Uneven Outcomes and Growing Inequalities
This chapter explores the uneven consequences of global environmental change and globalization for agriculture and rural livelihoods. The first part of the chapter examines two of the most far-reaching and transformative types of global change, namely climate change and trade liberalization. It then presents a detailed case study of the pathway of outcome double exposure in Indian agriculture. The case study shows that the outcomes of climate change and trade liberalization in India are not randomly distributed, but instead are systematically linked to contextual conditions that influence both exposure and capacity to respond to each process. Growing inequalities linked to both processes can be seen at the regional, district, and village levels, and across gender groups. Global environmental change and globalization processes together reinforce uneven outcomes among farmers and rural communities, creating both double winners and double losers.
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