This chapter adopts an inclusive approach so as not to reduce Sicilian Greek economics to the items mentioned in the few surviving literary sources. The archaeological, numismatic, and epigraphic evidence is heavily drawn upon and combined with comparative perspectives derived from economic theory to produce a broadly based framework that is centered on the “holy trinity” of economics—production, distribution, and consumption. These economies were largely established from scratch, as the land usually required clearing of vegetation. Grain exports made considerable sense as an early economic activity, given the ideal climatic and environmental conditions, low labor requirements, and demand in Greece, but Greek Sicily was never a colonial monoculture. Their economic systems were more complex. Abundant evidence exists for other agricultural crops (particularly olive and vine), foraging, fishing, manufacturing, and mining in the Archaic period, shattering old stereotypes of an unchanging Sicilian Greek economy over four hundred years.
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