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Single by Chance, Mothers by ChoiceHow Women are Choosing Parenthood without Marriage and Creating the New American Family$

Rosanna Hertz

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195179903

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179903.001.0001

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(p.215) Appendix 1 Demographic Appendix: Featured Women

(p.215) Appendix 1 Demographic Appendix: Featured Women

Source:
Single by Chance, Mothers by Choice
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Below are short summaries of women featured in the book. This appendix is meant to connect featured women with basic demographic information, details too cumbersome to include in the body of the book. All women have been given pseudonyms, and I have changed certain details for some women to protect their identity, such as sex of child, exact occupation, and community of residence. However, income, level of education, race, age, and routes to motherhood are unchanged. All information is consistent with that given at the time of the first interview, with the exception of income, which is approximated here to correspond to 2004–2005 dollars. Social class is complicated to assess. Following Ellwood and Jencks (2001), I have taken into account both education and income as I assigned each woman to a social class. The page numbers that follow the description of each woman are a good tool with which to trace the women featured in the book.

Abby Pratt-Evans, a white 38-year-old woman, has one child, age 2, whom she gave birth to using anonymous donor sperm. Middle-class, Abby has two master’s degrees, works as a teacher, and makes $60,000 a year. She owns her own condo, and her mother provided child care for Abby’s son, who has recently begun to transition into family day care. (6, 8, 14, 57–60, 65, 69, 71, 162, 171, 178, 206–7, 215, 237n1 (Ch. 4))

Althea Williams, an African American 40-year-old woman, has one child, age 3, whom she conceived with a known donor who lives abroad. Middle-class, Althea works as a professor and makes $85,000 a year. She lives in a multifamily home (p.216) that she owns and rents out two units, bringing in an additional $34,000 a year. (16–17, 44, 78–79, 205, 206, 215–16)

Angie Dasilva, a white 46-year-old woman, has one child, age 3, whom she conceived with a known donor, who is a parenting partner. Middle-class and with several advanced degrees, she works as a self-employed consultant, making $39,000 a year while receiving an additional $60,000 a year from her trust fund. She owns her condo. (148–49, 150, 151, 216, 248n9 (Ch. 7))

Annette Barker, a white 42-year-old woman, has one child, age 3, whom she gave birth to using a known donor, who became involved with the child. Uppermiddle-class, Annette works as a manager in a technology firm and makes $100,000 working four days a week. She has a small trust fund and owns her condo. (7–8, 33–34, 46, 81–83, 156, 162–63, 178, 205, 211, 216)

Barbara Graham, an African American 45-year-old woman, has one African American child, age 5, whom she conceived using an anonymous donor. Middleclass, holding several degrees, Barbara works as a professional in a university, making $78,000 a year. She owns a two-family home. Her mother, whom she considers a parenting partner, occupies the other apartment. A lesbian woman, Barbara also has a steady romantic partner. (18, 152–53, 216)

Beth Marshall, a white 41-year-old woman, has one child, age 2, whom she adopted through the Department of Social Services as an infant, rare for a white baby. Middle-class, she works as the director of a nonprofit organization, making $65,000 a year, adding to her paycheck with a yearly $10,000 gift from her parents. She has a master’s degree and owns her condo. (172, 216)

Brandy Heines, an African American 26-year-old woman, has one child, age 3. Working-class and with a high school degree, she works as a child care worker in a day care center and makes $25,000 a year. She receives two days of free child care for her daughter at the center where she works, and her mother helps with child care two days a week. She rents her apartment. (95– 96, 164, 206, 216, 242n9, 242n12)

Cara DeSouza, a white 32-year-old woman, has one biracial child, age 3, the result of a one-time encounter. Lower-middle-class, Cara, who has a two-year associate’s degree, owns a salon and makes $80,000 a year. She rents her home and her parents help her with child care. (91– 92, 216)

Caroline Barton, a white 46-year-old woman, adopted two sibling sets. At the time of the interview, they were ages 18 and 19 and ages 4, 7, and 8. Middle-class, she works as a high-level administrator employed by the state, making $60,000 a year while completing a doctoral degree. She receives approximately $10,000 a year in financial assistance for the younger sibling group from a government agency to pay for the special services her children need. (121–23, 216)

(p.217) Charlotte Alvord, a white 48-year-old woman, has one child, age 5, whom she adopted from Romania. Middle-class, Charlotte works as a professor, making $70,000 a year, and lives in campus housing. (10, 11, 183–84, 207–8, 217)

Claudia D’Angelo, a white 52-year-old woman, has one son, age 7, whom she adopted from Russia. Middle-class, Claudia works as a clinical psychologist and makes $50,000; she receives additional yearly money from her mother. She owns a multi-family home, renting out two apartments. She has a long-term romantic partner, Carl. (xii–xiv, 3, 5–6, 8–9, 11–12, 20, 24, 25, 48–49, 110–12, 145, 146, 158, 162, 173, 180, 203, 217)

Colleen O’Neil, a white 53-year-old woman, has one child, age 13, the result of a planned pregnancy with her then-boyfriend. Middle-class, Colleen works as an artist and runs a bed-and-breakfast, bringing in $55,000 a year from the latter. A small trust fund left by her father, who lived with her until his death, adds $10,000 a year, replacing his Social Security check, which used to add to her family income. She owns her own home. (90, 92, 93–94, 168, 213, 217, 242n10)

Corina Joseph, a white 44-year-old woman, has one child, age 3½, whom she gave birth to using an anonymous donor. Middle-class, Corina, who holds a series of degrees, works on contract as a software developer and made $40,000 a year at the time of her interview, an amount that can vary drastically. She owns her own home and usually rents out two rooms. (70–72, 217)

Crystal Stevens, an African American 28-year-old woman, has one child, age 3½, the result of chancing pregnancy with her then-boyfriend. Working-class, she works as a secretary, making $20,000, while finishing up her associate’s degree. She rents her apartment. (93, 217)

Darlene Caroff, a white 47-year-old woman, has one child, age 23, the result of a chanced pregnancy. Working-class with a high school diploma, she works a secretary, making $50,000 a year. She rents her apartment. (101–2, 217, 242n10)

Deborah Toland, a white 44-year-old bisexual woman, has one child, age 9, whom she gave birth to using a known donor, who has escalated his involvement. Lower-middle-class, Deborah, who has a bachelor’s in education, works as a child care worker in a day care center and makes $25,000 a year. She owns a two-family home and rents the other unit, bringing in $12,000 a year. (72–73, 75, 217, 240n28)

Ellen Hammond, a white 31-year-old woman, has a daughter, age 2, the result of what she terms an unplanned pregnancy with her boyfriend, Gavin, who remains sporadically involved. Middle-class, Ellen works as a financial analyst and makes $105,000 a year. She lives in and rents out rooms in the house her mother owns. (12, 48, 86–88, 89, 92, 96, 102, 156, 159, 162, 169, 178, 180, 206, 217)

(p.218) Elyce Fischer, a white 37-year-old lesbian, has one child, age 4, whom she conceived using a known donor. Middle-class, Elyce was working as a doctor until her daughter was born, making $48,000 a year. As she transitions to a new career, her parents are supporting her financially. She owns her own home. (41, 217–18)

Erika Bailey, a white 49-year-old woman, has one child, age 4½, whom she adopted from China. Middle-class, she works as a director of communications, making $83,000 a year. She owns a two-family house, the rent from the other unit adding $15,000 to her income. (186, 213, 218)

Evelyn Martinez, a 28-year-old Hispanic woman, has one child, age 4, the result of what she terms an unintended pregnancy. She is finishing an associate’s degree as well as applying for a bachelor’s degree program. Working-class, she does part-time work as a personal trainer, making $16,000 a year. She rents her apartment. (49, 146, 218)

Fran Tobin, a white 36-year-old-woman, has an 18-month-old baby, whom she gave birth to using anonymous donor sperm. Upper-middle-class, she owns her own home and relies on her mother to take care of her child, allowing her to build up her client base. As a self-employed consultant, she made $200,000 in 2004, an amount that can vary. (33, 163, 218)

Gina Schecter, a white 51-year-old woman, has a biracial (white and black) daughter, age 7, whom she adopted privately as an infant. Middle-class, Gina works as a manager and makes $58,000 a year. She rents an apartment. (21–24, 28, 30, 31–32, 119–21, 123–24, 125–26, 126–27, 130, 131, 180, 208, 218)

Heather Johnson, a white 43-year-old woman, has one child, age 10, whom she gave birth to using a known donor. Working-class, Heather works as a secretary and makes $17,000 a year. She rents a house and has a foster child in her home, adding to her income. (xviii, 80–81, 218)

Hillary Doyle, a white 38-year-old woman, has two sons, a newborn and one age 5½, both conceived using the same known donor. Middle-class and holding several advanced degrees, she works as a nurse four days a week, making $55,000 a year. She rents her apartment, and her parents are willing to help if she needs financial assistance. (181, 185, 187, 205–6, 218, 254n15)

Janica Louis, an African American 50-year-old woman, has two African American children, ages 14 and 16, whom she adopted domestically via the Department of Social Services. Middle-class, Janica works as a school administrator, earning $94,000 a year. Janica’s mother, a parenting partner, lives in the home that Janica owns. Janica’s sister, who bought the multi-family house with Janica, lives in the apartment below. (17, 34, 115–17, 124–25, 150–51, 152, 155–56, 167, 207, 218, 245nn19–20, 248n9 (Ch. 7))

Jasmine Duarte, a 27-year-old woman of Caribbean descent, has one child, age 3, the result of what she calls an unintended pregnancy with her then-boyfriend. (p.219) Working-class, Jasmine works as a secretary, cocktail waitress, and housekeeper, making a total of $18,000 a year. She rents her apartment, is finishing up her associate’s degree, and is applying to a B.A. program. (159–60, 162, 164, 218–19)

Jennifer Sanders, a white 42-year-old woman, has a 10-month-old baby, whom she gave birth to using a known donor. Upper-middle-class, she works as a therapist and makes $90,000 a year. She owns her own condo. The second time I talked to Jennifer in my first round of interviews, Jennifer was about to be married. (76–77, 78, 133, 143–44, 157, 171, 204–5, 219)

Joy McFadden, a white 47-year-old woman, has two children, ages 7 and 11, to whom she gave birth using anonymous donor sperm. Upper-middle-class, Joy works as a physician, makes $185,000 a year, and owns her own house. (ix–xii, 3, 5–6, 8, 11–12, 20, 24, 25, 27, 31, 144–45, 158, 162, 172, 186, 200, 204, 211, 219, 250n20, 253n3 (Epilogue))

Kerry Brennan, a white 43-year-old lesbian woman, has one child, age 4, whom she gave birth to using an anonymous donor. Middle-class, Kerry works as a film producer and makes $75,000 a year, which is supplemented by the $15,000 a year she receives from the rental unit in the two-family home she owns. She also has a roommate with whom she barters child care for rent. (62–63, 169–70, 201, 219)

Leigh Newell, a white 49-year-old woman, has one child, age 4, whom she adopted from China. Middle-class, Leigh transitioned from working as a journalist to working as an editor, making $75,000 a year. Her child is in family day care, and she owns her own home. (8, 219)

Lily Baker, a white 40-year-old woman, has a 1-year-old child, whom she gave birth to using anonymous donor sperm. Middle-class, Lily works as a teacher and makes $54,000 a year, while tutoring brings in another $12,000. She splits her rent with a roommate. (9–10, 11, 25, 27–28, 32, 49, 219)

Lori-Ann Stuart, a white 41-year-old lesbian, has one child, age 4, whom she conceived using a known donor. Middle-class, Lori-Ann is a school administrator and makes $55,000 a year. She rents an apartment, which she shares with a roommate. She relies on a group of friends to watch her child on the days she works nonstandard hours. (37–39, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47–48, 74–75, 159, 162, 185, 205, 219)

Maeve Stanton, a white 30-year-old woman, has two children, ages 6 months and 8 years. The younger child, African American, was adopted domestically through a private agency, while the older son was conceived while she was changing birth control pills. The older son’s father has been a sporadic visitor for the last few years. On the edge of middle-class, Maeve works mainly as a freelance writer but also teaches evening college classes, earning a combined income of $30,000 a year. She is gambling on selling her first novel to allow her to buy a home. (13–14, 90, 92, 98, 100–101, 102, 154–55, 219)

(p.220) Marli Simmons, a white bisexual 46-year-old woman, has one child, age 3, whom she adopted from China. Middle-class, she works as a professor, making $60,000 a year with an additional $10,000 gift from her mother. She rents her home. (107–8, 112–13, 114, 127–28, 129–30, 219–20, 244nn13–14, 244n16, 245n20)

Mary Conners, a white 49-year-old woman, has one child, age 13, the result of chancing pregnancy with her then-boyfriend, who serves as a parenting partner even though the romance ended. Middle-class, Mary works as a teacher and makes $55,000 a year. She owns her own home, in which she periodically rents rooms. (99–100, 153–54, 156, 220, 242n14)

Melissa Manning, a white 40-year-old woman, has twins, age 4, whom she gave birth to using an anonymous donor. Middle-class, Melissa works as a clinical social worker with a private practice and makes $65,000 a year, supplemented by a trust fund that yields $20,000 annually. She owns her own home. (64, 66, 69, 181–82, 188, 220)

Nadine Margolis, a white 39-year-old woman, has twins, age 2, whom she conceived using an anonymous donor. Middle-class, Nadine works as an engineer and makes $100,000 a year. She rents her home, hoping to buy in the neighborhood. (25–26, 30–31, 43, 64–65, 66, 69, 173, 174, 174–75, 186, 220)

Naomi Henderson, a white 33-year-old woman, has one child, age 1, the result of a chanced pregnancy with a boyfriend who fathered a child with another woman at the same time. Middle-class, she works as a property manager, making $70,000 a year. She rents her home. (15, 96–97, 206, 220)

Nicole Shiff, a white 45-year-old woman, has two biracial (Native American and white) children, ages 12 and 15, whom she adopted out of foster care at ages 6½ and 8. Middle-class, Nicole works as a self-employed consultant and makes between $60,000 and $120,000 a year. She owns her own house. (10, 11, 220)

Patricia Sullivan, a white 45-year-old woman, has one African American child, age 3, whom she adopted through a private agency. Middle-class, she works as a nurse, making $50,000 a year. A former lover occasionally helps her out financially. She rents her apartment and sublets out a room. Her roommate has a special relationship with the child. (114, 115–16, 117, 128–29, 163, 166, 168– 69, 220)

Penny Hawkins, a white 39-year-old woman, has a 1½ -year-old child, whom she adopted from Romania after her infant conceived using an anonymous donor died. Middle-class, Penny works as an editor and makes $57,000 a year. Her widowed mother moved into the home Penny owns to help care for her child. (15, 220)

Rebecca Thompson, a white 45-year-old woman, has a 4-year-old child, whom she adopted out of China as an infant. Middle-class, Rebecca works as a lawyer and makes $130,000 a year. She owns her own house and runs a small bed-and-breakfast (p.221) out of her house, which pays for the property taxes. (15, 104–5, 106, 107, 109–10, 112, 131, 163–64, 165, 184, 187–88, 220)

Rosalie Rodriguez, a 22-year-old Hispanic woman, has a 9-month-old baby, the result of what she terms an unintended pregnancy. She is a college senior and does part-time office work, making $15,000 a year. She rents her apartment. Upon graduation, she hopes to improve her income. (34–35, 42, 201, 221)

Sienna Martin, a white 50-year-old woman, has one child, age 3, whom she adopted from China. Middle-class, she works as a literary agent, making $45,000 a year, supplemented by $8,000 from a small trust fund. She owns her own home, which she shares with her live-in lover, who is not a parenting partner. (145–46, 200–201, 221, 247n2, 254n5)

Sophie Taylor, a white 39-year-old woman, has one child, age 1, whom she gave birth to using an anonymous donor. Middle-class, Sophie works as a clinical social worker and makes $58,000 a year. She owns her own home. (40, 41, 45, 221)

Susan Jaffe, a white 48-year-old woman, has one child, age 9, whom she conceived using an anonymous donor. Middle-class, Susan works as an occupational therapist and makes $65,000 a year, supplemented by the $5,000 she makes from outside clients. She rents an apartment. (4, 5, 19–20, 66– 67, 68– 69, 187, 221, 238n12)

Theresa Stoppard, a white 42-year-old woman, has one child, age 1½, whom she gave birth to using an anonymous donor. Upper-middle-class, Theresa works as a corporate sales vice president and makes $110,000 a year, with a $25,000 bonus. She also receives $10,000 from rental property. She owns her own home, and her mother, who could no longer live alone, has recently moved in with her. She leaves her child with paid help in her home, not using her mother for child care. (70, 211, 221)

Trish Maloney, a white 48-year-old woman, has one child, age 11. A gay woman, she gave birth using a known donor, who is a contracted co-parent to the child with his male partner. Middle-class by virtue of her master’s degree, Trish works full time as a social worker, making $20,000 a year. She rents her apartment in a building that she loves. (15–16, 147–48, 150, 151–52, 221, 248n9 (Ch. 7), 253n3 (Part III))

Valerie Newman, a white 38-year-old woman, has one mixed-race (white and Hispanic) child, age 1, the result of a passionate affair. Middle-class, Valerie works as a self-employed consultant and makes $100,000 a year. Her exboyfriend gives her regular financial gifts. She owns her own home. (166, 221)

Veronica Baher, a white 42-year-old lesbian, has one child, age 5, whom she adopted from Central America. Middle-class, Veronica works as a social worker and makes $30,000 a year, which is supplemented by a gift of $10,000 a year from her parents. She owns her home. (18, 144, 221)