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Safe and Healthy School Environments
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Safe and Healthy School Environments

Howard Frumkin, Robert Geller, I. Leslie Rubin, and Janice Nodvin

Abstract

School is the child's workplace. Children spend many of their waking hours at school, in circumstances that are often suboptimal. There may be excessive crowding, poor indoor air quality, unsatisfactory lighting, or exposure to hazardous chemicals. Violence may threaten children's safety. Outside the school, the playground may be dangerous, and on the way to school, children may face risks, whether they walk, bicycle, or ride the bus. Safe and healthy schools offer many benefits. They protect children's health. They enhance learning. They are pleasant places to be. Finally, safe and healthy sc ... More

Keywords: school environment, environmental health, school health, children's health, toxic exposures, air quality, nutrition

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2006 Print ISBN-13: 9780195179477
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195179477.001.0001

Authors

Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Howard Frumkin, editor
National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Subtances and Disease Registry, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Robert Geller, editor
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Emory University

I. Leslie Rubin, editor
Moorehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta

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Contents

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1 Introduction

Howard Frumkin

I The Physical Environment of the School

3 Lighting

Barbara Erwine

4 Noise

Lorraine E. Maxwell

5 Temperature and Humidity

Jouni J.K. Jaakkola

6 Ergonomics for Students and Staff

Cheryl Bennett, Andree Woodcock, and Diane Tien

7 Animal Safety

Jerome A. Paulson, and Chinonye Harvey

8 Playgrounds

Robin Moore

9 Injury Prevention

Sandra S. West, Hope Jackson, Robert J. Geller, and Howard Frumkin

II Air Quality in Schools

10 Indoor Air Quality

Robert Axelrad

11 Mold

Robert J. Geller

12 Outdoor Air Pollution

Andrea Hricko

III Toxic Hazards in Schools

13 Pest Control

Troy A. Pierce, and Robert J. Geller

14 Cleaning Materials and Methods

Stephen Ashkin, and Richard Ellis

15 Chemical Exposures in and out of the Classroom

Jennifer Audi, and Robert J. Geller

IV Nutrition and Physical Activity

16 Food Safety

Jeannie Sneed

17 Nutrition at School

Nicole Larson, and Mary Story

V Violence and Disasters

20 Emergency Management

Angelo J. Bellomo

VI Transportation to and from School

21 Safe School Travel

H. Douglas Robertson, and Jeffrey C. Tsai

22 Healthy School Travel

Linda B. Crider, and Amanda K. Hall

VII Managing for Safe and Healthy School Environments

26 Children and Adults with Disabilities

Kathy Gips, Janice Nodvin, and I. Leslie Rubin

VIII Health Services in Schools: Environmental Health Aspects

27 Health Services at School

Julia Graham Lear

End Matter