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Social Injustice and Public Health$

Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780195171853

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195171853.001.0001

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Social Injustice and Public Health
Oxford University Press

ACORN (Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now)

88 Third Avenue

Brooklyn, NY 11217

Tel: 718-246-7900

Website: www.acorn.org

The nation’s largest community organization of low- and moderate-income families, with over 150,000 member families organized into 750 neighborhood chapters in more than 60 cities across the country.

American Civil Liberties Union

125 Broad Street, 18th Floor

New York, NY 10004

Tel: 888-567-2258

Website: www.aclu.org

Works daily in courts, legislatures, and communities to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person under the U.S. Constitution and laws.

American Public Health Association

800 I Street NW

Washington, DC 20001-3701

Tel: 202-777-2742

Website: www.apha.org

The oldest and largest organization of public health professionals in the world, representing more than 50,000 members from over 50 occupations of public health. Brings together researchers, health service providers, administrators, teachers, and other health workers in a unique, multidisciplinary environment of professional exchange, study, and action. Actively serves the public, its members, and the public health profession through its scientific and practice programs, publications, annual meeting, awards program, educational services, and advocacy efforts.

(p.510) Amnesty International

1 Easton Street

London WC1X 0DW

United Kingdom

Tel: 44 20-7413-5500

Website: www.amnesty.org

Amnesty International USA

5 Penn Plaza, 14th Floor

New York, NY 10001

Tel: 212-807-8400

Website: www.amnestyusa.org

Worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights. Undertakes research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience and expression, and freedom from discrimination, within the context of its work to promote all human rights.

Center for Constitutional Rights

666 Broadway, 7th Floor

New York, NY 10012

Tel: 212-614-6464

Website: www.ccr-ny.org

Dedicated to protecting and advancing the rights protected by the U.S. Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Center for Defense Information

1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW

Washington, DC 20036-2019

Tel: 202-332-0600

Website: www.cdi.org

Strengthens security through international cooperation; reduced reliance on unilateral military power to resolve conflict; reduced reliance on nuclear weapons; a transformed and reformed military establishment; and prudent oversight of, and spending on, defense programs. Contributes alternative views on security to promote wide-ranging discourse and debate; educates the public and informs policymakers about issues of security policy, strategy, operators, weapon systems, and defense budgeting; and pursues creative solutions to the problems of today and tomorrow.

Center for Economic and Social Rights (CESR)

162 Montague Street, 2nd Floor

Brooklyn, NY 11201

Tel: 718-237-9145

Website: www.cesr.org

Promotes the universal right of every human being to housing, education, health, a healthy environment, food, work, and an adequate standard of living.

Center for Policy Analysis on Trade and Health (CPATH)

98 Seal Rock Drive

San Francisco, CA 94121-1437

Tel: 415-933-6204

Website: www.cpath.org

Protects and expands access to health care, water, and other vital human services. Links health, health care, and global trade communities to create economically and socially just, democratically accountable, and environmentally sustainable solutions to the negative effects of economic globalization.

Center for Reproductive Rights

120 Wall Street

New York, NY 10005

Tel: 917-637-3600

Website: www.reproductiverights.org

A nonprofit advocacy organization dedicated to promoting and defending women’s reproductive rights worldwide.

Children’s Defense Fund

25 E Street NW

Washington, DC 20001

Tel: 202-628-8787

Website: www.childrensdefense.org

(p.511) Provides a strong, effective voice for all the children of America who cannot vote, lobby, or speak for themselves. Pays particular attention to the needs of poor and minority children and those with disabilities. Educates the nation about the needs of children and encourages preventive investment before they become ill or get into trouble, drop out of school, or suffer family breakdown.

Council for a Livable World

322 4th Street NE

Washington, DC 20002

Tel: 202-543-4100

Website: www.clw.org

An arms control organization that focuses on halting the spread of weapons of mass destruction, opposing a national missile defense system, cutting Pentagon waste, and reducing excessive arms exports. Also a political lobby that endorses political candidates.

Disabled Peoples International

748 Broadway

Winnipeg, Manitoba

Canada RG3 OX3

Tel: 204-287-8010

Website: www.dpi.org

A network of national organizations and assemblies of disabled people, established to promote human rights of disabled people through full participation, equalization of opportunity, and development. Operated by and on behalf of disabled people.

Disability Group, World Bank

Office of the Advisor on Disability

The World Bank

1818 H Street NW

Washington, DC 20433

Tel: 202-473-2922

Website: www.worldbank.org/disability

A key player in global disability issues as they relate to economic development and human rights. Issues papers and reports that form the base for an emerging field of disability in health and development.

Doctors for Global Health (DGH)

P.O. Box 1761

Decatur, GA 30031

Tel: 404-377-3566

Website: www.dghonline.org

A private, not-for-profit organization that promotes health, education, art, and other human rights throughout the world. Its mission is to improve health and foster other human rights with those most in need by accompanying communities, while educating and inspiring others to action.

Families USA

1334 G Street, NW

Washington, DC 20005

Tel: 202-628-3030

Website: www.familiesusa.org

A national nonprofit, nonpartisan organization dedicated to the achievement of high-quality, affordable health care for all Americans.

Federation of American Scientists

1717 K Street, NW

Washington, DC 20036

Tel: 202-546-3300

Website: www.fas.org

The oldest organization dedicated to ending the worldwide arms race and avoiding the use of nuclear weapons for any purpose.

Francis X. Bagnaud Center for Health and Human Rights

Harvard School of Public Health

651 Huntington Avenue, 7th Floor

Boston, MA 02115

Tel: 617-432-0656

Website: www.hsph.harvard.edu/fxbcenter

The first academic center to focus exclusively on health and human rights, it (p.512) undertakes research, teaching, service, and policy development. Its three programs and directors are:

Program on International Health and Human Rights

Sofia Gruskin, Director

Program on Humanitarian Crises and Human Rights

Jennifer Leaning, Director

Program on Human Rights in Development

Steven Marks, Director

Gay Men’s Health Crisis

119 West 24th Street

New York, NY 10011

Tel: 212-367-1000

Website: www.gmhc.org

Volunteer-supported and community-based organization committed to national leader-ship in the fight against AIDS. Works to reduces the spread of HIV infection, helps people with HIV maintain and improve their health and independence, and keeps the prevention, treatment, and cure of HIV an urgent national and local priority. Fights homophobia and affirms the individual dignity of all gay men and lesbians.

Global Lawyers and Physicians

Department of Health Law, Bioethics and Human Rights

Boston University of Public Health

715 Albany Street

Boston, MA 02118

Tel: 617-638-4626

Website: www.glphr.org

Works at the local, national, and international levels through collaboration and partnerships with individuals, nongovernment organizations, intergovernment organizations, and governments on issues such as the global implementation of the health-related provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, with a focus on health and human rights, patient rights, and human experimentation.

Health Development Agency

Holborn Gate

330 High Holburn

London WC1V 7BA

United Kingdom

Tel: 44 20-7430-0850

Website: www.hda-online.org.uk

Reviews evidence on what works to reduce inequalities in health and gathers evidence and advises policymakers, practitioners, and others to transfer scientific knowledge.

Hesperian Foundation

1919 Addison Street, Suite 304

Berkeley, CA 94704

Tel: 510-845-1447

Website: www.hesperian.org

Promotes health and self-determination in poor communities worldwide by making health information accessible. Hesperian publications are written simply and include many illustrations so people with little formal education can understand, apply, and share medical information.

Institute of Medicine

500 Fifth Street, NW

Washington, DC 20001

Tel: 202-334-2352

Website: www.iom.edu

Chartered in 1970 as a component of the National Academy of Sciences, its mission is to serve as adviser to the nation to improve health. It provides unbiased, evidence-based, and authoritative information and advice concerning health and science policy to policy makers, professionals, leaders in every sector of society, and the public at large.

(p.513) International Centre for Health and Society

Department of Epidemiology and Public

Health, UCL

1-19 Torrington Place

London WC1E 6BT

United Kingdom

Tel: 44 20-7679-1708

Website: www.ucl.ac.uk/ichs

Performs research on the social, economic, and psychological determinants of health, with a focus on social inequalities, and proposes policies based on research findings.

International Health Cities Foundation

555 12th Street, 10th Floor

Oadland, CA 94607

Tel: 510-642-1715

Website: www.healthycities.org

The term Healthy Cities means that health is the result of much more than medical care. People are healthy when they live in nurturing environments and are involved in the life of their communities. The movement began with the World Health Organization. The IHCF facilitates linkages among people, issues, and resources in order to support the development of Healthy Cities initiatives.

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

727 Massachusetts Avenue

Cambridge, MA 02139-3323

Tel: 617-868-5050

Website: www.ippnw.org

A nonpartisan, global federation of national medical organizations in 58 countries dedicated to research, education, and advocacy relevant to the prevention of nuclear war. Seeks to prevent all wars, promote nonviolent conflict resolution, and minimize the effects of war and preparations for war on health, development, and the environment.

International Society for Equity in Health

Department of Family and Community Health

University of Toronto

263 McCaul Street, Fifth Floor

Toronto, Ontario

Canada M5T 1W7

Tel: 416-978-3763

Website: www.iseqh.org/en/index.html

Promotes equity in health and health services internationally through education, research, publication, communication, and charitable support.

Lambda Legal

120 Wall Street, Suite 1500

New York, NY 10005-3904

Tel: 212-809-8585

Website: www.lambdalegal.org

A national organization committed to achieving full recognition of the civil rights of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, transgender people, and people with HIV/AIDS through impact litigation, education, and public policy work.

Legal Aid Society

199 Water Street

New York, NY 10038

Tel: 212-577-3300

Website: www.legal-aid.org

A law firm for poor people located in New York. The first of many—founded more than 125 years ago. Provides a wide variety of legal services for people who cannot afford a lawyer.

Medact (IPPNW/United Kingdom)

The Grayston Center

28 Charles Square

London N1 6HT

United Kingdom

Tel: 44 20 7324 4733

Website: www.medact.org

(p.514) An organization of health professionals challenging social and environmental barriers to health worldwide. It highlights the health effects of violent conflict, poverty, and environmental degradation, and, with others, acts to eradicate them.

Mental Disability Rights International

1156 15th Street NW, Suite 1001

Washington, DC 20005

Tel: 202-296-0800

Website: www.mdri.org

Promotes the human rights and full participation in society of people with mental disabilities worldwide. Documents human rights abuses, works for programmatic and policy reform, and trains social justice activists in many countries.

National Center for Lesbian Rights

870 Market Street, Suite 370

San Francisco, CA 94102

Tel: 415-392-6257

Website: www.nclrights.org

A national legal resource center that advances the rights and safety of lesbians and their families through litigation, public policy advocacy, free legal advice and counseling, and public education. Provides representation and resources to gay men and to bisexual and transgender individuals on key issues that also advance lesbian rights.

National Centre for Social Research

35 Northampton Square

London EC1V 0AX

United Kingdom

Tel: 44 20-7250-1866

Website: www.natcen.ac.uk

Designs, performs, and analyses research studies in social and public policy, including extensive research among the general public.

National Coalition for the Homeless

2201 P Street, NW

Washington, DC 20037

Tel: 202-462-4822

Website: www.nationalhomeless.org

With a mission to end homelessness, focuses work in areas of housing justice, economic justice, health care justice, and civil and voting rights. Approaches are grassroots organizing, public education, policy advocacy, technical assistance, and partnerships.

National Coalition for LGBT Health

1407 S Street NW

Washington, DC 20009

Tel: 202-797-3516

Website: www.lgbthealth.net

Improves the health and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals through advocacy at the national level that is focused on research, policy, education, and training.

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force

1325 Massachusetts Avenue NW,

Suite 600

Washington, DC 20005

Tel: 202-393-5177

Website: www.ngltf.org

Works for the civil rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people.

National Senior Citizens Law Center

1101 14th Street NW, Suite 400

Washington, DC 20005

Tel: 202-289-6976

Website: www.nsclc.org

Advocates nationwide to promote the independence and well-being of low-income elderly individuals and persons with disabilities, through litigation, legislative and agency representation, and assistance to attorneys and paralegals in field programs.

National Transgender Advocacy Coalition

PO Box 76027

Washington, DC 20013

Website: www.ntac.org

(p.515) Works to reform societal attitudes and the law to achieve equal rights for transgender and other gender-diverse individuals.

Oxfam America

26 West Street

Boston, MA 02111

Tel: 617-482-1211

Website: www.oxfam.org

Oxfam Great Britain

274 Banbury Road

Oxford, OX2 7DZ

United Kingdom

Tel: 44 18-6531 1311

Website: www.oxfam.org.uk

Both promote rights to basic social services, sustainable livelihoods, life, and security as well as the right to equity and the right to be heard as integral components of poverty reduction.

Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)

(WHO Regional Office for the Americas)

525 Twenty-Third Street NW

Washington, DC 20037

Tel: 202-974-3000

Website: www.paho.org

An international public health agency with 100 years of experience in working to improve health and living standards of the countries of the Americas. Serves as the specialized organization for health of the Inter-American System. Also serves as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization and enjoys international recognition as part of the United Nations System. PAHO operates the Equity, Health and Human Development Listserv (www.paho.org/english/dd/ikm/eq-list.htm), which shares public health information of international significance that enables policymakers, researchers, and practitioners to improve health, especially among disadvantaged populations.

Partners in Health

641 Huntington Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

Tel: 617-432-5256

Website: www.pih.org

An international charity organization that provides direct health care services and performs research and advocacy activities for sick and poor people.

Physicians for Global Survival (IPPNW/Canada)

208-145 Spruce Street

Ottawa, Ontario K1R 6P1


Tel: 613-233-1982

Website: www.pgs.ca

Educates and advocates for the abolition of nuclear weapons, the prevention of war, and the promotion of nonviolent means of conflict resolution and social justice.

Physicians for Human Rights

Two Arrow Street, Suite 301

Cambridge, MA 02138

Tel: 617-301-4200

Website: www.phrusa.org

Promotes health by protecting human rights. Using medical and scientific methods, investigates and exposes violations of human rights worldwide, and works to stop them. Supports institutions that hold perpetrators of human rights abuses, including health professionals, accountable for their actions. Educates health professionals and medical, public health, and nursing students and organizes them to become active in supporting a movement for human rights and creating a culture of human rights in the medical and scientific professions.

Physicians for a National Health Program

29 East Madison, Suite 602

Chicago, IL 60602

Tel: 312-782-6006

Website: www.pnhp.org

(p.516) Advocates for a universal, comprehensive single-payer national health program. It has more than 10,000 members and chapters across the United States.

Physicians for Social Responsibility (IPPNW/USA)

1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, #1012

Washington, DC 20009

Tel: 202-667-4260

Website: www.psr.org

A leading public policy organization representing the medical and public health professions and concerned citizens, working together for nuclear disarmament, a healthful environment, and an end to the epidemic of gun violence.

Rehabilitation International

25 East 21st Street

New York, NY 10010

Tel: 212-420-1500

Website: www.rehab-international.org

The oldest and one of the largest international organizations covering all disabled populations. Organizes major regional and international conferences. Clearinghouse for information on disability advocacy and service groups worldwide.

Spirit of 1848 Listserv

Postings on social justice and public health

Web page: www.progressivehn.org

To subscribe:spiritof1848-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Hosted by the Spirit of 1848: A Network linking Politics, Passion, and Public Health, a caucus of the American Public Health Association. A volunteer network whose mission is to “develop our thoughts, strategize, and enhance efforts to eliminate social inequalities in health.”

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

3 United Nations Plaza

New York, NY 10017

Tel: 212-326-7025

Website: www.unicef.org

Supports health and survival of children and women, with priority for girls and the poorest, through its offices and programs in many countries.

Union of Concerned Scientists

2 Brattle Square

Cambridge, MA 02238-9105

Tel: 617-547-5552

Website: www.ucsusa.org

An independent nonprofit alliance of concerned citizens and scientists that augments rigorous scientific analysis with innovative thinking and committed citizen advocacy to build a cleaner, healthier environment and a safer world. Experts work together with citizens across the country to disseminate findings and alter policies in local communities and at the national level.

United Nations

New York, NY 10017

Tel: 212-963-1234

Website: www.un.org

According to the Charter, the United Nations has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. The United Nations is not a world government and it does not make laws. It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

7, place de Fontenoy

75352 Paris 07 SP


Tel: 33 1-45 68-10 00

Website: www.unesco.org

(p.517) Promotes international cooperation among its Member States and Associate Members in the fields of education, science, culture, and communication. Functions as a laboratory of ideas and a standard-setter to forge universal agreements on emerging ethical issues. Serves as a clearinghouse—for the dissemination and sharing of information and knowledge—while helping Member States to build their human and institutional capacities in diverse fields.

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

1775 K Street NW, #300

Washington, DC 20006

Website: www.ohchr.org

Its vision is of a world in which the human rights of all are fully respected and enjoyed in conditions of global peace. The High Commissioner works to keep that vision to the forefront through constant encouragement of the international community and its Member States to uphold universally agreed-on human rights standards.


80 Hanson Place, 5th Floor

Brooklyn, NY 11217

Tel: 718-783-2000

Website: www.witness.org

A human rights program that strengthens local activists by providing them with video cameras and training in production and advocacy. Partner groups address injustice worldwide on many issues.

World Health Organization (WHO)

Avenue Appia 20

1211 Geneva 27


Tel: 41 22-791 21 11

Website: www.who.int

The United Nations’ specialized agency for health. WHO’s objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health—defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. In addition to PAHO (above), WHO has several other regional offices.

WHO Secretariat to the Commission on Social Inequalities in Health

Evidence for Information Cluster

World Health Organization

20 Avenue Appia

CH 1211 Geneva 27


Tel: 41 22-791 2111

Website: www.who.int

From 2005 to 2008, its focus will be on the political dimensions of addressing inequalities. (p.518)