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RossiniHis Life and Works$

Richard Osborne

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780195181296

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181296.001.0001

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(p.343) Appendix A Calendar

(p.343) Appendix A Calendar

Source:
Rossini
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Year

Age

Life

Contemporary Events

1792

Gioachino Antonio Rossini born 29 Feb. in Pesaro, only child of Giuseppe Rossini (27) and Anna Rossini (20). Rossini’s parents had been married in Pesaro on 24 Sept. 1791.

Imprisonment of French Royal Family. Anfossi aged 64; Auber 10; Beethoven 21; Boccherini 49; Boieldieu 16; Carafa 4; Cherubini 31; Cimarosa 42; Clementi 40; Coccia 9; Colbran 7; Czerny 1; Ditters-dorf 52; Dragonetti 28; Field 9; Fioravanti 27; Galli 8; M. García 17; Gazzaniga 48; Generali 18; Gossec 58; Grétry 51; Guglielmi 63; J. Haydn 9; Hérold 1; Hummel 13; Le Sueur 32; Mattei 42; Mayr 28; Méhul 28; Meyerbeer 6 months; Morlacchi 7; Nasolini 24; Paër 20; Paganini 9; Nasolini 24; Paer 20; Paganini 9; Paisiello 51; Pavesi 13; Piccinni 64; Pleyel 34; Portogallo 24; P. Raimondi 5; Salieri 4l; Schenk 38; Shield 43; Spohr 7; Spontini 17; Stamitz 46; Tadolini 2; Vaccai 1; Velluti 11; Viotti 36; Weber 5; Weigl 25; S. Wesley 26; Winter 37; Zingarelli 39.

1793

1

Execution of Louis XVI, 21 Jan.

1794

2

Danton and Robespierre executed.

1795

3

Blake’s Songs of Experience. Mercadante born, c. 17 Sept.

1796

4

Napoleon in Italy; Bologna and Ferrara occupied. G. Pacini born, 17 Feb.; Berwald born, 23 July; Loewe born, 30 Nov.

1797

5

French troops enter Pesaro, 5 Feb.

Spread of revolutionary sentiment in Italy. Battle of Cape St Vincent. Olympe Pélissier born, 9 May. Schubert born, 31 Jan.; Donizetti born, 29 Nov.; Heine born, 13 Dec.

1798

6

Anna Rossini begins her professional career as an operatic soprano.

French invasion of Papal States. Haydn’s The Creation, 29 Apr., Vienna. Wordsworth’s and Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads. Leopardi born 29 June.

1799

7

Giuseppe Rossini arrested and imprisoned by the Austrians.

French army suffers defeats in Italy; end of Parthenopean Republic. Beaumarchais (67) dies, 18 May; Halévy born, 27 May; Dittersdorf (59) dies, 24 Oct.

1800

8

Giuseppe Rossini freed after defeat of Austrian army at Marengo, 14 June.

Beethoven’s First Symphony, 2 Apr., Vienna. Piccinni (72) dies, 7 May.

1801

9

Giuseppe Rossini appointed ‘Professore di corno di caccia’ at Bologna Accademia Filarmonica.

Haydn’s The Seasons, 24 Apr. Cimarosa (51) dies, 11 Jan.; Lanner born, 12 Apr.

1802

10

Family moves to Lugo.

Peace of Amiens, Mar. Beethoven’s Heiligenstadt Testament, 6 Oct. Niedermeyer born, 27 Apr.

1803

11

Rossini befriended by wealthy Malerbi family; has access to Malerbi music library; takes composition and singing lessons from Canon Giuseppe Malerbi.

Britain declares war on France. Adam born, 24 July; Lortzing born, 23 Oct’Berlioz born, 11 Dec.

1804

12

Rossini appears in concert with Anna Rossini, Imola, 22 Apr.; programme includes a cavatina in the buffo style by Rossini. Composes six sonate a quattro for Agostino Triossi. Family moves to Bologna.

Napoleon becomes emperor of France, 28 May; crowned in Nôtre-Dame, 2 Dec. Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell. Glinka born, 1 June.

1805

13

Rossini appears as Adolfo in Paër’s Camilla at Teatro del Corso.

Napoleon forms his Kingdom of Italy. Battles of Trafalgar (Oct.) and Austerlitz (Nov.). Schiller (45) dies, 9 May; Boccherini (62) dies, 28 May.

1806

14

Rossini enters Bologna’s Liceo Musicale, Apr.; admitted to Accademia, 24 June. Overture ‘al Conventello’.

Napoleon occupies Naples; Joseph Bonaparte becomes king of Naples. Deaths of Pitt (Jan.) and Fox (Sept.). Duprez born, 6 Dec.

1807

15

Colbran (23) makes her Bologna concert debut, 11 Apr.

French invasion of Spain and Portugal. De Staëls Corinne.

1808

16

Anna Rossini retires from operatic stage. Rossini writes choral music for Ravenna and Bologna; Il pianto d’Armonia sulla morte di Orfeo, 11 Aug.; Overture in D.

Joseph Bonaparte enters Madrid; Murat new king of Naples. Mosca’s L’italiana in Algeri, 16 Aug., Milan. Costa born, 4 Feb.; Maria Malibran born, 24 Mar.; Balfe born, 15 May.

1809

17

Music for opera Demetrio e Polibio completed. Combines study with regular work as maestro al cembalo in local opera houses. Colbran and Velluti in stage performances in Bologna.

Battle of Corunna, death of Sir John Moore. Barbaja moves to the Teatro San Carlo, Naples. Mendelssohn born, 3 Feb.; Haydn (77) dies, 31 May.

1810

18

Declines offer of further period of study at the Liceo. La cambiak di matrimonii), 3 Nov., Venice.

Siege of Lisbon. Isouards Cendrillon, 22 Feb., Paris. Scott’s The Lady of the Lake; Crabbe’s The Borough. Chopin born, 1 Mar.; Schumann born, 8 June; Nicolai born, 9 June; Ivanoffborn, 22 Oct.

1811

19

Prepares performance of Haydn’s The Seasons in Bologna; L’equivoco stravagante, 26 Oct., Bologna.

Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility. A. Thomas born, 5 Aug.; Liszt born, 22 Oct.; Hiller born, 24 Oct.

1812

20

L’inganno felice, 8 Jan., Venice; Ciro in Babilonia, 14 Mar., Ferrara; La scala di seta, 9 May, Venice; La pietra del paragone, 26 Sept., Milan; L’occasione fa il ladro, 24 Nov., Venice. Exempted from military service.

Napoleons invasion of Russia (June) and retreat from Moscow (Oct.). British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval assassinated. Byron’s Childe Harold, i and ii. Dickens born, 7 Feb.; Flotow born, 27 Apr.

1813

21

II Signor Bruschino, 13 Jan., Venice; Tancredi, 6 Feb., Venice; Ferrara revision of Tancredi, Mar., L’italiana in Algeri, 22 May, Venice. Opens Milan’s new Teatro Re with Tancredi, 18 Dec; Aureliano in Palmira, 26 Dec., Milan.

Austrian advances in Italy; defeat of Napoleon at Battle of Leipzig, Oct. Byron’s The Giaour. Heller born, 15 May; Wagner born 22 May; Grétry (72) dies, 24 Sept.; Verdi born, 9 Oct.

1814

22

Il turco in Italia, 14 Aug., Milan; Sigismondo, 26 Dec, Venice.

Napoleon abdicates, 6 Apr. Beethoven’s Fidelio, 23 May. Henselt born, 9 May.

1815

23

Murat in Bologna, Rossini’s Inno dell’Indipendenza, 15 Apr. Austrians retake Bologna. Arrives Naples to work for Teatro San Carlo, 27 June. Elis-abetta, 4 Oct., Naples; Torvaldo e Dorliska, 26 Dec, Rome.

Congress of Vienna; Napoleon’s return to France, Mar.; Batde of Waterloo, 18 June; Quadruple Alliance of Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia. Restoration of Louis XVIII. J. M. W. Turners The Founding of Carthage.

1816

24

San Carlo gutted by fire, 13 Feb.; rowdy prima of Il barbiere di Siviglia, 20 Feb., Rome; Le nozze di Teti, e di Peleo, 24 Apr., Naples; La gazzetta, 24 Sept., Naples; Otello, 4 Dec, Naples.

Byron leaves England, publishes Childe Harold, iii, and Siege of Corinth. Coleridge’s Kubla Khan. Sterndale-Bennett born, 13 Apr.; Paisiello (76) dies, 5 June.

1817

25

La Cenerentola, 25 Jan., Rome; Lagazza ladra, 31 May, Milan. Stays with Colbran at Barbaja’s home on Ischia, July. Armida, 11 Nov., Naples; Adelaide di Borgogna, 27 Dec, Rome.

Revision of Spontini’s Fernand Cortez, 8 May, Paris. Byron’s Tasso and Manfred. Keats’s Poems. Méhul (54) dies, 18 Oct. Mme de Staël (51) dies, 14 July; Jane Austen (41) dies, 18 July.

1818

26

First version of Mose in Egitto, 5 Mar., Naples. Adina commissioned. Gala opening of new opera house in Pesaro with Lagazza ladra, 10 June. Reported dangerously ill with ‘severe throat infection’. Riccia-rdo e Zoraide, Naples, 3 Dec.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle. Byron’s Childe Harold, iv. Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Donizetti’s debut as composer, Enrico di Borgogna, 14 Nov. Karl Marx born, 5 May; C. Novello born, 10 June; Gounod born, 18 June; Godefroid born, 24 July.

1819

27

Omaggio umiliato a Sua Maestà, 20 Feb., Naples. Revised Mosè in Egitto, 7 Mar; Ermione, 27 Mar., Naples. Eduardo e Cristina, 24 Apr., Venice. Returns to Pesaro, 24 May; driven out by Bergami faction. La donna del lago, 24 Oct., Naples; Bianca e Falliero, 26 Dec, Milan.

Byron’s Don Juan, i—ii. Goethe’s West-östlicher Divan. Scott’s Bride of Lammermoor. Schopenhauer’s Die Welt ah Wille und Vorstellung. Géricault’s The Raft of the Medusa. Ruskin born, 8 Feb.; Suppé born, 18 Apr.; Offenbach born, 20 June.

1820

28

Colbran’s father dies, 28 Feb. Messa di Gloria, 24 Mar., Naples. Discomfited by political upheavals. Maometto II, 3 Dec, Naples.

Risings against Bourbon rule in Naples, July. Death of King George III; trial of Queen Caroline. Scott’s Ivanhoe. Vieux-temps born, 17 Feb.

1821

29

Matilde di Shabran, 24 Feb., Rome, conducted by Paganini. Rossini and Paganini take part in Roman Carnival. Conducts Haydn’s The Creation, Apr., Naples. Appearances outside Italy negotiated. La riconoscenza as part of gala evening in Rossini’s honour, 27 Dec, Naples.

Congress of Laibach, Jan. Outbreak of Greek Revolt, Feb. Austrians enter Naples, Mar.; King Ferdinand returns, May. Weber’s Der Freischütz, 18 June. Constable’s The Haywain. De Quincey’s Confessions of an English Opium Eater. Shelley’s Adonais. Keats (25) dies, 23 Feb.; Baudelaire born, 9 Apr.; Napoleon (51) dies, 5 May.

1822

30

Zelmira, 16 Feb., Naples. Leaves Naples for season of his operas in Vienna. Marries Isabella Colbran at Castenaso, 16 Mar. Hears Der Freischutz, Vienna; hears Eroica Symphony and meets Beethoven. Works on Semiramide during Oct. in Castenaso; travels to Congress of Verona, Nov.; writes two official cantatas. Revises Maometto II for new production, 26 Dec, Venice. Acquires palazzo in need of renovation in Bologna.

Castlereagh’s suicide; Canning becomes British foreign secretary. Congress of Verona convened. Rogers’s Italy, i. Raffborn, 27 May; E. T A. Hoffmann (46) dies, 25 June; Franck born, 10 Dec.

1823

31

Semiramide, 3 Feb., Venice. Spends summer in Castenaso. Travels to Paris; banquet in his honour, 16 Nov. Reaches London, 13 Dec. Received by King George IV, Brighton, 29 Dec.

War between France and Spain. Weber’s Euryanthe, 25 Oct. Byron’s Don Juan, vi-xiv. Lalo born, 27 Jan.

1824

32

Season of Rossini operas at King’s Theatre, London. Feted by the English aristocracy. Signs agreement with Maison du Roi, Paris. Writes short antata in memory of Lord Byron. Visits Cambridge. Takes up residence in Paris; contract renegotiated after death of Louis XVIII.

Meyerbeer’s Il crociato in Egitto, 7 Mar., Venice. Lord Byron (36) dies, 19 Apr. Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, 7 May. Stendhal’s Vie de Rossini. Louis XVIII (68) dies, 16 Sept. Géricault (32) dies, 26 Jan.; Smetana born, 2 Mar.; Viotti (69) dies, 3 Mar.; Reinecke born, 23 June; Bruckner born, 4 Sept.; Cornelius born, 24 Dec.

1825

33

Co-director, with Paër, of Paris’s Théâtre Italien. Coronation of Charles X; Il viaggio a Reims, 19 June. Supervises revival of Meyerbeer’s Il crociato in Egitto, Sept.

Death of Ferdinand IV (74), 4 Jan., and Tsar Alexander I (47), 1 Dec. Bellini’s debut as opera composer, Adelson e Salvini, Naples, Feb. Salieri (74) dies, 7 May; Mattei (75) dies, 12 May; Winter (71) dies, 17 Oct.; J. Strauss (ii) born, 25 Oct.

1826

34

Conducts charity concert for Greek patriots, 28 Apr. Problems with Paer. Terms of agreement with Maison du Roi renegotiated. Paris Opëra debut, Le siége de Corinthe, 9 Oct.

Britain and Russia mediate in Greek-Turkish war. Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans. Alboni born, 6 Mar.; Weber (39) dies, 5 June; Foster born, 4 July.

1827

35

Anna Rossini (55) dies in Bologna, 20 Feb. Moïse et Pharaon, 26 Mar., Paris. Giuseppe Rossini arrives in Paris. Visits Dieppe, Aug. Friendship with banker Aguado. Begins work on Le Comte Ory at Aguado’s newly acquired château, Petit-Bourg.

Battle of Navarino. Bellini’s Il pirata, 27 Oct. Manzoni’s Ipromessi sposi. Beethoven (56) dies, 26 Mar.

1828

36

Maria Malibran makes her Paris debut in Semiratnide, 8 Apr. Le Comte Ory, 20 Aug., Paris. Work on Guillaume Tell.

Outbreak of Russo—Turkish war; Wellington becomes British prime minister. Ibsen born, 20 Mar.; Schubert (31) dies, 19 Nov.; Tolstoy born, 9 Dec.

1829

37

Renews negotiations over contract; threatens to suspend work on Guillaume Tell; contract signed by Charles X, 8 May. Guillaume Tell, 3 Aug., Paris. Leaves Paris for Bologna, 16 Aug. Meets Bellini in Milan.

Mendelssohn conducts Bach’s St. Matthew Passion in Berlin. The London Protocol guarantees Greek autonomy. Shield (80) dies, 25 Jan.; Gossec (95) dies, 16 Feb.; A. Rubinstein born, 28 Nov.

1830

38

Spends winter and spring in Bologna and Castenaso. Requests libretto for new opera for Paris. Charles X deposed in July Revolution; Louis-Philippe succeeds to throne. Rossini’s contract with Opéra invalidated. Leaves for Paris, 4 Sept.

Deposition of Charles X, Paris, July. Bellini’s I Capuleti e i Montecchi, 11 Mar.; Donizetti’s Anna Bolena, 26 Dec; Berlioz’s Symphonie fantas-tique, 5 Dec. Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister; Cobbett’s Rural Rides. Por-togallo (67) dies, 7 Feb.; Goldmark born, 18 May.

1831

39

Visits Madrid with Aguado; conducts Il barbiere di Siviglia in presence of King Ferdinand VII, 13 Feb. Stabat mater commissioned.

Meyerbeer’s Robert le diable, 21 Nov.; Bellini’s Norma, 26 Dec. Balzac’s La Peau de chagrin; Pushkin’s Boris Godunov.

1832

40

Dines with Olympe Pélissier and Balzac. Jan. Giovanna d’Arco dedicated to Olympe. Completes Stabat mater with help of Tadolini. Cholera in Paris; travels with Aguado to southwest France; meets and advises the young Aristide Cavaillé-Coll.

Otto of Bavaria appointed king of Greece; British Reform Act passed. Chopin’s first Paris recital, 26 Feb. Donizetti’s L’elisir d’amore, 12 May. Goethe’s Faust Pt 2. Manet born, 23 Jan.; Clementi (80) dies, 10 Mar.; Goethe (82) dies, 22 Mar.; M. Garcia (57) dies, 9 June; Scott (61) dies 21 Sept.

1833

41

Signs of deteriorating physical health. Continues to write occasional music. Stabat mater receives first performance in Madrid, Good Friday.

Hérold (41) dies, 19 Jan.; Brahms born, 7 May; Borodin born, 12 Nov.; Barbara Marchisio born, 6 Dec.

1834

42

Pension tribunal finds in Rossini’s favour; government appeals ruling. Spends summer in Bologna and Castenaso; returns to Paris late Aug.

Peel becomes British prime minister. Berlioz’s Harold in Italy. Pushkin’s The Queen of Spades. Ponchielli born, 31 Aug.;Boieldieu (58) dies, 8 Oct.

1835

43

Théâtre-Italien stages first performances of Bellini’s Ipuri-tani, 24 Jan., and Donizetti’s Marin Faliero, 12 Mar. Acts as honorary pallbearer at Bellini’s funeral. Ministry concedes Rossini’s pension claim, 24 Dec. Les soirées musicales published.

Halévy’s Lajuive, 23 Feb.; Donizetti’s Lucia di Latnmermoor, 26 Sept. Cui born, 18 Jan.; Bellini (32) dies, 23 Sept.; Saint-Saëns born, 9 Oct.; Carlotta Marchisio born, 8 Dec.

1836

44

Declines invitation to write new opera for Vienna. Visits Belgium and the Rhineland with Lionel de Rothschild; meets Mendelssohn. Returns to Paris and travels to Bologna.

Meyerbeer’s Les Huguenots, 29 Feb. Biichner’s Woyzeck; Dickens’s The Pickwick Papers; Gogol’s The Government Inspector. Lavigna (60) dies, 14 Sept.; Malibran (28) dies, 23 Sept.

1837

45

Formal separation from Isabella. Travels with Olympe to Milan, Nov., for winter season. Meets Liszt, who arranges Les soirées musicales for piano. Death of Varela; manuscript of Stabat mater sold.

Berlioz’s Grande messe des morts. Balakirev born, 2 Jan.; Field (54) dies, 23 Jan.; Pushkin (37) dies, 10 Feb.; Zingarelli (85) dies, 5 May; Leopardi (38) dies, 14 June; Fiora-vanti (72) dies, 16 June; Le Sueur (77) dies, 6 Oct.

1838

46

Much affected by news of death of Carlo Severini in fire at Théâtre Italien, Paris, 14 Jan. Returns to Bologna. Giuseppe Rossini not well, but celebrates 74th birthday, 13 Mar.

Bruch born, 6 Jan.; Bizet born, 25 Oct.

1839

47

Increasingly serious attacks of urethritis and depressive cycles. Giuseppe Rossini (75) dies, 29 Apr. Visits Naples during summer on doctor’s advice; stays with Barbaja. Accepts position of honorary consultant to the Liceo Musicale, Bologna.

Verdi’s debut as composer, Oberto, 17 Nov., Milan; Berlioz’s Roméo et Juliette. Cézanne born, 19 Jan. Nourrit (37) dies, 8 Mar.; Rhein-berger born, 17 Mar.; Mussorgsky born, 21 Mar.; Paer (67) dies, 3 May.

1840

48

Urethritis remains chronic, new treatments complicate condition.

Tchaikovsky born, 7 May; Paganini (57) dies, 27 May; Stainer born, 6 June. Monet born, 14 Nov.

1841

49

Manuscript of Stabat mater sold to Aulagnier, Paris; cedes rights to Troupenas and begins work on replacing movements originally assigned to Tadolini. Attempts to interest Donizetti in directorship of Liceo Musicale.

Adam’s Giselle, 28 June. Donizetti’s Maria Padilla, 26 Dec. Chabrier born, 18 Jan.; Dvořák born, 8 Sept.; Barbaja (63) dies, 19 Oct.

1842

50

Premiere of all-Rossini Stabat mater, Paris, 7 Jan.; huge artistic and commercial success. Italian prima, Bologna, 18 Mar., conducted by Donizetti. Efforts to interest Donizetti in Liceo directorship fail. Aguado (58) dies, Apr. Verdi visits Rossini in Bologna.

Verdi’s Nabucco, 9 Mar.; Donizetti appointed Kapellmeister to Austrian Court. Boito born, 24 Feb.; Cherubim (81) dies, 15 Mar.; Stendhal (59) dies, 22 Mar.; Massenet born, 12 May; Sullivan born, 13 May.

1843

51

Visits Paris for treatment by surgeon Jean Civiale, May to Sept. Cedes rights of incidental music to Edipo coloneo to Gabussi. Hears Verdi’s Nabucco in Bologna, Oct.

Wagner’s Der fliegende Holländer, 2 Jan.; Donizetti’s Don Pasquale, 3 Jan. Ruskin’s Modem Painters. Diémer born, 14 Feb.; Patti born, 19 Feb.; Lanner (42) dies, 14 Apr.; Henry James born, 15 Apr.; Grieg born, 15 June.

1844

52

Adapts two choruses from Edipo coloneo and writes a third for Trois choeurs religieux, 20 Nov., Paris.

J. M. W. Turner’s Rain, Steam, and Speed. Heine’s Neue Gedichte. Rimsky-Korsakov born, 18 Mar.; Nietzsche born, 15 Oct.

1845

53

Isabella Colbran-Rossini seriously ill; visits her 7 Sept; she dies, aged 60, 7 Oct.

Wagner’s Tannhäuser, 19 Oct. Disraeli’s Sybil; Engels’s The Condition of the Working Class in England. Widor born, 21 Feb.; Fauré born, 12 May; Mayr (82) dies, 2 Dec.

1846

54

Cooperates with making of Robert Brute, pastiche based on La donna del lago, Paris Opera, 30 Dec. Marries Olympe Pelissier in Bologna, 16 Aug.

Repeal of Corn Laws in Britain. Dickens’s Pictures from Italy. Berlioz’s La damnation de Faust. Weigl (79) dies, 3 Feb.; Tosti born, 9 Apr.; Dragonetti (82) dies, 16 Apr.; Gabussi (46) dies, 12 Sept.

1847

55

First performance of Cantata in honour of Pius IX, 1 Jan., Rome. Controversy in press concerning Robert Bruce.

Thackeray’s Vanity Fair. Mendelssohn (38) dies, 4 Nov.

1848

56

Alarmed by revolutionary activity in Bologna, leaves for Florence, 28 Apr. Writes a choral march for Bologna’s Guardia Civica but declines entreaties to return to Bologna. Takes up temporary residence in Florence.

Year of revolutions in Europe. Sicilian revolt, 12 Jan.; revolution in Paris, 22 Feb.; Metternich resigns, 13 Mar.; risings against Austrians in Milan and Venice; liberal constitutions granted in Papal States, Tuscany, Piedmont, Naples; Radetzky’s victory at Custozza, 25 July. Communist Manifesto published, Feb. Du-parc born, 21 Jan.; Parry born, 27 Feb.; Donizetti (50) dies, 8 Apr.

1849

57

Continues to run affairs from Florence; regular flow of letters to Bologna on domestic matters.

Republic proclaimed in Rome by Mazzini, 9 Feb.; Austrian victory at Novara, 23 Mar.; accession of Victor Emmanuel II; Pius IX restored, 4 July.

1850

58

Inno alia Pace written for the painter Vincenzo Rasori, 26 June. Returns to Bologna in Sept with police escort. Spends winter attending to domestic and business affairs.

Louis-Philippe (76) dies, 26 Aug.. Heuberger born, 18 June; Pavesi (71) dies, 28 July. Balzac (51) dies, 21 Aug.

1851

59

Principal possessions crated for dispatch to Florence; unnerved by continued political unrest in Bologna; returns to Florence, 5 May.

Verdi’s Rigoletto, 11 Mar. London’s Great Exhibition opens in Paxton’s Crystal Palace, 1 May. Louis Napoleon’s coup d’état, Paris, 2 Dec. Lortzing (49) dies, 21 Jan.; Spontini (76) dies, 24jan.;d’Indy born, 27 Mar.

1852

60

Health remains poor; severe depressions and talk of suicide. Corresponds with Ivanoff about Verdi’s Rigoletto.

Louis Napoleon takes title of Napoleon III; launching of expansionist financial, commercial, and industrial policies of the Second Empire. Stanford born, 30 Sept.

1853

61

Buys property in Florence for renovation. Attends performance of Guglielmo Tell, staged in his honour in Pitti Palace, Apr. Letters reveal continued manic-depressive cycles.

Verdi’s II tropatore, 19 Jan., La traviata, 6 Mar. Liszt’s B minor Sonata. P. Raimondi (66) dies, 30 Oct.; Messager born, 30 Dec.

1854

62

Some private music-making, though visitors report acute nervousness, depression, and insomnia.

Crimean War; Battle of Balaclava; Tennyson’s ‘The Charge of the Light Brigade’. Catalani born, 19 June; Janáček born, 3 July; Humperdinck born, 1 Sept.

1855

63

Departure from Italy. Leaves Florence 26 Apr; arrives in Paris late May. Spends July-Sept. in Trouville, Normandy; meets Hiller. Takes up permanent residence in Paris during autumn.

Opening of Offenbach’s Bouffes-Parisiens. Chausson born, 20 Jan.; Rossi (80) dies, 25 Jan. Bishop (68) dies, 30 Apr. Lyadov born, 11 May.

1856

64

Rents small villa in Passy. Visits Strasbourg in June; takes waters at Wildbad and Baden-Baden; received by Maximilian II of Bavaria in Kissingen.

Martucci born, 6 Jan.; Sinding born, 11 Jan.; Adam (52) dies, 3 May; Schumann (46) dies, 29 July; Taneyev born, 25 Nov.

1857

65

Presents his Musique anodine as gift to Olympe, 15 Apr. Beginning of new phase in creative and social life. Moves to apartment in Paris s rue de la Chaussée d’Antin.

Indian Mutiny. Liszt’s Faust and Dante symphonies; Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal. Glinka (52) dies, 15 Feb.; Elgar born, 2 June; Czerny (66) dies, 15 July.

1858

66

Acquires land for a new villa in Passy. Draws up will, naming Olympe as principal beneficiary and, after her death, the Commune of Pesaro for founding of a Liceo Musicale. First samedi soir, 18 Dec. Starts regular composition of the Péchés de vieillesse.

Assassination attempt on Napoleon III. Offenbach’s Orphée aux enfers, 21 Oct. Leoncavallo born, 8 Mar.; E. Smyth born, 22 Apr.; Puccini born, 23 Dec.

1859

67

Cornerstone of Passy villa laid, 10 Mar. Enthusiastically received at Conservatoire concert of his music, 17 Apr. French government committee, of which he was absentee president, reports on standard musical pitch (A = 435, enforceable by law).

Darwin’s Origin of Species. Spohr (75) dies, 22 Oct.; L. Ricci (54) dies, 31 Dec.

1860

68

Wagner conducts concerts in Paris; visits Rossini, Mar. Debut of Marchisio sisters at Paris Opéra in new production of Semiramide, 9 July. Receives visits by Moscheles and Hanslick.

Garibaldi in Sicily and Naples; most of Italy united to Piedmont. Chekhov born, 29 Jan.; Wolf born, 13 Mar.; Albéniz born, 29 May; G. Charpentier born, 25 June; Mahler born, 7 July; MacDowell born, 18 Dec.

1861

69

Soirée on Good Friday, 29 Mar., devoted to Stabat mater, with Marchisio sisters as soloists; orchestra arranged for double string quartet. Declines commission for 1862 London Exhibition.

Abraham Lincoln takes office; start of American Civil War. Victor Emmanuel proclaimed king of Italy. Berlioz’s Les Troyens accepted by Paris Opéra. Niedermeyer dies (58), 14 Mar.

1862

70

Sits for portrait by Guglielmo De Sanctis. Continues to compose prolifically for samedi soirs and to lead a full, if carefully regulated, social life.

Bismark becomes leading minister in Prussia. Dostoevsky’s Notes from the House of the Dead. Delius born, 29 Jan.; Halévy (62) dies, 17 Mar.; Debussy born, 22 Aug.

1863

71

Soiree on Good Friday includes movements from Pergolesi’s and Rossini’s Stabat mater. Begins work on Petite messe solennelle.

Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe. Cinti-Damoreau (62) dies, 25 Feb.; Delacroix (65) dies, 13 Aug.; Mascagni born, 7 Dec.

1864

72

Premiere of the Petite messe solennelle, private chapel of Count and Countess Pillet-Will, Sunday, 14 Mar. Writes his ‘Quelques mesures de chant funébre’ in response to Meyerbeer’s death. Made grand officier of the Legion d’Honneur.

Geneva Convention originated. Offenbach’s La Belle Hélène, 17 Dec. Foster (37) dies, 13 Jan.; d’Albert born, 10 Apr.; Meyerbeer (72) dies, 2 May; R. Strauss born, 11 June.

1865

73

Visited by Weber’s son, Mar. Encourages Sir Michael Costa with his oratorio, Naaman.

Lincoln assassinated, 14 Apr. Wagner’s Tristan and Isolde, 10 June. Pasta (67) dies, 1 Apr.; Magnard born, 9 June; Nielsen born, 9 June; Glazunov born, 10 Aug.; Dukas born, 1 Oct.; Sibelius born, 8 Dec.

1866

74

Liszt plays at soirée, Holy Saturday, 31 Mar. Rossini begins correspondence with Pope Pius IX in unsuccessful attempt to bring about revocation of papal ban on women singers in church. Mild stroke or thrombosis, Dec.

Austro-Prussian war. Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment. A. Pacini (87) dies, 10 Mar.; Busoni born, 1 Apr.; Satie born, 17 May; Cilea born, 26 July.

1867

75

Works on orchestration of Petite messe solennelle. Hymne à Napoléon III, Paris, 1 July.

Verdi’s Don Carlos, n Mar. Ibsen’s Peer Cynt. Granados born, 27 July; Giordano born, 28 Aug.; Baudelaire (46) dies, 31 Aug.; Koechlin born, 27 Nov.; G. Pacini (71) dies, 6 Dec.

1868

76

‘500th’ performance of Guillaume Tell celebrated at Paris Opéra, 10 Feb. Becomes embroiled in controversy about funding of Italian musical academies. Receives letter early Aug. from composer of a new version of Il barbiere di Siviglia. Discusses his art and ideas in a letter to Filippo Filippi, 26 Aug. Last samedi soir, 26 Sept. Undergoes two operations for malignant rectal fistulas, early Nov. Lingers in great pain for over a week. Dies at 11.15 p.m. on Friday, 13 Nov. Gustave Dore makes deathbed drawings next morning [see plate 24]. Funeral at L’Église de la Trinité, Paris at noon on 21 Nov., attended by over 4,000 people; buried in Pére-Lachaise cemetery. [Olympe Rossini died on 22 Mar. 1878. Rossini’s remains were reinterred in the Church of Santa Croce, Florence, 2 May 1887. The monument for the tomb was dedicated on 23 June 1902.]

Wagner’s Die Meistersinger, 21 June, Munich. Berwald (71) dies, 3 Apr.; Bantock born, 7 Aug. Albéniz aged 8; Auber 86;Balakirev 31; Balfe 60; Berlioz 64; Bizet 30; Boito 26; Borodin 35; Brahms 35;Bruch 30; Bruckner 44; Busoni 2; Catalani 14; Chabrier 27; Charpentier 8; Chausson 13; Cilea 2; Costa 60; Debussy 6; Delibes 32; Delius 6; Dukas 2; Duparc 20; Dvořák 27; Elgar 11; Fauré 23; Flotow 56; Franck 45; Giordano 1; Glazunov 3; Goldmark 38; Gounod 50; Granados 1; Grieg 25; Humperdinck 14; d’Indy 17; Janáček 14;Lalo 45; Leoncavallo 10; Liszt 57; Lyadov 13; Magnard 3; Mahler 8; Mascagni 4; Massenet 26; Mercadante 73; Messager 14; Mussorgsky 29; Nielsen 3; Offenbach 49; Parry 20; Ponchielli 34; Puccini 9; Rimsky-Korsakov 24; A. Rubinstein 38; Saint-Saëns 33; Satie 2; Sibelius 2; Smetana 44; Stainer 28; Stanford 16; J. Strauss, ii 43; R. Strauss 4; Sullivan 26; Suppé 49; Tchaikovsky 28; A. Thomas 57; Tosti 22; Verdi 55; Wagner 55; Widor 23; Wolf 8.

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