional martial arts practice and theory to the treatment of violent adolescents. Adolescence, 33, 505–518.

Vamplew, W. (1980). Sports crowd disorder in Britain, 1870–1914: Causes and controls. Journal of Sport History, 7, 5–20.

van der Kraan, M. (1993, January 21–24). Ajax lead the fight against racial thugs. The European, p. 30.

Van Limbergen, K., Colaers, C., & Walgrave, L. (1989, Spring). The societal and psycho-sociological background of football hooliganism. Current Psychology: Research and Reviews, 8, 4–14.

(p.257) Vanstone, R. (1996, March 28). Maxwell in hot water. Leader Post News.

Vescio, J. A., Crosswhite, J. J., & Wilde, K. (2004). The impact of gendered heroism on adolescent girls and their sport role models. Paper presented at the Pre-Olympic Congress, International Congress on Sport Science, Sport Medicine and Physical Education, Thessaloniki, Greece, August, 2004.

Walshe-Brennan, K. (1975, November). Football hooliganism. Nursing Mirror.

Wann, D. L. (1994). The “noble” sports fan: The relationships between team identification, self-esteem, and aggression. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 864–866.

Wann, D. L. (1997). Sport psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wann, D. L. (1998). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between alcohol use and sport fandom. Social Behavior and Personality, 26, 287–290.

Wann, D. L. (2006). The causes and consequences of sport team identification. In A. A. Raney & J. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of sports and media (pp. 331–352). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Wann, D. L., & Branscombe, N. R. (1990). Person perception when aggressive or nonaggressive sports are primed. Aggressive Behavior, 16, 27–32.

Wann, D. L., & Branscombe, N. R. (1993). Sport fans: Measuring degree of identification with the team. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 1–17.

Wann, D. L., Carlson, J. D., Holland, L. C., Jacob, B. E., Owens, D. A., & Wells, D. D. (1999). Beliefs in symbolic catharsis: The importance of involvement with aggressive sports. Social Behavior and Personality, 27, 155–164.

Wann, D. L., Carlson, J. D., & Schrader, M. P. (1999). The impact of team identification on the hostile and instrumental verbal aggression of sport spectators. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 14, 279–286.

Wann, D. L., Culver, Z., Akanda, R., Daglar, M., De Divitiis, C., & Smith, A. (2005). The effects of team identification and game outcome on willingness to consider anonymous acts of hostile aggression. Journal of Sport Behavior, 28, 282–294.

Wann, D. L., Dolan, T. J., McGeorge, K. K., & Allison, J. A. (1994). relationships between spectator identification and spectators’ perceptions of influence, spectators’ emotions, and competition outcome. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16, 347–364.

Wann, D. L., Haynes, G., McLean, B., & Pullen, P. (2003). Sport team identification and willingness to consider anonymous acts of hostile aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 406–413.

Wann, D. L., Hunter, J. L., Ryan, J. A., & Wright L. A. (2001). The relationship between team identification and willingness of sport fans to consider illegally assisting their team. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 531–536.

Wann, D. L., Melnick, M. J., Russell, G. W., & Pease, D. G. (2001). Sport fans: The psychology and social impact of spectators. New York: Routledge.

Wann, D. L., Metcalf, L. A., Adcock, M. L., Choi, C., Dallas, M. B., & Slaton, E. (1997). Language of sport fans: Sportuguese revisited. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 85, 1107–1110.

Wann, D. L., Peterson, R. R., Cothran, C., & Dykes, M. (1999). Sport fan aggression and anonymity: The importance of team identification. Social Behavior and Personality, 27, 597–602.

Wann, D. L., Schrader, M. P., & Carlson, J. D. (2000, Summer). The verbal aggression of sport spectators: A comparison of hostile and instrumental motives. International Sports Journal, 4, 56–63.

Wann, D. L., Shelton, S., Smith, T., & Walker, R. (2002). The relationship between team identification and trait aggression: A replication. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 595–598.

(p.258) Wann, D. L., & Waddill, P. J. (2007). Examining reactions to the Dale Earnhardt crash: The importance of identification with NASCAR drivers. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 94–109.

Ward, R. E., Jr. (2002). Fan violence: Social problem or moral panic? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 453–475.

Webb, E. J., Campbell, D. T., Schwartz, R. D., Sechrest, L., & Grove, J. B. (1981). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Wechsberg, J. (1972, March 18). A reporter at large: Morketiden. The New Yorker, 48, 103–126.

Weidner, G., & Matthews, K. A. (1978). Reported physical symptoms elicited by unpredictable events and the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1213–1220.

Weisman, A. M., Berman, M. E., & Taylor, S. P. (1998). Effects of chlorazepate, diazepam, and oxazepam on a laboratory measurement of aggression in men. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13, 183–188.

West, D. J., & Farrington, D. P. (1977). The delinquent way of life. London: Heinemann.

Wheeler, L., & Caggiula, A. R. (1966). The contagion of aggression. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 1–10.

White, G. F. (1989). Media and violence: The case of professional football championshi games. Aggressive Behavior, 15, 423–433.

White, G. F., Katz, J., & Scarborough, K. E. (1992). The impact of professional football games upon violent assaults on women. Violence and Victims, 7, 157–171.

Williams, T. M. (Ed.). (1986). The impact of television: A natural experiment in three communities. Orlando FL: Academic Press.

Williams, J., Dunning, E., & Murphy, P. (1984). Hooligans abroad. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Williams, J., Dunning, E., & Murphy, P. (1986). The rise of the soccer hooligan. Youth & Society, 17, 362–380.

Wilson, L., & Rogers, R. W. (1975). The fire this time: Effects of race of target insult, and potential retaliation on black aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 857–864.

Winslow, C., & Brainerd, J. (1950). A comparison of reaction of whites and Negroes to frustration as measured by the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Test. American Psychologist, 5, 297.

Witkin, H. A., Mednick, S. A., Schulsinger, F. O., Bakkestrom. E., Christiansen, K. O., & Goodenough, D. R., et al. (1976). Criminality in XYY and XXY men. Science, 193, 547–555.

Wolfers, J., & Price, J. (2007). Racial discrimination among NBA referees. Manuscrit submitted for publication.

Worchel, S., Andreoli, V. A., & Folger, R. (1977). Intergroup cooperation and intergroup attraction: The effect of previous interaction and outcome of combined effort. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 131–140.

Wright, J. C., Binney, V., & Kunkler, J. (1994). Psychological distress in the local Hillsborough or “host” community following the Hillsborough football stadium disaster. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 4, 77–89.

Yarmey, A. D. (1990). Understanding police and police work. New York: New York University Press.

Yates, W. R., Perry, P., & Murray, S. (1992). Aggression and hostility in anabolic steroid users. Biological Psychiatry, 31, 1232–1234.

Yoos, C. (1996, March 24). All hell breaks loose. The Lethbridge Herald, p. 15.

(p.259) Young, K. (1946). Handbook of social psychology. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.

Young, K. (1986). “The killing field”: Themes in mass media responses to the Heysel Stadium riot. International Review for Sociology of Sport, 21, 253–265.

Young, K. (1988). Performance, control, and public image in a deviant subculture: The case of rugby. Deviant Behavior, 9, 275–293.

Zani, B., & Kirchler, E. (1991). When violence overshadows the spirit of sporting competition: Italian football fans and their clubs. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 1, 5–21.

Zillmann, D. (1984). Connections between sex and aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zillmann, D. (1979). Hostility and aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zimbardo, P. G. (1969). The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. In W. J. Arnold & D. Levine (Eds.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 17). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. (p.260)