Democratic Iterations: The Local, the National, and the Global
More and more human beings find themselves not sharing in the collective identity of their host countries, while enjoying certain rights and benefits as guest workers or permanent residents. The entitlement to social rights, which T. H. Marshall had considered the pinnacle of citizenship, has been dissociated from shared collective identity and political membership. This chapter begins by considering the disaggregation of citizenship; then, building on the promise of “jurisgenerative politics,” it develops the concept of “democratic iterations” as offering normative and institutional solutions to the paradoxes of democratic legitimacy. Examining several cases from contemporary European debates concerning the rights of foreigners and immigrants, the chapter then illustrates processes of democratic iteration at work. Democratic iterations are complex ways of mediating the will- and opinion-formation of democratic majorities and cosmopolitan norms. In conclusion, the chapter discusses the ontological puzzles of cosmopolitan norms.
Keywords: collective identity, social rights, T. H. Marshall, citizenship, political membership, disaggregation, jurisgenerative politics, democratic iterations, ontological puzzles, cosmopolitan norms
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