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The Master Musicians: Mozart$

Julian Rushton

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195182644

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195182644.001.0001

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(p.277) Appendix C Personalia

(p.277) Appendix C Personalia

The Master Musicians: Mozart
Oxford University Press

Those listed are Austrian or German unless otherwise stated.

Adamberger, Johann Valentin (1740–1804), tenor, the first Belmonte, principal tenor with the Nationalsingspiel from 1780. His teacher was Valesi (q.v.). He and Mozart became friends. Mozart wrote him the arias K, 420 and 431, and one in Davidde penitente. He took part in Der Schauspieldirektor (his wife, Maria Anna, had a speaking role), and as a Mason, he performed some of Mozart’s Masonic music.

Adlgasser, Anton Cajetan (1729–77), Salzburg composer, court and cathedral organist and friend of the Mozarts. He composed part of Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots with Mozart and Michael Haydn. In 1779 Mozart succeeded him as organist.

Albertarelli, Francesco (?), Italian baritone, title-role in the Vienna production of Don Giovanni (1788). Mozart wrote him the aria K. 541. He left for London in 1790.

Albrechstberger, Johann Georg (1736–1809), composer, theorist, and teacher esteemed by Mozart. He moved to Vienna in 1767. He became organist at St Stephan’s in 1793, the post Mozart would have inherited. He instructed Beethoven in counterpoint, and taught Eybler (q.v.), Hummel (q.v.), and Mozart’s younger son.

Amicis, Anna Lucia de (1733–1816), Italian soprano, Giunia in Lucio Silla. She had met Mozart in 1763, at Mainz, impressed him in Naples in 1770, and was an important factor in the success of Mozart’s opera.

André, Johann Anton (1775–1842), publisher (also composer), who after Mozart’s death purchased several manuscripts and published many of them.

Arco, Counts Johann George (1705–92) and his son Karl Joseph (1743–1810), court officials in Salzburg. The father supported Mozart; the son tried to persuade Mozart, in 1781, to remain in the archbishop’s employment, before kicking him out.

(p.278) Artaria, family of Italian origin, in Vienna from 1766, dealing in art and publishing music, including Mozart’s sonatas (1781), keyboard music, songs, the quartets dedicated to Haydn, and the quintets K. 515 and 516. Artaria continued publishing Mozart’s works into the nineteenth century

Attwood, Thomas (1765–1838), English composer. The Prince of Wales (later George IV) sponsored his visit to Italy and Vienna; in 1785–86 he studied harmony, counterpoint, and composition with Mozart before returning home with the Storaces (q.v.). During his long career as organist and composer, he promoted Mozart in England and later befriended Mendelssohn.

Auernhammer, Josepha (1758–1820), pianist and composer. Her father Johann Michael (d. 1782) helped Mozart on his arrival in Vienna. Mozart taught Josepha, and respected her musicianship sufficiently to perform with her the two-piano sonata K. 448; he dedicated his first Vienna publication to her.

Auersperg, noble Viennese family, whose private theatre presented many productions using amateur singers, including the 1786 revival of Idomeneo.

Bach, Johann Christian (1735–82), composer, youngest son of J. S. and Anna Magdalena Bach. He studied with his half-brother Carl Philip Emanuel, then with Padre Martini, before settling in England in 1762, becoming known as ‘the London Bach’ and befriending the Mozarts there. His vocal and instrumental music had a profound effect on Mozart; they last met in Paris in 1778.

Baglioni, Antonio (?), Italian tenor, joined the Prague company in 1787 and was the first Don Ottavio; he created the role of Tito in 1791.

Barisani, Salzburg family of Italian origin, friends of the Mozarts. Silvestro (1719–1810) was the archbishop’s doctor from 1766; his son Johann (1756–1826) was Leopold’s doctor; Sigmund (1758–87) moved to Vienna and was Wolfgang’s doctor; the composer was deeply affected by his early death.

Barrington, Daines (1727–1800), English lawyer of distinguished family, barrister, and Fellow of the Royal Society, to which he reported on the prodigies Mozart and Crotch.

Bassi, Luigi (1766–1825), Italian baritone, the first Don Giovanni. With the Prague opera company from 1784 to 1806, he previously sang the count in Figaro. His voice lay ‘between tenor and bass’. He was considered an excellent actor; his singing received mixed reactions.

Bedini, Domenico (?), Italian castrato. He had been on the stage for at least twenty years when he created the role of Sesto in La clemenza di Tito (Prague, 1791).

Becke, Johann Baptist (?), flautist at Munich, friend of the Mozarts; he came to Salzburg for Il re pastore in 1775, corresponded with Leopold, comforted Mozart before his return to Salzburg in 1779, and wrote to Leopold in an attempt to turn away his wrath.

(p.279) Beecke, Ignaz (1733–1803), pianist and composer who encountered Mozart in Paris (1764), then ten years later in Munich, where they played in competition at Franz Joseph Albert’s inn Zum schwarzen Adler. There were further meetings in 1777 and 1790, when they played a concerto arrangement, probably in Mainz although, as with Clementi, Mozart was not complimentary about his ‘rival’.

Benucci, Francesco (ca. 1745–1824), Italian bass, the first Figaro. He was primo buffo in Vienna from 1783 for ten years, creating roles by Salieri, including Axur, and Martín y Soler, including Titta (Una cosa rara), and Mozart (Figaro, Guglielmo in Così). An exceptional actor, with a wide vocal range, he immediately attracted Mozart’s attention and Bocconio (Lo sposo deluso) was meant for him. He also sang Leporello in 1788. His last new role in Vienna was Count Robinson in Cimarosa’s Il matrimonio segreto (1792).

Bernasconi, Antonia (1741–1803), German soprano (she took her stepfather’s surname), the first Alceste in Gluck’s opera (1767). Mozart intended her for Ninetta in La finta semplice, and she sang Aspasia (Mitridate) in Milan (1770). After a period in London she returned to Vienna about 1780, continuing to sing Gluck roles.

Böhm, Johann (?–1792), actor and theatre manager, who like Schikaneder performed and directed Singspiel. He took a troupe to Salzburg in 1779 and in 1780 produced a German version of La finta giardiniera in Augsburg. Mozart stayed with him in Frankfurt in 1790.

Bondini, Caterina (?), Italian soprano, married to Pasquale Bondini (?ca. 1737–89), singer and impresario. Pasquale managed the company in Prague when it gave Figaro in 1786, with Caterina as Susanna; in 1787 she created Zerlina in Don Giovanni.

Bonno, Giuseppe (1711–88), Italian composer, court composer in Vienna from 1739. By the time Mozart came to Vienna he was devoted mainly to teaching and administration. He was friendly, but the Mozarts vainly hoped his death might release a post for Wolfgang.

Born, Ignaz von (1742–91), mineralogist. From 1776 he had court appointments in Vienna, as museum curator and advisor on mining. Mozart wrote a cantata (K. 471) to honour his elevation to the nobility, performed at the Masonic lodge ‘Zur wahren Eintracht’, of which Born was master. In 1784 he published an article on Egyptian mysteries, but quitted the brotherhood. Nevertheless, he is sometimes assumed to be the model for Sarastro in Die Zauberflöte.

Breitkopf, music publishers in Leipzig whose large catalogue of symphonies included works by the Haydns and Mozarts. Leopold contacted them about his son to no effect, but in 1798 the firm, now Breitkopf & Härtel, announced a complete edition of Mozart’s works. This project was never finished, although they later published the first complete edition (1877–83), Otto Jahn’s biography, and Köchel’s catalogue.

(p.280) Bridi, Giuseppe (1763–1836), Italian banker and amateur musician who may have met Mozart in Italy He came to Vienna in 1781 and in 1786 sang the title role in Idomeneo.

Brunetti, Antonio (1744–86), Salzburg court violinist, married to Maria Josepha Judith Lipp. He may have been the performer of Mozart’s violin concertos; but during his stay in Vienna (1781) Mozart distrusted him.

Bullinger, Abbé Franz Joseph (1744–1810), Jesuit who became a teacher in the Arco family when his order was closed (1773). He befriended the Mozarts and helped with travel money in 1777; he supported the family when Mozart’s mother died.

Burney, Charles (1726–1814), English musician and music historian who reported on Mozart as Wunderkind. They met again in Italy in 1770, but Burney did not visit Salzburg when in Austria (1772).

Bussani (née Sardi), Dorotea (1763–?after 1810), Italian soprano, married in 1786 to Francesco (1743–ca. 1810?), Italian bass in the Burgheater troupe from 1783. They created in Figaro, Cherubino and Bartolo (doubling Antonio), and in Così, Despina and Alfonso. In 1788 Francesco sang Masetto and the Commendatore in Don Giovanni, and Dorotea created Fidalma in Il matrimonio segreto. Francesco stage-managed Der Schauspieldirektor. They later sang in Italy, Lisbon, and London.

Calvesi, Vincenzo (?), Italian tenor, in the Burgtheater troupe in 1785–86 and ca. 1790; the first Ferrando in Così. He and Kelly were the Eufemio twins in Storace’s Gli equivoci, and he sang in the two ensembles Mozart wrote for Bianchi’s La villanella repita.

Cannabich, Christian (1731–98), violinist, conductor, and composer, Konzertmeister in Mannheim until he removed to Munich. Cannabich met Mozart as a child, and welcomed him cordially in 1777. Mozart admired his musicianship and taught piano to his daughter Rosina (‘Rosa’, b. 1764); the slow movement of the sonata K. 309 was intended as her ‘portrait’. Cannabich helped preparations for Idomeneo and probably directed the premiere with Mozart himself. He composed a commemorative ode with citations from Mozart’s music.

Carl Theodor (1724–99), Elector Palatine from 1742 and Elector of Bavaria from 1777. His court in Mannheim was musically the most brilliant of the age, staffed by composers such as Johann Stamitz, Cannabich, and Holzbauer. He appreciated Mozart and admired Idomeneo but stopped well short of offering him an appointment.

Cavalieri (née Cavalier), Caterina (1755–1801), soprano, the first Konstanze. A pupil and favourite of Salieri (if not his mistress, as often stated), she transferred from the Nationalsingspiel to the Italian company at the Burgtheater in 1783. She sang Mile Silberklang in Der Schauspieldirektor, as Elvira in the Vienna Don Giovanni she was given the aria ‘Mi tradì’. (p.281) She also sang in Davidde penitente and was the Countess in the 1789 Figaro.

Ceccarelli, Francesco (1752–1814), Italian castrato employed at Salzburg from 1777. He was friendly with the Mozarts and is often mentioned in the letters, particularly in Vienna in 1781. Mozart composed a scena (K. 374) for him, and in letters praised him above other singers.

Cigna-Santi, Vittorio Amadeo (ca. 1730–?95), librettist of Mitridate, re di Ponto, adapted from Parini’s translation of Racine and set by Gasparini in Turin and Mozart in Milan (1770).

Clementi, Muzio (1752–1832), Italian composer and keyboard virtuoso, who spent much of his adult life in England. He encountered Mozart at the end of 1781 when Joseph II arranged a keyboard ‘duel’; his admiration for Mozart was not reciprocated. Clementi is a major figure in the development of keyboard music, not only in Britain.

Colloredo, Count Hieronymus (1732–1812), the last Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg. He was elected in 1772, and left before French troops arrived in 1800. His difficulties with the Mozarts are symptomatic of an autocratic manner which was combined with Enlightenment ideas paralleling those of Joseph II.

Coltellini, Celeste (1760–1829), Italian soprano and artist, daughter of Marco (1719–77). Marco produced librettos for Gluck, Gassmann, and Mozart (La finta semplice) in Vienna and reformist works for Traetta. Celeste was in the buffo troupe at the Burgtheater in 1785 and sang in the ensembles Mozart composed for Bianchi’s La villanella repita.

Consoli, Tommaso (ca. 1753–after 1811), Italian alto castrato, employed in Munich and probably the first Ramiro in La finta giardiniera in 1775; he visited Salzburg to sing Aminta in Il re pastore. He ended his career in the Sistine Chapel choir.

Dal Prato, Vincenzo (1756–ca. 1828), Italian soprano castrato, the first Idamante in Idomeneo. Although he had several years’ experience, he appeared to Mozart under-trained, a poor actor, and a slow learner.

Da Ponte, Abbé Lorenzo (né Emanuele Conegliano, 1749–1838), Italian librettist. A baptized Jew (his name taken from the bishop of Ceneda), he lived the life of a minor Casanova with a gift for satirical verse, and had to escape scandal in Venice. In Vienna he impressed Joseph II and became poet to the opera. He wrote librettos for Salieri, Storace, Martín y Soler, Righini, and, for Mozart, Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte. He may have contributed to Lo sposo deluso, adapted words for Davidde penitente, and provided texts for the 1786 Idomeneo. After Joseph’s death he and his then mistress Ferrarese were dismissed. He later married an Englishwoman. He had scant success in London and emigrated to the United States in 1805, becoming professor of Italian at Columbia university. (p.282) His memoirs are indispensable but unreliable, and different versions are inconsistent.

Dauer, Johann Ernst (1746–1812), German tenor at the Burgtheater, the first Pedrillo in Die Entführung. He continued to play in Singspiel at the Kärntnertortheater.

Dejean, Ferdinand (1731–97), businessman, doctor and flautist, who took lessons from Wendling at the time Mozart was in Mannheim (1777). Dejean commissioned sets of concertos and quartets, but Mozart fulfilled less than half the commission and received 96, rather than 200, gulden. They may have met again in Vienna in the early 1780s.

Dittersdorf, Carl Ditters von (1739–99), Viennese composer mainly of chamber music, symphonies, and Singspiel, who had worked with Gluck. According to Kelly he played second violin to Haydn in Mozart’s quartets. His Doktor und Apotheker (1786) was one of the most successful Singspiels from the Kärntnertortheater repertoire.

Dušek (Duschek, née Hambacher), Josepha (1754–1824), Bohemian soprano, wife of Franz Xaver Dušek, a composer based in Prague. The couple visited Salzburg in 1777 and made friends with the Mozarts. Mozart stayed at their summerhouse, Villa Bertramka, in 1787, finishing Don Giovanni. Mozart wrote two arias for her (K. 272, 528) and she took part in performances on his North German tour of 1789.

Esterházy, noble Hungarian family. Mozart had no connection to its most famous member, Haydn’s Prince Nicholas, but Count Johann Baptist Esterházy was a fellow mason and patron, and hosted several of Mozart’s concert performances in Vienna.

Ettore, Guglielmo d’ (ca. 1740–71), Italian tenor, sang the title-role in Mitridate, including an aria from the earlier setting by Gasparini and making Mozart rewrite his entrance aria.

Eybler, Joseph Leopold von (1765–1846), composer, student of Albrechtsberger, for whom Mozart wrote a warm testimonial in 1790. Eybler worked on the Requiem, but abandoned it to Süssmayr, whose completion Eybler directed in a memorial for Haydn. His contributions to the Requiem have been adopted in alternative completions.

Ferrarese del Bene, Adriana (1755-ca. 1800?), Italian soprano, the first Fiordiligi. A student of Sacchini, she came to Vienna after singing in London and Milan. In 1789, she sang Susanna, with two new arias. She became Da Ponte’s mistress and Fiordiligi was written to exploit her wide range and virtuosity. She was dismissed by Leopold II and pursued her career in Poland and Italy.

Firmian, Count Karl Joseph (1718–82), diplomat, man of learning, and governor-general of Lombardy from 1759; nephew to Archbishop Firmian of Salzburg. Firmian was helpful to the Mozarts on the first Italian journey, when he was responsible for the commission for Mitridate.

(p.283) Fischer, Ludwig (1745–1825), bass. Mozart was profoundly impressed by his ability, not just his low notes, and developed the role of Osmin for him. He planned to rewrite the role of Idomeneo for him, with a tenor Idamante, but no production was commanded. Mozart also wrote for Fischer the aria K. 432 (probably) and (certainly) his second setting of ‘Alcandro lo confesso’ (K. 512).

Freystädtler, Franz Jacob (1761–1841), composer. He came to Vienna from Salzburg, via Munich, in 1786, where he studied with Mozart; some of his exercises survive and are published in NMA with those of Ployer. Mozart referred to him as Gaulimauli. He was the first composer asked to complete the Requiem.

Gamerra, Giovanni de (174 3–1803), Italian poet at the ducal theatre in Milan from 1770–4, when he wrote the libretto for Lucio Silla. He spent two periods in Vienna, in the 1770s and after Mozart’s death, and translated Die Zauberflöte into Italian.

Gebler, Baron Tobias Philipp (1726–86), government official and playwright. Gebler was a freemason, master of a Viennese lodge from 1784. His Thamos, König in Aegypten (1773, based on Terrasson’s novel Sethos) was provided with choruses by Mozart ca. 1773 and expanded to include melodrama, possibly for Böhm’s company (ca. 1779).

Gerl, Barbara (née Reisinger, 1770–1806), soprano, married to Franz Xaver (1764–1827), erstwhile student of Leopold Mozart, bass singer and composer; members of Schikaneder’s company, the first Papagena and Sarastro. Barbara played Lubanara in Der Stein der Weisen and was thus the cat in the duet contributed by Mozart; Franz Xaver composed part of that opera. Mozart wrote his last concert aria for him (K. 612). He sang other Mozart roles in German including Figaro.

Gieseke, Karl Ludwig (Metzler, Johann Georg, 1761–1833), actor, author, and scientist who emerged from obscurity as jobbing poet and actor with Schikaneder (his role in Die Zauberflöte was first slave) to become professor of mineralogy in Dublin. His claim to be the author of the libretto is impossible to test.

Gluck, Christoph Willibald (1714–87), Austrian composer and like Mozart a Papal Knight. Already eminent when Mozart first came to Vienna, Gluck was unfairly suspected of intriguing against the production of La finta semplice. In 1781, the production of Die Entführung was postponed because Gluck operas were revived, but Gluck later praised it. His death released funds some of which were diverted to appoint Mozart Imperial Kammermusikus in 1787.

Goldhahn, Joseph Odilo, Viennese Freemason and businessman who may have lent Mozart money and who witnessed the inventory of Mozart’s estate; he is referred to in a number of letters including that of 8–9 October 1791.

Gottlieb, Anna (1774–1856), actress and soprano. Her parents were actors in the Burgtheater, where, aged twelve, she created Barbarina in Figaro. She (p.284) joined Schikaneder’s company in 1789, and created Pamina in Die Zauberflöte.

Grimm, Baron Friedrich Melchior (1723–1807), diplomat and man of letters. Resident in Paris from 1749, he mixed with the philosophes and contributed to the controversy over the Italian buffo company in 1752–53. He compiled Correspondance littéraire (1753–73), a manuscript bulletin on French culture widely distributed to European courts. On their first visits to Paris the Mozarts benefited from his contacts and his favourable accounts of them; they expected as much in 1778 and were disillusioned. Although Grimm offered hospitality to Mozart, he told Leopold that there was no future for him in Paris.

Guardasoni, Domenico (ca. 1731–1806), Italian impresario in Prague, deputy to Bondini at the time of Don Giovanni. When Salieri declined, he passed the commission for La clemenza di Tito on to Mozart.

Gyrowetz, Adalbert (1763–1850), Bohemian composer, whom Mozart assisted by performing a symphony at a subscription concert in Vienna. Much travelled in his early career, he found another of his symphonies published in Paris as Haydn’s; he eventually settled in Vienna.

Haffner, Salzburg merchant family, friendly to the Mozarts. They are immortalized in the names given to the serenade K. 250 and the symphony K. 385.

Hagenauer, Johann Lorenz (1712–92), Salzburg merchant, friend and landlord of the Mozarts from 1747–73. Hagenauer helped Leopold with financial arrangements and received over sixty letters forming a diary of the family’s travels in the 1760s. Mozart composed a Mass (K. 66) when Hagenauer’s son Kajetan entered the priesthood.

Haibel, Sophie (née Weber, 1763–1846, married 1807), Mozart’s sister-in-law, youngest of the Webers, she left an account of his death; following that of her own husband, she lived with Constanze in Salzburg.

Hasse, Johann Adolf (1699–1783), the leading opera seria composer of his generation and a favourite of the Imperial court poet Metastasio. He recognised Mozart’s genius; he may have tried to persuade the authorities to accept La finta semplice; in 1771, his last opera Ruggiero was overshadowed by Ascanio in Alba.

Hässler, Johann Wilhelm (1747–1822), composer and keyboard player, whom Mozart disparaged; they met in Dresden in 1789 for musical ‘duels’, but Mozart found him no better than Albrechtsberger on the organ and Josepha Auernhammer on piano.

Hatzfeld, Count August Clemens von (1754–87), priest and amateur violinist, student of Vachon. In Vienna, he befriended Mozart and played his quartets. For the performance of Idomeneo in 1786, Mozart composed a new aria (K. 490) with violin obbligato for Hatzfeld, and he was deeply unhappy at his death.

(p.285) Hatzfeld, Countess Hortensia (1750–1813), Viennese patron of music and amateur singer and pianist, sister-in-law of the above. She was part of the brilliant circle in which Mozart moved in the early 1780s, their connection culminating in the performance of Idomeneo, in which she sang Elektra. Through Rhineland connections (she was the niece of the Elector and Archbishop of Köln), she became a patron of Beethoven.

Haydn, Franz Joseph (1732–1809), composer. Distinguished like Mozart in every principal genre, his European reputation rested on his symphonies and chamber music, at least until the composition of Die Schöpfung (The Creation). His operas were mainly confined to the Eszterháza theatre. While visiting Vienna, he played the quartets dedicated to him, and praised Mozart to Leopold.

Haydn, Johann Michael (1737–1806), composer, brother of the above, spent most of his life (from 1763) in Salzburg as Konzertmeister, composing sacred and secular music. The Mozarts’ view of him was ambivalent, but Wolfgang helped him by composing violin and viola duets in 1783, He performed a symphony of Haydn in Vienna with his own slow introduction (the work once assumed to Mozart’s and published as No. 37). Mozart was probably influenced by Haydn in his sacred music and symphonies.

Heina, Franz Joseph (1729–90), French horn player and publisher who befriended the Mozarts in 1763 and supported Wolfgang in Paris in 1778, obtaining a German doctor and priest for his mother.

Henneberg, Johann Baptist (1768–1822), composer, from 1790 Kapellmeister in Schikaneder’s company at the Theater auf der Wieden. He wrote much of the music for Der Stein der Weisen (1790), some of it very good, and directed rehearsals for Die Zauberflöte, conducting it after the third performance.

Heufeld, Franz Reinhard von (1731–95), author and theatre administrator in Vienna. In 1778 he suggested Mozart write an opera for the Nationalsingspiel: Mozart dismissed the idea (letter of 4 February 1778), but followed this advice a year later, writing Zaide.

Hofdemel, Franz (ca. 1755–91), Viennese lawyer whose wife Maria Magdalena had piano lessons with Mozart. A fellow-mason, he loaned money to Mozart in 1789. On 6 December 1791 he attacked his pregnant wife, then killed himself. She survived, was granted a pension by Leopold II, and bore a posthumous son. The attack occurred the day after Mozart’s death, leading to an unfounded rumour that he and Maria Magdalena had been having an affair, and that Hofdemel had poisoned Mozart.

Hofer, Josepha (née Weber? 1759–1819), soprano, the first Queen of Night; Franz de Paula (1755–96), violinist. Josepha, eldest child of Fridolin and Caecilia Weber, married Hofer, a friend of the Mozarts, in 1788. Mozart (p.286) wrote slightingly of her to highlight the virtues of Constanze. Josepha was in Schikaneder’s company from its inception, but because of pregnancy did not sing in Der Stein der Weisen. Mozart composed an aria for her for a Paisiello opera (K. 580). Franz Hofer travelled with Mozart to Frankfurt in 1790.

Hoffmeister, Franz Anton (1754–1812), Viennese composer and music publisher. He published some first editions of Mozart’s chamber works including the piano quartet K. 478, the Trio K. 496, two violin sonatas, and the string quartet K. 499, which bears his name. He helped Mozart financially, but he sold his rights in the music to Artaria after Mozart’s death.

Holzbauer, Ignaz (1711–83), composer who became a Kapellmeister in Mannheim from 1753–78. Mozart admired his Günther von Schwarzburg (1777), and some of his sacred music; in Paris he supplied additional music to Holzbauer’s ‘Miserere’ for the Concert Spirituel.

Hummel, Johann Nepomuk (1778–1837), composer and pianist, born in Bratislava and later Kapellmeister for the Esterházy family and in Weimar. Hummel resided in Mozart’s house as his student in ca. 1786–87 before being toured as a prodigy.

Ippold (or Yppold), Franz Armand d’ (ca. 1730–90), teacher and military councillor in Salzburg. A friend of the Mozarts, he wanted to marry Nannerl, and she, though much younger, reciprocated his feelings; writing from Vienna, Mozart urged them to come there as a couple.

Jacquin, Gottfried von (1767–92), Viennese civil servant and amateur musician, and an admiring friend and pupil of Mozart. He was the recipient of effusive letters about Figaro and Don Giovanni in Prague. He may have composed music later published as Mozart’s; in turn, Mozart wrote him an aria (K. 513), and composed two songs (K. 529, 530) for him, the latter published as Jacquin’s.

Jenamy, Victoire (?), French pianist, daughter of Jean-Georges Noverre. She came to Salzburg in 1777, and Mozart wrote the concerto K. 271 for her. A misreading of her name led to her being known until recently as Mile ‘Jeunehomme’.

Kelly (O’Kelly), Michael (1762–1826), Irish tenor, the first Basilio and Curzio in Figaro. He studied in Italy and joined the opera buffa company in Vienna in 1783, creating numerous roles including one of the twins in Storace’s Gli equivoci (1786), a few months after Figaro. He returned to London, and had long career as singer and impresario. In 1826 he published Reminiscences including anecdotes about Mozart.

Kirchgässner, Maria Anna (1769–1808), performer on the glass harmonica, blind from childhood. In 1791 Mozart composed two pieces for her (Adagio K. 356=617a, Adagio and Rondo K. 617).

Kozeluch, Leopold (1747–1818), Bohemian composer, pianist, teacher, and publisher, resident in Vienna from 1778. He declined to replace Mozart (p.287) in Salzburg in 1781. Mozart told Puchberg in July 1789 that Kozeluch would publish the ‘Prussian’ quartets. Kozeluch has been branded as one who intrigued against Mozart, but the evidence is tenuous.

Lange (née Weber), Aloysia (ca. 1760–1839), soprano, Mozart’s sister-in-law, and Joseph (1751–1831), actor and painter. Aloysia, second of the Weber sisters, attracted Mozart in Mannheim in 1777; he proposed to promote her, and composed two arias for her. She snubbed him on his return journey. In Vienna she became a highly paid singer at the Burgtheater and married Lange. Mozart continued to compose difficult arias for her; in 1785 Leopold commented on the discrepancy between her loud held notes and soft ornamental singing and high notes. She sang Konstanze in revivals of Die Entführung, Mme Herz in Der Schauspieldirektor, and Anna in the Vienna Don Giovanni.

Laschi, Luisa (ca. 1760–ca. 90?), also Mombelli (m. late 1786), Italian soprano. She joined the buffo troupe at the Burgtheater in 1784 and again in 1786, creating the Countess in Figaro, and sang Zerlina in the Vienna Don Giovanni.

Legros, Joseph (1739–91), French tenor. He had a long career at the Paris Opéra, and directed the Concert Spirituel from 1777. He was hospitable to Mozart in 1778, but neglected to programme the wind sinfonia concertante. He commissioned the additional choruses to Holzbauer’s Miserere, and the symphony now known as the ‘Paris’ (K.297), persuading Mozart to write a new slow movement.

Leutgeb, Joseph (1732–1811), horn player. Based in Salzburg, he was internationally known as a virtuoso by the 1760s. He moved to Vienna in 1777 and adopted his father-in-law’s occupation of cheese-monger. In the 1780s Mozart composed a quintet and three concertos, central to the horn-player’s repertory, which mark considerable esteem for his playing (though Leutgeb was the victim of his banter). A fourth concerto was unfinished.

Lichnowsky, Count, later Prince, Karl (1761–1841), patron to whom Mozart may have given lessons. He accompanied Mozart to North Germany in 1789 and sued him in 1791 for a large debt. There is no record of it being repaid, and he may have let the matter drop after Mozart’s death. He became a patron of Beethoven.

Linley, Thomas (1756–78), English composer, son of Thomas Linley senior (1733–95). A prodigy on the violin, he became friends with Mozart in Florence in 1770. His promising career as a composer, mainly of theatre music, was ended by a boating accident.

Lodron (née Arco), Countess Antonia (1738–80), sister of Karl Joseph Arco (q.v). Herself a pianist, she had her daughters taught by Leopold and Nannerl. Mozart composed a pair of divertimenti (K. 247, 287) for her, and the concerto for three pianos (K. 242).

(p.288) Mandini, family of singers: Maria (née Soleri de Vesian), French soprano, wife of Stefano Mandini (1750–ca. 1810), Italian baritone. They were in the Burgtheater buffo troupe from 1783. Stefano played Count Almaviva in Paisiello’s II barbiere di Siviglia and in Figaro; Maria played Marcellina. They left for Naples before the Vienna production of Don Giovanni, a role for which Mandini, an excellent actor, was obviously suited. Paolo Mandini (1757–1842), Stefano’s brother, appeared in Vienna during the 1780s but apparently not in Mozart’s operas.

Manzuoli, Giovanni (ca. 1720–82), Italian castrato who taught singing to Mozart in London, and appeared in the title-role of Ascanio in Alba (Milan, 1771).

Marchand, Heinrich (1769–?1812 or after), German violinist and pianist, and his sister Maria Margarethe (‘Gretl’, 1768–1800), a singer, lived and studied with Leopold Mozart from 1781–84. Heinrich was employed in Salzburg where he played Mozart’s concerto K.466 in 178 6.

Marchetti-Fantozzi, Maria (1767–after 1897), Italian soprano, the first Vitellia in La clemenza di Tito, where Mozart exploits her exceptional range.

Martini, Giovanni Battista (‘Padre’ Martini, 1706–84), Italian composer, theorist and the most famous music teacher and music historian of his age. Mozart learned from him in 1770 and continued to esteem him highly, keeping in touch for several years and sending him music and a portrait.

Martín y Soler, Vicente (1754–1806), Spanish composer who composed three operas for Vienna with libretti by Da Ponte. He was on good terms with Mozart, who wrote a rude canon about him, and used one of his tunes in the supper scene of Don Giovanni. He subsequently worked in St Petersburg.

Mazzolà, Caterino (?1745–1806), Italian librettist. He befriended Da Ponte on his exile from Venice, and briefly succeeded him as court poet in Vienna in 1791, turning Metastasio’s La clemenza di Tito into a ‘real opera’ for Mozart.

Mesmer, Franz Anton (1734–1815), Austrian doctor who lived in Vienna and possessed a theatre in which Bastien und Bastienne was performed in 1768. He later developed the healing method of ‘animal magnetism’ made fun of when Despina appears as a doctor in Così fan tutte.

Morella, Francesco (?), Italian tenor, Ottavio in the Vienna production of Don Giovanni, for whom Mozart composed ‘Dalla sua pace’.

Mysliveček, Joseph (1737–81), Bohemian composer who studied in Italy and worked there for much of his career, composing operas and orchestral and chamber music. He met the Mozarts in Bologna (1770), then in Milan; Mozart visited him in hospital in Munich (1777) where he was suffering the effects of venereal disease.

Noverre, Jean-Geroges (1727–1810), ballet master in Vienna and Paris, with Gasparo Angiolini responsible for the revolution in dramatic ballet. He (p.289) choreographed Les petits riens, for which Mozart wrote most of the music; father of Victoire Jenamy.

Paisiello, Giovanni (1740–1816), Italian composer, greatly admired by Joseph II and later by Napoleon. His Il barbiere di Siviglia, premiered in St Petersburg and produced in Vienna in 1783, stimulated the composition of Figaro. Il re Teodoro in Venezia was commissioned for Vienna (1784). He expressed considerable admiration for Mozart.

Panzachi, Domenico (1733–after 1805), Italian tenor, in Munich from 1762 and the first Arbace in Idomeneo; Mozart inserted a new recitative (‘Sventurata Sidon’) to exploit his acting talent.

Paradis (Paradies), Maria Theresia (1759–1824), pianist and composer, blind from an early age; a patient of Mesmer. She visited Salzburg in 1783 and Mozart wrote a concerto for her, probably K. 456.

Parini, Giuseppe (1729–99), Italian poet, librettist of Ascanio in Alba.

Pichler, Karoline (née Greiner, 1769–1843), poet and musician, whose family knew Mozart, of whom she left reminiscences. Some of her verses were set by Schubert.

Ployer, Maria Anna Barbara von (‘Babette’) (1765-ca. 1810), pianist who studied piano and composition with Mozart; he wrote two piano concertos for her (K. 449, 453).

Ponziani, Felice (?) the first Leporello in Don Giovanni.

Puchberg, Johann Michael (1741–1822), Viennese merchant, a freemason, who loaned Mozart several small sums; dedicatee of the string trio K. 563.

Pufendorf, Anna von (ca. 1757–1843), amateur soprano and promoter of domestic concerts. She sang Ilia in Idomeneo at the Auersperg theatre in 1786.

Pulini, Antonio (?), tenor, mentioned by Leopold on 30 January 1768 (with La finta semplice in mind); he sang Idamante in Idomeneo at the Auersperg theatre in 1786, with the new aria K. 490, and rewritten versions of the trio and quartet.

Punto, Giovanni (Stich, Jan Václav, 1746–1803), horn player from Bohemia who also played violin and composed; Mozart met him in Paris and he would have played in the lost wind Sinfonia concertante.

Raab, Maria Anna (‘Mitzerl’, 1710–88), friend of the Mozarts in Salzburg, their landlord in the ‘Tanzmeisterhaus’ from 1773.

Raaff, Anton (1714–97), tenor, the first Idomeneo. He was in the service of Carl Theodor in Mannheim from 1770. He befriended Mozart in Mannheim and Paris and despite reservations about his age, and his singing and acting, Mozart wrote him the aria K. 295, and worked closely with him on the title-role of Idomeneo.

Ramm, Friedrich (1744–1811), oboist at Mannheim, then Munich, one of those for whom the lost sinfonia concertante was written for Paris. He played Mozart’s concerto and the oboe quartet (K. 370) was written for him, as was the oboe part of Idomeneo.

(p.290) Rauzzini, Venanzio (1746–1810), Italian castrato soprano and composer, the first Cecilio in Lucio Silla. Mozart wrote for him the solo motet Exsultate jubilate. He went to England in 1774, and taught Nancy Storace; he later composed a Requiem performed in London shortly after the British premiere of Mozart’s.

Righini, Vincenzo (1756–1812), Italian composer and singing teacher. His first opera, Don Giovanni (Prague, 1776) was given in Vienna in 1777, in German. He worked in Vienna from 1780, teaching singing to Princess Elisabeth of Württemburg, and had three operas performed at the Burgtheater: Armida (1782), Uincontro aspettato (1785), and Il Demogorgone (text by Da Ponte, 1786). He left Vienna for Mainz in 1787.

Ritter, Georg Wenzel (1748–1808), bassoonist known to Mozart at Mannheim, Paris, and Munich (see Ramm).

Rodolphe, Jean-Joseph (1730–1812), Strasbourg violinist and composer, in Paris from 1767; he befriended Mozart in 1778 and gained him the offer of an organist’s post at Versailles.

Rosenberg-Orsini, Count Franz Xaver Wolf (1723–96), diplomat and administrator, director of court theatres in Vienna from 1776–91. The Mozarts first met him in the service of the Grand Duke of Tuscany (1770) and with Archduke Maximilian in Salzburg (1775). In Vienna, he encouraged Mozart in connection with Die Entführung, and with opera buffa, but he disliked Da Ponte (preferring the poet Giambattista Casti).

Salieri, Antonio (1750–1825), Italian composer brought to Vienna by Gassmann, and succeeding him as court composer and conductor of Italian opera (mainly opera buffa) in 1774. His connection with Gluck led to the composition of three French operas for Paris; the last, Tarare, was converted into the Italian Axur by Da Ponte (Vienna, 1788). Other important premieres in Mozart’s time included Prima la musica, La grotta di Trofonio, and La cifra. He declined the libretto which became Così fan tutte and the commission for the coronation opera in 1791; he used Mozart’s music for the coronation ceremonies of 1790–91 and conducted one of the late symphonies. He later taught Beethoven and Schubert.

Saporiti, Teresa (1763–1869), Italian soprano, the first Donna Anna. She was in the Prague company from 1782 to 1788 and was possibly related by marriage to the impresario Bondini. Little is known of the remainder of her career. Her name was punned on in the supper scene (‘O che piatto saporito’/‘what a tasty dish’).

Schachtner, Johann Andreas (1731–95), trumpeter, violinist, and writer, active in Salzburg from 1754. He helped adapt the librettos of Bastien und Bastienne and Zaide, contributed additional text to Gebler’s Thamos, and made a translation of Idomeneo. His reminiscences of Mozart’s childhood, sent to Nannerl after Wolfgang died, are a unique anecdotal source.

(p.291) Schack, Benedikt (1758–1826), tenor and composer, the first Tamino. After working as a Kapellmeister in Silesia, he joined Schikaneder’s company in 1786. With Gerl and Henneberg, he contributed music to Der Stein der Weisen. His wife Elisabeth sang Third Lady. A good friend of Mozart, he is one of those alleged to have sung parts of the Requiem round his deathbed.

Schikaneder, Emanuel (1751–1812), impresario, actor and writer. He was directing a troupe from 1778 and visited Salzburg in 1780. He rented the Freihaustheater (Theater auf der Wieden) in Vienna, writing and producing Singspiel, and taking leading comic roles (Lubano in Der Stein der Weisen, Papageno in Die Zauberflöte). His brother and wife were also in the troupe. Frequently in financial trouble, he kept bouncing back, and in 1801 opened the Theater an der Wien, but his life ended in financial disaster and madness.

Schrattenbach, Sigismond Christoph (1698–1771), Dean of Salzburg from 1750 and Prince Archbishop of Salzburg from 1753 to his death; Mozart’s first employer.

Seeau, Count Joseph Anton (1713–99), theatre intendant in Munich, who remained in post after Carl Theodor became Elector of Bavaria. Seeau was involved with the commissions for La finta giardiniera and Idomeneo, but Mozart distrusted him.

Stadler, Anton (1753–1812), clarinettist who inspired Mozart. The Serenade K. 361 was performed at his benefit concert in 1784. He also played the basset-horn, alongside his brother Johann, and had a modified clarinet that descended a third lower (now called ‘basset-clarinet’) for which Mozart composed his quintet and concerto, and an obbligato in La clemenza di Tito.

Stadler, Abbé Maximilian (1748–1833), cleric, musician, and music historian. He trained as a priest at Melk and was later at other monasteries including Kremsmünster. He heard Mozart play at Melk in 1767 and met him in Vienna. At the request of Constanze, he reviewed Mozart’s surviving manuscripts, prepared a catalogue, and completed fragments for publication. In the 1820s he participated in the controversy concerning the authenticity of the Requiem.

Stein, Johann Andreas (1728–92), piano and organ builder resident in Augsburg. Mozart particularly liked his pianos and played one in his contest with Clementi (but his own was by Walter). Stein’s business was carried on in Vienna by his daughter Nanette Streicher.

Stephanie, Johann Gottlieb (1741–1800, ‘the Younger’ to distinguish him from his half-brother Christian Gottlob), actor and dramatist. He met the Mozarts no later than 1773, and in 1781, in charge of the German opera company in Vienna, he gained Mozart the commission and adapted the libretto for Die Entführung. He also wrote Der Schauspieldirektor.

(p.292) Stoll, Anton (1747–1805), choirmaster at Baden near Vienna, for whom Mozart composed Ave verum corpus (K. 618).

Storace, Ann Selina (‘Nancy’, 1765–1817), English soprano, the first Susanna. She studied with Rauzzini before visiting Italy where she made her stage debut aged fourteen. She sang at the Burgtheater from 1783, and Mozart intended her for Eugenia (Lo sposo deluso). She sang Rosina in Il barbiere di Siviglia but Susanna in Figaro. She created roles by Salieri (La grotta di Trofonio, Prima la musica), Martín y Soler (Una cosa rara), and her brother Stephen. For her farewell concert Mozart composed the scena with piano obbligato (K. 505). She travelled home with her brother, Attwood, and Kelly, and made a career in Italian and English opera in London.

Storace, Stephen (1762–96), English composer, brother of Ann Selina. Two of his operas were produced at the Burgtheater: Gli sposi malcontenti (1785), during the first performance of which (1 June) Nancy lost her voice, and Gli equivoci (1786). A promising career in London opera was cut short by his premature death.

Süssmayr, Franz Xaver (1766–1803), composer, in Vienna from 1788, where he studied with Salieri. From about 1790 he became attached to Mozart and may have assisted him by writing recitatives for La clemenza di Tito. He completed the Requiem and part of the D major horn concerto (K. 412).

Swieten, Baron Gottfried van (1733–1803), imperial official (librarian and censor), amateur composer, and enthusiast for older music. At his Sunday salon from 1781 Mozart played, studied, and arranged works by Handel and Bach. Swieten assisted Constanze at the time of Mozart’s death and funeral despite having just been dismissed by Leopold II.

Teyber, Therese (1760–18 30), Austrian soprano, the first Blonde. She was a member of a family of Viennese musicians involved in court music, in the Nationalsingspiel, and in Schikaneder’s company; she took over the role of Zerlina from Laschi. Anton Teyber (1756–1816) succeeded Mozart as Imperial Kammermusikus.

Thun (Thun-Hohenstein), Countess Wilhelmine (1744–1800), wife of Count Franz (1734–1801) met Mozart in childhood and became one his most important patrons in the 1780s; he frequently visited her house and she subscribed to his concerts. Her father-in-law Count Johann (1711–88) was Mozart’s host in Linz and Prague.

Trattner, Johann Thomas von (1717–98), Viennese businessman, owner of the Trattnerhof where Mozart lived and gave concerts in 1784–85; he and his wife Maria Theresia (a pupil of Mozart) stood as godparents to his children, and she received the dedication of the Fantasia and Sonata in C minor (K. 475/457).

Valesi, Giovanni (1735–1816), German tenor, teacher of Adamberger; he sang the High Priest in Idomeneo.

(p.293) Vanhal, Johann Baptist (1739–1813), Bohemian composer in Vienna from 1761 and again from 1780. He was a prolific composer of symphonies and chamber music. According to Kelly he played in string quartets with Mozart, Haydn, and Dittersdorf.

Varesco, Abbate Gianbattista (1735–1805), chaplain to the Archbishop of Salzburg and librettist of Idomeneo and L’oca del Cairo.

Villeneuve, Luisa (?–?), soprano, the first Dorabella in Cost. She joined the Vienna troupe in 1789, and Mozart wrote her three substitute arias (K. 578, 582, 583) for operas by Cimarosa and Martín y Soler.

Vogler, Abbé Georg Joseph (1749–1814), composer and chaplain, later vice-Kapellmeister in Mannheim, despised by Mozart as an ‘incompetent’ and ‘jester’; later the teacher of Mozart’s younger son.

Waldstätten, Baroness Martha Elisabeth was hospitable to Mozart in the early Vienna period. Leopold was anxious to meet this ‘woman of my heart, since I, invisus, have been the man of her heart’ (letter to Nannerl, 16 Apr 1785, referring to correspondence of 1781–82).

Walsegg-Stuppaeh, Count Franz (1763–1827), musical patron. He owned an estate outside Vienna, and property in the city where Michael Puchberg lived. He organised regular chamber-music sessions and commissioned music through an agent, which he then presented as his own. This harmless absurdity (which deceived nobody) took on a sinister aspect when he commissioned Mozart’s Requiem as a memorial to his wife, his agent becoming the ‘grey stranger’ of legend.

Walter, Anton (1752–1826), Viennese piano and organ builder. Mozart possessed a Walter piano and used it in his subscription concerts. The instrument passed from Constanze to her son Carl Thomas, who gave it in 1856 to the Salzburg Mozarteum.

Weber, Caecilia, Mozart’s mother-in-law, married to Fridolin; their daughters were Josepha (see Hofer), Aloysia (see Lange), Constanze Mozart, and Sophie (see Haibel). They met Mozart in Mannheim; Fridolin died soon after moving to Vienna. Mozart was her lodger in 1781; relations became strained in connection with Constanze but recovered after their marriage.

Weigl, Joseph (1766–1846), Austrian composer, godson of Joseph Haydn and pupil of Salieri. He attended Swieten’s Sunday afternoons and admired Mozart; he played in the Burgtheater orchestra from 1785. He wrote over thirty operas, his greatest success being Die Schweizerfamilie (1809).

Wendling, German family of musicians based in Mannheim, then Munich. Johann Baptist (1723–97) played flute and would have played the lost sinfonia concertante in Paris. His wife Dorothea (née Spurni, 1736–1811) was the first Ilia in Idomeneo; Mozart had written her the aria K. 295 a. Mozart enjoyed their company and that of their children. Their daughter Elisabeth (1752–94), a mistress of Carl Theodor, was a singer for whom Mozart composed two French songs (K. 307–8–284d, 295b). Franz (p.294) Anton (1729–86), brother of Johann, was a violinist, also married to a singer, Elisabeth (née Sarselli, 1746–86), the first Elektra in Idomeneo.

Wetzlar von Plankenstern, Baron Raimund (1752–1810), the Mozarts’ landlord in Vienna early in their marriage, a supporter of the subscription concerts, and godfather to their first child.

Winter, Peter von (1754–1825), German composer. From Vienna he passed information unfavourable to Mozart’s character to Leopold. He later had several operas performed by Schikaneder’s troupe.

Winter, Sebastian (1743–1815), manservant of the Mozarts on their travels to Paris; in 1784 Leopold arranged through Winter that his current employer Prince Fürstenberg should buy some of Mozart’s works, but they failed to negotiate a regular income.

Zinzendorf, Count Johann Karl (1739–1813), government official and diarist. His incessant attendance at the opera is recorded in his immense diary, written in French; there are many comments on singers and a few on Mozart. The information gained (including the state of the weather on the day of Mozart’s funeral) is useful, but it would be a mistake to regard him as a guide to general opinion.