The Fourth and Last Step
This chapter deals with the fourth step, the response made by the supplicandus. It may be positive, and so the supplication may be successful. Successful supplication involves not only xenia, as with Gould, but also much more, including instances of negotiation between suppliant and supplicandus and even the enslavement of the suppliant. It always includes a pledge given to the suppliant by the supplicandus and witnessed by the gods. The response may be negative, and then the supplication is unsuccessful. Unsuccessful supplication includes not only the rejection of a suppliant but also the expulsion of a suppliant from the altar to which he may have come.
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