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Mighty Like a RiverThe Black Church and Social Reform$

Andrew Billingsley

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780195161793

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195161793.001.0001

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(p.207) Appendix C: Tables

(p.207) Appendix C: Tables

Source:
Mighty Like a River
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

List of Tables

  1. Table 1 Pastors of First African Baptist Church in Savannah, 1775–1998

  2. Table 2 Membership and Number Baptized in Three Savannah Baptist Churches, 1818–1857

  3. Table 3 Twenty Black Religious Leaders Who Met With Secretary of War Stanton and General Sherman, January 13, 1865

  4. Table 4 Georgia's Black State Representatives and the Counties They Represented, 1868

  5. Table 5 Ebony Magazine's 15 Greatest Black Preachers, 1993

  6. Table 6 Primary Areas in Northeastern Sample, 1992

  7. Table 7 Primary Areas in North-Central Sample, 1992

  8. Table 8 Denominations Included in the Black Church Sample

  9. Table 9 Types of Family-Support Programs Offered by Northern Churches

  10. Table 10 Types of Support Programs for Elderly Offered by Northern Churches

  11. Table 11 Rank Order Listing of Youth-Support Programs Offered by Northern Churches

  12. Table 12 Student Members of the Jenkins Ten Plus Five, 1993

  13. Table 13 Sources of Death for Blacks and Other Minorities, 1985

  14. Table 14 Characteristics of Black Churches in Denver and Atlanta Samples, 1993

  15. Table 15 Number and Percent of Churches in Denver by Type of Outreach Program, 1993

  16. (p.208) Table 16 Number and Percent of Churches in Atlanta by Type of Outreach Program

  17. Table 17 Churches and Their Pastors in the Vine City Housing Ministry, 1993

  18. Table 18 Ebony's Runner-Up List of Great Black Women Preachers, 1993

  19. Table 19 Ebony's Runner-Up List of Greatest Black Women Preachers, 1997

  20. Table 20 Megachurches and Their Pastors, 1995

  21. Table 21 Twelve Black Churches Serving as Gateways to the City, and Their Pastors, 1995

Table 1 Pastors of First African Baptist Church in Savannah, 1775–1998

Rev. George Leile

1775–1782

Rev. Andrew Bryan

1783–1812

Rev. Andrew Marshall

1812–1856

Rev. William J. Campbell

1857–1877

Rev. Geroge Gibbons

1878–1884

Rev. Emanuel King Love, D.D.

1885–1900

Rev. James W. Carr, D.D.

1901–1907

Rev. Willis L. Jones, D.D.

1909–1913

Rev. T. J. Goodall, D.D.

1915–1922

Rev. E. G. Thomas, A.B., B.D.

1924–1928

Rev. Mack T. Williams

1929–1931

Rev. J. Alfred Wilson

1931–1939

Rev. Ralph Mark Gilbert, D.D.

1939–1956

Rev. Curtis J. Jackson

1957–1961

Rev. William Franklin Stokes II, D.D.

1963–1973

Rev. Lawrence McKinney

1973–1980

Rev. Thurmond Neill Tillman, M. Div.

1982–

Source: Harry James (ed), The First African Baptist Church celebrating over two hundred years, Savannah First African Baptist Church, 1988.

(p.209)

Table 2 Membership and Number Baptized in Three Savannah Baptist Churches, 1818–1857

First African

Second African

Third African

Year

Members

Baptized

Members

Baptized

Members

Baptized

1818

1,712

44

538

11

1822

854

82

589

41

1826

2,141

271

1,070

143

1830

2,417

76

1,047

18

1832

1,310

122

1833

1,272

13

155

5

1834

1,264

196

19

1835

1,242

11

224

10

1836

1,233

11

183

10

1837

1,810

110

1,268

31

189

6

1839

1,963

44

1,277

12

250

7

1841

2,296

293

1,454

135

271

46

1843

2,052

69

1,510

39

252

7

1845

1,200

69

578

32

282

2

1847

1,221

55

585

25

298

6

1849

1,233

48

699

78

301

6

1851

1,369

102

841

91

205

15

1853

1,504

68

890

55

205

7

1855

1,051

82

920

54

218

12

1857

1,137

58

1,012

26

241

34

Source: Georgia Baptist Archives: Sunbury Association Files, Mercer University, Macon, Georgia.

(p.210)

Table 3 Twenty Black Religious Leaders Who Met With Secretary of War Stanton and Gener Sherman, January 13, 1865

Name, Age

Year Freed

Means Freed

Church

Years in Ministry

Number Members

Property Value

Rev. William J. Campbell, 51

1849

will

First African Baptist

10

1,800

$18,000

Rev. John Cox, 58

1849

purchase

Second African Baptist

15

1,222

$10,000

Rev. Ulysses L. Houston, 41

1864

Sherman

Third African Baptist

8

400

$5,000

Rev. William Bentley, 72

1817

will

Andrew's Chapel Method. Epic.

20

36

$20,000

Rev. Charles Bradwell, 40

1851

will

Andrews Meth. Episc.

10

Rev. James Porter, 39

born free1

St. Stephen

9

200

$10,000

Rev. James Mills, 56

born free

First African Baptist

8

Rev. Adolphus Delmotte, 28

born free

Missionary Baptist Milledgeville

2

350

Rev. Garrison Frazier, 67

1856

purchase2 for $1,000

Baptist

35

Rev. Charles Bradwell, 40

1851

will

Andrew's Chapel

10

Rev. William Gaines, 41

1864

Sherman

Andrew's Chapel

16

Rev. Jame Hill, 52

1864

Sherman

16

Rev. Glasgon Taylor, 72

1864

Sherman

Andrew's Chapel

35

Rev. Abraham Burke, 48

1844

purchse for $800

1

Rev. Arthur Wardell, 44

1864

Sherman

Baptist

6

Rev. Alexander Harris, 47

born free

Third African Baptist

1

Rev. Jacob Godfrey,3 57

1864

Sherman

Andrew's Chapel

28

Mr. John Johnson, 51

1864

Sherman

Andrew's Chapel

164

Mr. Robert N. Taylor, 51

1864

Sherman

Andrew's Chapel

95

Rev. James Lynch, 26

born free

Methodist Episcopal

76

Source: Berlin, 1992

(1) His mother having purchased her freedom

(2) Himself and wife

(3) His enslaver was a Methodist preacher then serving in the Rebel Army.

(4) Layman, treasurer of the church for 16 years.

(5) Layman, class leader in the church for nine years.

(6) Presiding elder in Methodist Episcopal Church from Baltimore, two years in South.

(p.211)

Table 4 Georgia's Black State Representatives and the Counties They Represented, 1868

Name

County

Thomas M. Allen

Jasper

Eli Barnes

Hancock

Thomas Beard

Richmond

Edwin Belcher

Wilkes

Tunis G. Campbell Jr.

McIntosh

Malcolm Clairborne

Burke

George Clower

Monroe

Abram Colby

Greene

John T. Costin

Talbot

Madison Davis

Clarke

Monday Floyd

Warren

F. H. Fyall

Macon

Samuel Gardner

Warren

William A. Golden

Liberty

William H. Harrison

Hancock

Ulysses L. Houston

Bryan

Phillip Joiner

Dougherty

George Linder

Lowndes

Robert Lumpkin

Columbia

Romulus Moore

Columbia

Peter O’Neal

Baldwin

James Porter

Chatham

Alfred A. Richardson

Clarke

James M. Simms

Chatham

Abram Smith

Muscogee

Alexander Stone

Jefferson

Henry McNeal Turner

Bibb

John Warren

Burke

Samuel Williams

Harris

Source: Drago, 1992

(p.212)

Table 5 Ebony Magazine's 15 Greatest Black Preachers, 1993 (in order of rank)

Name

Church

City

1.

Rev. Gardner C. Taylor

Concord Baptist

Brooklyn

2.

Rev. Jeremiah A. Wright

Trinity United Church of Christ

Chicago

3.

Rev. Samuel D. Proctor

Abyssinian Baptist

Harlem

4.

Rev. Charles G. Adams

Hartford Memorial Baptist

Detroit

5.

Rev. Otis Moss Jr.

Olivet Institutional Baptist

Cleveland, OH

6.

Rev. H. Beecher Hicks

Metropolitan Baptist

Washington, D.C.

7.

Rev. Jesse L. Jackson

National Ministry (Bapt.)

Washington, D.C.

8.

Rev. James A. Forbes Jr.

Riverside Church

New York

9.

Rev. Caeser A. W. Clark

Good Street Baptist

Dallas

10.

Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker

Ganaan Missionary Baptist

Harlem

11.

Rev. Joseph E. Lowery

United Methodist Churches

Atlanta

12.

Bishop John Hurst Adams

African Methodist Episcopal

Columbia, SC

13.

Rev. Manuel L. Scott Sr.

St. John Baptist

Dallas

14.

Rev. Frederick G. Sampson

Tabernacle Baptist

Detroit

15.

Rev. J. Alfred Smith Sr.

Allen Temple Baptist

Oakland, CA

Source: Ebony, November 1993, p. 156.

Table 6 Primary Areas in Northeastern Sample, 1992

State

Primary Area

# of Churches

New York

New York-North East, New Jersey SMSA*

151

Syracuse SMSA

16

Buffalo SMSA

9

New Jersey

Trenton

9

Salem

1

Pennsylvania

Philadelphia

81

Pittsburgh

13

Massachusetts

Boston

9

Connecticut

Bridgeport

18

New Haven

8

Total

315

(*) SMSA = Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area

(p.213)

Table 7 Primary Areas in North-Central Sample, 1992

State

Primary Area

# of Churches

Michigan

Detroit SMSA

54

Flint

21

Illinois

Chicago SMSA

81

Champaign/Urbana SMSA

8

Missouri

St. Louis SMSA

28

Kansas City (KS & MO)

12

Kansas

Atchinson

1

Ohio

Cleveland SMSA

28

Cincinnati SMSA

12

Dayton SMSA

20

Toledo SMSA

16

Hamilton SMSA

7

Indiana

Indianapolis

31

Grant-Blackford

1

Total

320

(*) SMSA = Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area

(p.214)

Table 8 Denominations Included in the Black Church Sample

Major Black Denominations Sampled

Major National Black Denominations

National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc.

National Baptist Convention of America

National Primitive Baptist Convention, U.S.A.

Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc.

National Missionary Baptist Convention of America

Church of God in Christ, Inc. (COGIC)

African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.)

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (A.M.E.Z.)

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (C.M.E.)

Other Black Faith Traditions

Apostolic

Holiness

Pentecostal

Black Churches Within Major White Faith Traditions Sampled

Church of God

Anderson, Indiana

Cleveland, Tennessee

Episcopal

Lutheran

Presbyterian

Presbyterian Church in America

Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)

United Methodist

Seventh-Day Adventist

United Church of Christ (Congregational)

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)

(p.215) (p.216)

Table 9 Types of Family-Support Programs Offered by Northern Churches

Northeast

Central

North

Expressive

Counseling & Intervention

18%

19%

18%

Family Counseling

Aid to Incarcerated

Prisoners & Their Families

Women's Services

Child Welfare

Parenting Workshops

Sexuality Workshops

Youth at Risk

Other

Social Recreation

10%

9%

10%

General Recreation

Scouting

Fellowship/Social

Other

Instrumental

Basic Needs Assistance

41%

39%

40%

Food Distribution

Clothing Distribution

Emergency Financial Aid

Referral Center

Shelter for the Homeless

Non-Shelter Services

Home Care

Meals-on-Wheels

Other

Income Maintenance

5%

6%

6%

Low-Incorne Housing

Financial Services

Youth Employment

Other

Instrumental-Expressive

Education & Awareness

18%

20%

19%

Academic Tutoring

Child Care

Bible Classes

African American Culture

Head Start

Mentoring

Denomination-Sponsored Colleges

Basic Education

Life Skills

Other

Health

8%

7%

7%

Substance Abuse

General Health

AIDS

Other

Total Number of Programs

836

849

1,685

Table 10 Types of Support Programs for Elderly Offered by Northern Churches

Program

Number of Programs

Percent

Home Care

60

39

Fellowship/Social

27

18

Meals-on-Wheels

16

10

Housing

14

09

Multiservices

07

05

Financial

03

02

Medical

03

02

Other

23

15

Totals

153

100%

(p.217)

Table 11 Rank Order Listing of Youth-Support Programs Offered by Northern Churches (N = 176 Churches)

Youth-Support Programs

Number of Programs

Percentage *

Teen Support

69

39%

Sports Activities

55

31

College Student Financial Support

29

16

Parenting/Sexuality

27

15

Youth Substance-Abuse Programs

27

15

Youth-at-Risk

25

14

Role Modeling

14

8

Employment/Job Readiness

13

7

Youth AIDS Support Programs

6

2

Youth Health-Related Services

4

2

Other Youth-Support Programs

24

14

(*) Percentages do not add up to 100 because respondents were asked to check all that apply. Churches may be conducting a program in more than one category.

Table 12 Student Members of Jenkins Ten Plus Five, 1993

Youth

Juveniles

1. Kevin Mack

1. Anthony McClendon

2. Bernard Wilson

2. Ernest Hunt

3. Brian Green

3. Tony Gary

4. Avery Williams

4. Jamaal Newton

5. Nijumo Smith

5. Ramone Bell

6. Curtis Lovett

7. John Jones

8. Samuel Eaddy

9. Roderick Gardner

10. Quade Stanley

(p.218)

Table 13 Sources of Death for Blacks and Other Minorities, 1985

Disease Category

Risk Factors

Cancer

Alcohol Tobacco, Diet, and Environment

Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke

Tobacco, Diet, Obesity, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Hypertension

Chemical Dependency

Direct Behavioral Outcome of Substance Abuse

Diabetes

Obesity

Infant Mortality

Alcohol, Tobacco, Nutrition, Teen Pregnancy, and Late or No Prenatal Care

Homicide

Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Poor Conflict-Resolution Skills

Unintentional Injuries

Alcohol

AIDS*

Sharing IV Drug Equipment, Unsafe Sexual Practices

(*) Not included in the Heckler Task Force Report, 1985.

(p.219)

Table 14 Characteristics of Black Churches in Denver and Atlanta Samples, 1993

Denver

Atlanta

No.

Percent

No.

Percent

Denominations

Baptist

32

40

66

44

Methodist

8

10

32

21

Church of God in Christ (COGIC)

8

10

4

3

Pentacostal

8

10

3

2

Other

24

30

45

30

Totals

80

100

150

100

Size of Membership

Fewer Than 100

27

33

14

9.3

100 to 499

39

49

78

52.0

500 to 999

8

10

27

18.0

1,000 or more

6

8

23

15.4

Unknown

8

5.3

Totals

80

100

150

100.0

Proportion of Female Members

Half or less

8

10

10

6.6

51% to 74%

46

57

90

60.0

More than 75%

26

33

28

18.7

Unknown

22

14.7

Totals

80

100

150

100.0

Socioeconomic Status

Mostly Low Income

28

34

17

11

Mostly Middle Imcome

14

18

69

47

Mixture Low/Middle

25

31

50

33

Mostly High Income

2

3

3

2

All High Income

11

14

11

7

Totals

80

100

150

100

Ownership Status

Own Church Building

46

58

77

51

Mortgage Paid Off

Buying Church Building

20

25

65

44

Mortgage Outstanding

Renting Church Building

14

17

8

5

Totals

80

100

150

100

Sponsorship of Outreach Programs

Yes

60

75

131

87

No

20

25

19

13

Totals

80

100

150

100

(p.220)

Table 15 Number and Percent of Churches in Dever by Type of Outreach Program, 1993

% of Churches With Outreach

Number With Regular Programs

Children and Youth

Youth Activities

45%

27

Education

28%

17

Scholarship

DK

DK

Drug/Alcohol Education

13%

8

Head Start

10%

6

Day Care or Before/After School Care

8%

5

Total Children and Youth

51%

63

Adults and Families

Food Bank

33%

20

Clothing Bank

18%

11

Prison Services

37%

22

Physical/Mental Health

3%

2

Total Adults and Families

45%

55

Senior Citizens

Senior Services

28%

17

Total Senior Citizens

28%

17

Total Number of Churches with Outreach Programs

135

DK = Unknown

Source: Jessica Pearson, Ph.D., “Community Outreach in Denver's Black Churches: A Report on the Metro Denver Black Church Initiative.” Denver, Center for Policy Research, 1993, unpublished.

(p.221)

Table 16 Number and Percent of Churches in Atlanta by Type of Outreach Program (N = 150 churches)

% of Churches With Outreach

Number With Regular Programs

1. African American Heritage

70.0

105

2. Character Building/Leadership

74.0

111

3. Christian Education

94.0

141

4. Clothing Banks/Distribution

57.0

86

5. Day Care

11.0

17

6. Drug/Alcohol Education

40.0

60

7. Basic Education/Academic Support

34.0

51

8. Family Enhancement

67.0

101

9. Food Banks/Distribution

7.50

113

10. Head Start

5.0

7

11. Physical/Mental Health Programs

19.0

28

12. Personal Counseling

91.0

137

13. Prison Ministry/Ex-Offender Programs

43.0

64

14. Before/After School Care

20.0

30

15. Programs for Senior Citizens

57.0

85

16. Youth Activities

85.0

128

17. Student Scholarships

64.0

96

18. Credit Unions

4.7

7

19. Housing Developments

23.0

34

20. Health-Care Facilities/Nursing Homes

9.3

14

21. Political Involvement

63.0

95

(p.222)

Table 17 Churches and Their Pastors in the Vine City Housing Ministry, 1993

Church

Pastor

Beulah Baptist Church

Reverend W. L. Cotrell

Friendship Baptist Church

Reverend William Guy

Grace Covenant

Reverend Charles Strokes

Greater Bethany Baptist

Reverend Curtis Lester

Lindsay Street Baptist

Reverend Anthony A. W. Motely

Mount Vernon Baptist

Reverend Baker (now deceased)

Mount Gilead

Reverend Hall

St. Luke

Reverend Helen Johnson

Central United Methodist

Reverend Rodney Smothers

Cosmopolitan A.M.E.

Reverend Earl Ifill

West Mitchell C.M.E.

Reverend Alex King

Source: VCHM unpublished documents

Table 18 Ebony's Runner-Up List of Great Black Women Preachers, 1993 (in Alphabetical Order)

Name

Church

City

Rev. Katie Geneva Cannon

Temple University

Philadelphia

Rev. Delores H. Carpenter

Michigan Park Christian Church

Washington, D.C.

Rev. Johnnie Coleman

Christ Universal Temple

Chicago

Rev. Susan J. Cook

Mariner's Temple Baptist

New York

Rev. Carolyn A. Knight

Philadelphia Baptist

Harlem

Rev. Vashti M. McKenzie

Payne Memorial A.M.E.

Baltimore

Rev. Prathia Hall Wynn

Mt. Sharon Baptist

Philadelphia

(p.223)

Table 19 Ebony's 15 Greatest Black Women Preachers, 1997 (Rank Order)

Name

Affiliation

City

1. Rev. Prathia Hall Wynn

Mt. Sharon Bapt.

Philadelphia

2. Rev. Vashti M. McKenzie

Payne Mem. A.M.E.

Baltimore

3. Rev. Carolyn A. Knight

ITC

Atlanta

4. Rev. Renita J. Weems

Vanderbilt U.

Nashville

5. Rev. Susan J. Cook

Bronx Christian Fellowship

Bronx

6. Rev. Ann Farrar Lightner

Mt. Calvary A.M.E.

Towson, MD

7. Rev. Delores H. Carpenter

Mich. Park Christian

Washington

8. Rev. Claudette A. Copeland

New Creation Fellowship

San Antonio

9. Rev. Jacqueline E. McCullough

Elim Int’l Fellowship Ch.

Brooklyn

10. Rev. Ernestine C. Reems

Center of Hope Comm. Ch.

Oakland, CA

11. Rev. Yvonne Delk

Comm. Renewal Soc. UCC

Chicago

12. Rev. Johnnie Coleman

Christ Universal Temple

Chicago

13. Rev. Ella Pearson Mitchell

ITC

Atlanta

14. Rev. Barbara L. King

Hillside Chapel Truth Center

Atlanta

15. Rev. Jessica K. Ingram

Oak Grove A.M.E.

Detroit

16. Rev. Cynthia Hale

Ray of Hope Christian Ch.

Atlanta

17. Rev. Susan Newman

Georgians for Children

Atlanta

18. Rev. Margaret E, Flake

Allen A.M.E.

Jamaica, NY

19. Bishop Barbara Amos

Faith Deliverance Christ Center

Norfolk

20. Rev. Jacqueline Grant-Collier

ITC

Atlanta

21. Rev. Willie T. Barrow

Rainbow/PUSH

Chicago

22. Rev. Bernice King

Greater Rising Star Bapt.

Atlanta

23. Rev. Brenda J. Little

Bethany Bapt.

Evanston

24. Rev. Cecelia W. Bryant

10th District A.M.E.

Dallas

25. Bishop Leontine Kelly

UMC

San Francisco

26. Rev. Joanne Browning

Ebenexer A.M.E.

Ft. Washington, MD

27. Rev. Clarice J. Martin

Colgate Rochester Div.

Rochester

28. Rev. Leah G. Fitchue

Eastern Bapt. Sem.

Wynewood, PA

29. Rev. Susan K. Smith

Advent UCC

Columbus

30. Rev. Martha Simmons

Pilgrim Community UCC

Grand Rapids

31. Rev. Linda Hollies

UMC

Grand Rapids

32. Rev. Iona Locke

Abyssinia Interdenom. Ch.

Southfield, MI

33. Rev. Addie Wyatt

Vernon Pk. COGIC

Chicago

34. Bishop Barbara Harris

Episc. Diocese of MA

Boston

35. Rev. Cheryl Sanders

Third St. Church of God

Washington

Source: Ebony, November 1997

(p.224)

Table 20 Megachurches and Their Pastors, 1995

Church

Pastor

Size

Full Gospel A.M.E. Zion

Temple Hills, MD

John Cherry

18,000

West Angeles COGIC

Los Angeles

Bishop Charles E. Blake

15,000

Greater St. Stephens

Full Gospel Baptist Church

New Orleans

Bishop Paul Morton

14,000

Christian Life Center

Pastor A. R. Bernard

Windsor Village United

Methodist Church, Houston

Dr. Kirbyjon Caldwell

8,000

New Birth Missionary

Baptist Church, Atlanta (Full Gospel)

Bishop Eddie Long

14,000

Word of Faith Christian Center

Detroit

Pastor Keith Butler

10,000

New Birth Baptist Church

Miami (Full Gospel)

Bishop Victor T. Curry

8,000

Trinity United Church of Christ

Chicago

Pastor Jeremiah Wright Jr.

4,500

Mississippi Valley Christian Church

Memphis

Dr. Alvin O’Neil Jackson

5,000

Brentwood Baptist Church

Houston

Pastor Joe Radcliffe

7,500

Center of Hope

Christian Church, Oakland

Pastor Ernestine Reems

1,500

Source: Phyl. W. Petrie (1995), “Mega-Churches: Black Americans’ New Source of Power,” Gospel Today, Sept./Oct. 1995, p. 29.

(p.225)

Table 21 Twelve Black Churches Serving as Gateways to the City, and Their Pastors, 1995

Church

Pastor

Three Gates in the East

Concord Baptist Church, Brooklyn

Rev. Gary Simpson

Abyssinian Baptist Church, Harlem

Rev. Calvin Butts III

Allen A.M.E. Church, Queens

Rev. Floyd Flake

Three Gates in the West

First A.M.E. Church, Los Angeles

Rev. Cecil L. “Chip” Murray

Second Baptist Church, Los Angeles

Rev. William C. Epps

Allen Temple Baptist Church, Oakland

Rev. J. Alfred Smith Sr.

Three Gates in the North

Zion Baptist Church, Philadelphia

Rev. Leon Sullivan (Retired)

Hartford Memorial Baptist Church, Detroit

Rev. Charles Adams

Olivet Institutional Baptist Church, Cleveland

Rev. J. Otis Moss

Three Gates in the South

Third Shiloh Missionary Baptist Church, New Orleans

Rev. Herman C. Forte

Wheat Street Baptist Church, Atlanta

Rev. Michael Harris

Caanan Missionary Baptist Church, Louisville

Rev. Walter Malone Jr.