There would never be sufficient room to thank properly all of the people who have helped me along the way in producing this book, from start to finish. I will therefore mention in detail only a few who stand out as particularly vital to the current enterprise, and beg forgiveness of those whom I mention too briefly, or whom, through a shameful oversight, I have left out altogether.
Perhaps my greatest debt goes to two of my friends and teachers in Java, Rahayu Supanggah and Suhartå. Pak Panggah has not only taken me in as part of the family through the many years we have known each other, but he has also been a constant source of advice and clarification whenever I have needed him most. It was he, in fact, who initially steered me towards Pak Hartå, who turned out to be an exacting, brutally honest teacher, for which I am eternally grateful. Most of what I know about Javanese vocal music I learned from him: he is as articulate as he is knowledgeable, as generous as he is perceptive. From both of these men I have learned not only about music, but also about life.
My longtime mentor and friend, Judith Becker, deserves special mention as well. She had much to do with my choosing ethnomusicology—and Javanese music in particular—as a lifelong pursuit. Her patience and wisdom in guiding me through early stages of this research with a light but sure hand are not forgotten.
Several institutions were invaluable in helping me reach my goals. Fulbright funding made possible two extended stays in Java through a dissertation grant (nominally for 1989 to 1990, but in fact for a total of three years), and a teaching/research grant for six months in 2006. Aminef in Jakarta (and especially Nelly Paliama) helped out in countless ways in administering these grants. Equally important was STSI (now ISI) Surakarta, which sponsored both trips as well, generously extending campus privileges and administrative help beyond expectations, as well as providing a stimulating environment in which to try out my ideas. LIPI in Jakarta was equally important in helping to secure the necessary (p.viii) visas. RRI Solo, RRI Semarang, and TVRI Yogya all allowed me to observe and record gamelan and singing competitions they sponsored. Bp. Suripto and Ibu Hilya of the Mangkunegaran kindly allowed me to frequent the many musical activities there, and Gusti Koes Murtiyah and Bendårå Prabu Winoto allowed me to attend rehearsals and performances at the Kraton. I am indebted to Earlham College for a Professional Development Grant, which enabled me to spend the summer of 2003 in Solo reconnecting with the musical scene there and recording the tracks that would subsequently be released on a CD set of examples mentioned in this book, published by the Maison des Cultures du Monde in Paris. Finally, the American Musicological Society has been most generous in offering subventions for the AMS Studies in Music series, for which I am most grateful.
I feel a great debt to Mary Hunter for her patient and careful readings and for inviting me to contribute to the series in the first place. Thanks are due, as well, to the anonymous reader, whose excellent suggestions I'm afraid I have responded to only unevenly at best (out of sheer expediency). At Oxford University Press, I wish to thank Suzanne Ryan, Christine Dahlin, Norm Hirschy, Kim Robinson, Madelyn Sutton, and others there who have been exceedingly patient and helpful. Any weaknesses that remain after so much expert advice are entirely of my own making.
Many colleagues and friends at Earlham College have been most kind in their support, but most especially Connie Haselby, Deb Jackson, Bill Culverhouse, Yvette Issar, Micah Sommer, Randy Kouns, Wes Miller, and Walt Bistline, who have contributed directly to the book in various ways. Also nearby, Carvin Rinehart showed much insight in his brilliant cover art.
Friends, teachers, and colleagues in Java not already mentioned who have been of enormous help in recent years include Pak Suradji, the late Pak Waridi, Bu Sundari, Ray Weisling, Bu Mieke and the entire ISI library staff, Pak Harsono and Pak Anung of the Program Pasca Sarjana at ISI, Pak Dalimin, Mas Sartono, Pak Kamso, Kitsie Emerson, Pak Wakidi, and Pak Siswosumarto.
In the United States, the following people have contributed greatly to the making of the book, in one way or another: Pak Hardjito, Pak Sumarsam, Andy Sutton, Marc Perlman, Barry Drummond, Sarah Weiss, Lisa Sommers, Mike Izzo, and Jeff Hammond, among many others.
Those in France I wish to thank include, inter alia, Laurence Fayet, Kati Basset, Christine Guillebault, and Bernard Lortat-Jacob, for their friendship, dialogue, and support. Pierre Bois has been even more integral to this project, for without him Gamelan de Solo would very likely never have seen the light of day.
My entire family has been an unfailing source of support, both material and moral, and deserves praise for exceptional forbearance. My deepest gratitude goes to Gabi and Gerane Weinreich, Catherine Benamou, and Raúl Ianes, who have been most directly invested in the book.
(p.ix) Among the countless people not already mentioned who helped me in the first decade of research, I wish to thank—with some trepidation of the inevitable glaring omissions—the following: Pak AL Suwardi, Karen Ahlquist, Pak Amrih Widodo, Bu Anggit Mustikaningrum, Randy Baier, Robin Bates, Amy Beal, Pete Becker, Tom Bodie, Jim Borders, Kenneth Chen, Nancy Cooper, Alan Couldrey, Mike Cullinane, Pak Dar (Kentingan), Bu Darsiti Soeratman, Pak Darsono (STSI/ISI), Mas Druseno, Sune Fernando, Nancy Florida, David Foll, Iris Ford, Beth Genné, Susan Go, David Gramit, Pak Hadi Subagyo, Peter Hadley, Andrea Hammer, Pak Hardi (Yogya), Pak Hardjonegoro, Pak Hirdjan, Jo Hoskins, Pak Edijanto Joesoef and family, Joko Purwanto, Pak Kanto, Henry Klumpenhouwer, Bu Koestini, Tim Kortschak, Adam Krims, Bu Kurniati, Terell Lasane, Anne Leblans, Jennifer Lindsay, Rene Lysloff, Bill Malm, John McGlynn, Pak Minarno, Pak Mloyowidodo, Pak Mulyadi, Pak Ngaliman, Regula Qureshi, Pak Rasito, Bill Roberts, Pak Sastrotugiyo, Susan Schneider, Patrick Smith, the St. Mary's College library staff, Anne Stebinger, Pak Surip (RRI), Joan Suyenaga, Bu Tamènggito, Pak Tarman, Pak Tentrem Sarwanto, Jennifer Thom, Pak Tikno, Pak Wakidjo, Susan Walton, Pak Wignyosaputro, Deborah Wong, Bu Yayuk, and Yohannes Sumarjo. (p.x)