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The Power of Precedent$

Michael J. Gerhardt

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780195150506

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195150506.001.0001

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(p.205) Appendix

(p.205) Appendix

Source:
The Power of Precedent
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

(p.206)

Appendix Table 1

Case

Date

Case Overruled

Vote

Operative Language

Change in Composition of Court

Clause

Subject Matter

Court

The Propeller Genesee Chief v. Fitzhugh, 53 U.S. 443 (1851)

1851

The Thomas Jefferson, 23 U.S. 428 (1825); The Orleans v. Phoebus, 36 U.S. 175 (1837)

8 to 1

“If we follow [Thomas Jefferson], we follow an erroneous decision,” 53 U.S. at 456

All; All

Art III, § 2, cl. 1

martime jurisdiction

Taney

Knox v. Lee, 79 U.S. 457 (1871)

1871

Hepburn v. Griswold, 75 U.S. 603 (1869)

5 to 4

“overrule,” 79 U.S. at 553

2 New

Art. I, § 2, cl. 1

impairment of contracts

Chase

Kilbourn v. Thompson, 103 U.S. 168 (1880)

1880

Anderson v. Dunn, 19 U.S. 204 (1821)

7 to 0

“notwithstanding what is said in the case Anderson v. Dunn,” 103 U.S. at 199–200

All

Art. I, § 5

power of Congress to punish witness for contempt

Waite

In re Ayers, 123 U.S. 443 (1887)

1887

Osborn v. United States Bank, 22 U.S. 738 (1824)

8 to 0

“decision distinguished” at 123 U.S. at 488; Justice Harlan dissents, 123 U.S. 510

All

Amend. XI

soveign immunity

Waite

Philadelphia and S. Steamship Co. v. Pennsylvania, 122 U.S. 326 (1887)

1887

In re State Tax on Railway Gross Receipts, 82 U.S. 284 (1872)

8 to 0

“the first ground on which the decision in state Tax … was placed is not tenable,” 122 U.S. at 342

5 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, state taxation in violation of

Waite

LeLoup v. Port of Mobile, 127 U.S. 640 (1888)

1888

Osborne v. Mobile, 83 U.S. 479 (1872)

9 to 0

“an ordinance [of the type in Osborne] would now be regarded as repugnant to the power conferred upon Congress,” 127 U.S. at 647

6 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, state taxation in violation of

Waite

Leisy v. Hardin, 135 U.S. 100 (1890)

1890

Peirce v. New Hampshire, 46 U.S. 504 (1847)

6 to 3

“Peirce v. New Hampshire … must be regarded as having been distinctly overthrown by the numerous cases hereinafter referred to,” 135 U.S. at 118

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, Interpretation of Congressional silence concerning interstate commerce

Fuller

Garland v. Washington, 232 U.S. 642 (1914)

1914

Crain v. United States, 162 U.S. 625 (1896)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 232 U.S. at 647

All

Amend. XIV

due process and criminal procedure

White

United States v. Nice, 241 U.S. 591 (1916)

1916

Matter of Heff, 197 U.S. 488 (1905)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 241 U.S. at 601

6 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, commerce with Indian tribes

White

Pennsylvania R.R. v. Towers, 245 U.S. 6 (1917)

1917

Lake Shore Ry. v. Smith, 173 U.S. 684 (1899)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 245 U.S. at 17

8 New

Amend. XIV

due process and rate fixiing

White

Terral v. Burke Constr. Co., 257 U.S. 529 (1922)

1922

Doyle v. Continental Ins. Co., 94 U.S. 535 (1876); Security Mut. Life Ins. Co. v. Prewitt, 202 U.S. 246 (1906)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 257 U.S. at 533

6 New

Art. III

right to resort to federal courts

Taft

Alpha Cement Co. v. Massachusettes, 268 U.S. 203 (1925)

1925

Baltic Mining Co. v. Massachusettes, 231 U.S. 68 (1913)

8 to 1

“definitely disapproved,” 268 U.S. at 218

6 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

state taxation in violation of commerce clause

Taft

Farmer's Loan and Trust Co. V. Minnesota, 280 U.S 204 (1930)

1930

Blackstone v. Miller, 188 U.S. 189 (1903)

7 to 2

“definitely overruled,” 280 U.S. at 209

8 New

Amend. XIV

due process and inheritence tax

Taft

East Ohio Gas Co. v. Tax Comm'n, 283 U.S. 465 (1931)

1931

Pennsylvania Gas Co. v. Public Serv. Comm'n, 252 U.S. 23 (1920)

9 to 0

“disapproved to the extend it is in conflict with our decision here,” 283 U.S. at 472

5 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, state taxation under

Hughes

Chicago & E. Ill. R.R. v. Industrial Comm'n, 284 U.S. 296 (1932)

1932

Erie R.R. v. Collins, 253 U.S. 77 (1920); Erie R.R. v. Szary, 253 U.S. 86 (1920)

9 to 0

“definitely overruled,” 284 U.S. at 299

6 New; 6 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause and FELA

Hughes

Fox Film Corp. v. Doyal, 286 U.S. 123 (1932)

1932

Long v. Rockwood, 277 U.S. 142 (1928)

9 to 0

“definitely overruled,” 286 U.S. at 131

3 New

Art. VI, cl. 2

supremacy clause and immunity from state taxation of federal instrumentalities

Hughes

West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish, 300 U.S. 379 (1937)

1937

Adkins v. Children's Hosp., 261 U.S. 525 (1923)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 300 U.S. at 400

4 New

Amend. XIV

due process and minimum wage law

Hughes

Erie R.R. v. Tompkins, 304 U.S. 64 (1938)

1938

Swift v. Tyson, 41 U.S. 1 (1842)

8 to 0

“In disapproving [the Swift] doctrine,” 304 U.S. at 79 to 80.

All

Amend. X

rights reserved to the states

Hughes

Helvering v. Mountain Producers Corp., 303 U.S. 376 (1938)

1938

Burnet v. Colorado Oil & Gas Co., 285 U.S. 393 (1932); Gillispie v. Oklahoma, 257 U.S. 501 (1922)

5 to 2

“overruled,” 303 U.S. at 387

3 New; 7 New

Amend. X

Immunity of state instrumentality from federal tax

Hughes

Graves v. New York ex rel. O'Keefe, 306 U.S. 466 (1939)

1939

Dobbins v. Erie County, 41 U.S. 435 (1842); Collector v. Day, 78 U.S. 113 (1870); New York ex rel. Rogers v. Graves, 299 U.S. 401 (1937); Brush v. Commissioner, 300 U.S. 352 (1937)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 306 U.S. at 486

All; All; 3 New; 3 New

Amend. X

immunity of federal and state officers from income taxes

Hughes

O'Malley v. Woodrough, 307 U.S. 277 (1939)

1939

Evans v. Gore, 253 U.S. 245 (1920)

7 to 1

“to the extent that what the Court now says is inconsistent … [Miles] cannot survive,” 307 U.S. at 282–83

8 New; 7 New

Art. III, § 1

diminution of judges' salaries through taxation

Hughes

Helvering v. Halock, 309 U.S. 106 (1940)

1940

Becker v. St. Louis Union Trust Co., 296 U.S. 48 (1935), Helvering v. St. Louis Union Trust Co., 296 U.S. 39 (1935)

7 to 2

“We therefore reject as untenable the diversities taken in the St. Louis Trust Cases in applying the Klein doctrine…” 309 U.S. at 122

4 New; 4 New

value of remainder interest is part of decedent's gross estate under the Revenue Act of 1926

Madden v. Kentucky, 309 U.S. 83 (1940)

1940

Colgate v. Harvey, 296 U.S. 404 (1935)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 309 U.S. at 93

4 New

Amend. XIV

privileges and immunities clause and the right to engage in certain incidents of business

Hughes

Tigner v. Texas, 310 U.S. 141 (1940)

1940

Connolly v. Union Sewer Pipe Co., 184 U.S. 540 (1902)

8 to 1

“Connolly's case … is no longer controlling,” 310 U.S. at 147

All

Amend. XIV

equal protection of various industries under criminal laws to deter monopolies

Hughes

Alabama v. King & Boozer, 314 U.S. 1 (1941)

1941

Panhandle Oil Co. v. Knox, 277 U.S. 218 (1928); Graves v. Texas Co., 298 U.S. 393 (1936)

9 to 0

“[S]o far as a different view has prevailed [in Panhandle and Graves], we think it no longer tenable,” 314 U.S. at 9

All; 7 New

Art. VI, § 2

supremacy clause, immunity of federal government from state taxation under

Hughes

California v. Thompson, 313 U.S. 109 (1941)

1941

DiSanto v. Pennsylvania, 273 U.S. 34 (1927)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 313 U.S. at 116

7 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, Licensing criteria for free agents under

Hughes

Edwards v. California, 314 U.S. 160 (1941)

1941

City of New York v. Miln, 36 U.S. 102 (1837)

6 to 0

“we do not consider ourselves bound,” 314 U.S. at 177

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, Interstate transport of persons under

Hughes

Olsen v. Nebraska, 313 U.S. 236 (1941)

1941

Ribnik v. McBride, 277 U.S. 350 (1928)

9 to 0

“The drift away from [Ribnik] has been so great that it can no longer be deemed a controlling authority,” 313 U.S. at 244

7 New

Amend. XIV

due process concerns of business affected with a public interest

Hughes

United States v. Chicago‐Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pac. R.R., 312 U.S. 592 (1941)

1941

United States v. Heyward, 250 U.S. 633 (1919); United states v. Lynah, 188 U.S. 445 (1903)

9 to 0

“So far as [Lynah and Heyward] sanction such a principle, it is in irreconcilable conflict with our later decisions and cannot be considered as expressing the law,” 312 U.S. at 598

All; All

Amend. V

authorized takings and just compensation

Hughes

United States v. Darby, 312 U.S. 100 (1941)

1941

Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 (1918)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 312 U.S. at 116 to 117

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, Fair Labor Standards within

Hughes

Graves v. Schmidlapp, 315 U.S. 657 (1942)

1942

Wachovia Bank & Trust Co. v. Doughton, 272 U.S. 567 (1926)

8 to 1

“overruled,” 315 U.S. at 665

All

Amend. XIV

due process

Stone

State Tax Comm'n v. Aldrich, 316 U.S. 174 (1942)

1942

First Nat'l Bank v. Maine, 284 U.S. 312 (1932)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 316 U.S. at 181

8 New

Amend. XIV

due process and death tax

Stone

Williams v. North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)

1942

Haddock v. Haddock, 201 U.S. 562 (1906)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 317 U.S. at 304

All

Art. IV, § 1

full faith and credit clause concerning divorce decree

Stone

Jones v. Opelika, 319 U.S. 103 (1943) (per curiam); Murdock v. Pennsylvania, 319 U.S. 105 (1943)

1943

Jones v. Opelika, 316 U.S. 584 (1942)

5 to 4

“The judgment in Jones v. Opelika has this day been vacated,” 319 U.S. at 117

0 New

Amend. I

freedom of religion, license tax imposed on religious colporteurs

Stone

Oklahoma Tax Comm'n v. U.S., 319 U.S. 598 (1943)

1943

Childers v. Beaver, 270 U.S. 555 (1926)

5 to 4

Childers … was in effect overruled by the Mountain Producers decision,” 319 U.S. at 604

All

Art. VI, § 2

supremacy clause and state estate taxes imposed on federally restricted indian property

Stone

West Virginia Bd. of Educ. v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)

1943

Minersville Sch. Dist. v. Gobitis, 319 U.S. 642 (1940)

6 to 3

“overruled,” 319 U.S. at 1187

2 New

Amend. I, XIV

freedom of expression

Stone

Smith v. Allwright, 321 U.S. 649 (1944)

1944

Grovery v. Townsend, 295 U.S. 45 (1935)

8 to 1

“overruled,” 321 U.S. at 666

7 New

Amend. XV

right to vote

Stone

Girouard v. United States, 328 U.S. 61 (1946)

1946

United States v. Schwimmer, 279 U.S. 644 (1929); United States v. Macintosh, 283 U.S. 605 (1931); United States v. Bland, 283 U.S. 636 (1931)

5 to 3

“We conclude that the Schwimmer, Macintosh, and Bland cases do not state the correct rule of law,” 328 U.S. at 69

8 New

Amend. I

freedom of religion, Construction of the Naturalization Act in light of freedom of religion guarantee

Stone

Angel v. Bullington, 330 U.S. 183 (1947)

1947

Lupton's Sons Co. v. Automobile Club, 225 U.S. 489 (1912)

6 to 3

“Cases like Lupton's…are obsolete insofar as they are based on a view of diversity jurisdiction which came to an end with Erie,” 330 U.S. at 192

All

Art. III, § 2

diversity jurisdiction

Vinson

Lincoln Union v. Northwestern Iron & Metal Co., 335 U.S. 525 (1948)

1948

Adair v. United States, 208 U.S. 161 (1908); Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1 (1915)

9 to 0

“This Court has steadily rejected the due process philosophy enunciated in the Adair Coppage line of cases,” 335 U.S. at 536

All; All

Amend. XIV

due process and state legislation prohibiting injurious business practices

Vinson

Sherrer v. Sherrer, 334 U.S. 343 (1948)

1948

Andrews v. Andrews, 188 U.S. 14 (1903)

7 to 2

“superseded by subsequent decisions,” 334 U.S. at 353

All

Art. IV, § 1

full faith and credit clause

Vinson

Oklahoma Tax Comm'n v. Texas Co., 336 U.S. 342 (1949)

1949

Choctaw, Okla. & Gulf R.R. v. Harrison, 235 U.S. 292 (1914); Indian Territory Illuminating Oil Co. v. Oklahoma, 240 U.S. 522 (1916); Howard v. Gipsy Oil Co., 247 U.S. 503 (1917); Large Oil Co. v. Howard, 248 U.S. 549 (1919); Oklahoma v. Barnsdall Refineries, 296 U.S. 521 (1936)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 336 U.S. at 365

All; All; All; All; All

Amend. X

non‐Indian leases of restricted Indian lands are subject to state production and excise taxes

Vinson

United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56 (1950)

1950

Trupiano v. United States, 334 U.S. 699 (1948)

5 to 3

“overruled,” 339 U.S. at 66

2 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure, reasonableness goes to the the search, not the procurement of a warrant

Vinson

Burstyn v. Wilson, 343 U.S. 495 (1952)

1952

Mutual Film Co. v. Industrial Comm'n, 236 U.S. 230 (1915)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 343 U.S. at 502

All

Amend. I

freedoms of speech and press

Vinson

Brown v. Board of Ed., 347 U.S. 483 (1954)

1954

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

9 to 0

“any language in Plessy v. Ferguson to the contrary to this finding is rejected,” 347 U.S. at 494 to 495

All

Amend. XIV

equal protection in public education

Warren

Elkins v. United States, 364 U.S. 206 (1960)

1960

Weeks v. United States, 232 U.S. 383 (1914)

5 to 4

“reason and experience … point to the rejection of [the Weeks] doctrine,” 364 U.S. at 222

All

Amend. IV

search and seizure, admissibility of evidence obtained by state search in federal court

Warren

United States v. Raines, 362 U.S. 17 (1960)

1960

Barney v. City of New York, 193 U.S 430 (1904)

9 to 0

Barney must be regarded as having ‘been work away by the erosion of time,’ and of contrary authority,” 362 U.S. at 26

All

Amend. XV

racial discrimination in voting

Warren

Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961)

1961

Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25 (1949)

5 to 4

“[w]e can no longer permit that right [to be secure against invasions of privacy by state officers] to remain an empty promise,” 367 U.S. at 660

6 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure, admissibility of evidence obtained in an illegal federal search in state court

Warren

Ferguson v. Skrupa, 372 U.S. 726 (1963)

1963

Adams v. Tanner, 244 U.S. 590 (1917)

8 to 1

“[R]eliance on [Adams] is mistaken as would be adherance to [Adkins … overruled by West Coast Hotel],” 372 U.S. at 731

All

Amend. XIV

due process and state restrictions on operation of certain businesses.

Warren

Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963)

1963

Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 (1942)

9 to 0

Amici “argue that Betts ‘was an anachronism when handed down’ and that it should now be overruled. We agree,” 372 U.S. at 345

7 New

Amend. VI, XIV

applicability of constitutional right to counsel in state court

Warren

Escobedo v. Illinois, 378 U.S. 478 (1964)

1964

Crooker v. California, 357 U.S. 433 (1958); Cicenia v. La Gay, 357 U.S. 504 (1958)

5 to 4

“[T]o the extent that Cicenia or Crooker may be inconsistent with the principles announced today, they are not to be regarded as controlling,” 378 U.S. at 492

3 New; 3 New

Amend. VI, XIV

statements made prior to reading of rights when investigation is focused on one individual are inadmissible

Warren

Jackson v. Denno, 378 U.S. 368 (1964)

1964

Stein v. New York, 346 U.S. 156 (1953)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 378 U.S. at 391

6 New

Amend. XIV

due process and determination of voluntariness of a confession

Warren

Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1964)

1964

Twinning v. New Jersey, 211 U.S. 78 (1908); Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46 (1947)

5 to 4

“Decisions of the Court since Twinning and Adamson have departed from the contrary view expressed in those cases,” 378 U.S. at 6

All; 7 New

Amend. V, XIV

privilege against self‐incrimination is applicable to state actions.

Warren

Murphy v. Waterfront Comm'n, 378 U.S. 52 (1964)

1964

Jack v. Kansas, 199 U.S. 372 (1905); United States v. Murdock, 284 U.S. 141 (1931), Feldman v. United States, 322 U.S. 487 (1944); Knapp v. Schweitzer, 357 U.S. 371 (1958); Mills v. Louisiana, 360 U.S. 230 (1959)

7 to 2

“The Court today rejected [the rule of the aformentioned cases], and with it, all the earlier cases resting on that rule,” 378 U.S at 77

All; All; 7 New; 2 New

Amend. V, XIV

use of federally compelled evidence to incriminate at state level

Warren

Pointer v. Texas, 380 U.S. 400 (1965)

1965

West v. Louisiana, 194 U.S. 258 (1904)

7 to 2

“In the light of Gideon … the statements made in West … can no longer be regarded as the law,” 380 U.S. at 406

All

Amend. VI, XIV

right to confrontation applicable to state court

Warren

Harper v. Virginia Bd. of Elections, 383 U.S. 663 (1966)

1966

Breedlove v. Shuttles, 302 U.S. 277 (1937); Butler v. Thompson, 341 U.S. 937 (1951)

6 to 3

Breedlove “overruled,” 383 U.S. at 669. The Butler decision is only mentioned in dissent, but stands for the same overruled proposition.

All; 6 New

Amend. XIV

equal protection, state conditioning of right to vote is violation of

Warren

Afroyim v. Rusk, 387 U.S. 253 (1967)

1967

Perez v. Brownell, 356 U.S. 44 (1958)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 387 U.S. at 268

3 New

Amend. XIV

citizenship clause, state's attempt to revoke citizenship violative of

Warren

Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U.S. 523 (1967)

1967

Frank v. Maryland, 359 U.S. 360 (1959)

6 to 3

“overruled,” 387 U.S. at 528

2 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure, warrantless searches by municipal health inspector

Warren

Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967)

1967

Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 (1928); Goldman v. United States, 316 U.S. 129 (1942)

7 to 1

“We conclude that the underpinnings of Olmstead and Goldman have been so eroded by our subsequent decisions that the “trespass” doctrine there enunciated can no longer be regarded as controlling,” 389 U.S. at 353

All; 7 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure, recordation of oral statements unaccompanied by actual trespass

Warren

Keyishian v. Board of Regents, 385 U.S. 589 (1967)

1967

Adler v. Board of Educ., 342 U.S. 485 (1952)

5 to 4

“[C]onstitutional doctrine which has emerged since that decision has rejected [Adler's] major premise,” 385 U.S. at 605

6 New

Amend. I

public employment conditioned upon surrender of constitutional rights

Warren

Spevack v. Klein, 385 U.S. 511 (1967)

1967

Cohen v. Hurley, 366 U.S. 117 (1961)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 385 U.S. at 514

3 New

Amend.V, XIV

equal protection of lawyers asserting right against self‐incrimination

Warren

Bruton v. United States, 391 U.S. 123 (1968)

1968

Delli Paoli v. United States, 352 U.S. 232 (1957)

6 to 2

“overruled,” 391 U.S. at 126

4 New

Amend. IV

codefendant confession at joint trial

Warren

Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., 392 U.S. 409 (1968)

1968

Hodges v. United States, 203 U.S. 1 (1906)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 392 U.S. at 441 n. 78

All

Amend. XIII

Congressional power to decide what are incidents of slavery and enact legislation

Warren

Benton v. Maryland, 395 U.S. 784 (1969)

1969

Palko v. Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319 (1937)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 395 U.S. at 794

8 New

Amend. V, XIV

double jeopardy prohibition is applicable to the states

Warren

Brandenburg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969)

1969

Whitney v. California, 274 U.S. 357 (1927)

8 to 0

“overruled,” 395 U.S. at 449

All

Amend. I

freedom of speech

Warren

Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752 (1969)

1969

Harris v. United States, 331 U.S. 145 (1947); United States v. Rabinowitz 339 U.S. 56 (1950)

6 to 2

“It is time … to hold that … insofar as the principles [that Harris and Rabinowitz] stand for are inconsistent with those that we have endorsed today, they are not longer to be followed,” 395 U.S. at 768

7 New; 7 New

Amend. Iv.

search and seizure, searches at the time of arrest must be limited to the person and the area within his reach

Warren

Moore v. Ogilvie, 394 U.S. 814 (1969)

1969

MacDougall v. Green, 335 U.S. 281 (1948)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 394 U.S. at 819

7 New

Amend. XIV

due process and residency requirements for political parties

Warren

Ashe v. Swenson, 397 U.S. 436 (1970)

1970

Hoag v. New Jersey, 356 U.S. 464 (1958)

7 to 1

Hoag is implicitly overruled since the Court reaches the opposite result on nearly the same facts, 396 U.S. at 445

6 New

Amend. V

double jeopardy, guarantee against double jeopardy includes collateral estoppel as a constitutional requirement

Burger

Price v. Georgia, 398 U.S. 323 (1970)

1970

Brantley v. Georgia, 217 U.S. 284 (1910)

8 to 0

“overruled,” 398 U.S. at 330 n. 9

All

Amend. V, XIV

new trial for defendant convicted of lesser offense limited to that lesser charge

Burger

Williams v. Florida, 399 U.S. 78 (1970)

1970

Thompson v. Utah, 170 U.S. 343 (1898); Rasmussen v. United states, 197 U.S. 516 (1905)

6 to 2

The overruled cases are cited as authority for a twelve‐man jury, 399 U.S. at 91 to 92, and are implicitly overruled by the announcement of the new rule allowing six‐man juries. Id.

All; All

Amend. VI, XIV

six‐person jury is not violative of defendant's Sixth Amendment right

Burger

Perez v. Campbell, 402 U.S. 637 (1971)

1971

Reitz v. Mealy 314 U.S. 33 (1941); Kesler v. Department of Pub. Safety, 369 U.S. 153 (1962)

5 to 4

“We can no longer adhere to the aberrational doctrine of Kesler,” 402 U.S. at 651

7 New; 4 New

Art. VI, § 2

supremacy clause, state legislation that frustrates full effectiveness of federal law is invalid under supremacy clause even if supported by legitimate state purpose

Burger

Dunn v. Blumstein, 405 U.S. 330 (1972)

1972

Pope v. Williams, 193 U.S. 621 (1904)

5 to 2

“To the extent that the dicta in [Pope] are inconsistent with the test we apply or result we reach today, those dicta are rejected,” 405 U.S. at 337 n. 7

All

Amend. XIV

equal protection, one‐year residency requirement to voting violative of

Burger

Lehnhausen v. Lake Shore Auto Parts Co., 410 U.S. 356 (1973)

1973

Quaker City Cab Co. v. Pennsylvania, 277 U.S. 389 (1928)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 410 U.S. at 366

All

Amend. XIV

equal protection, state law requiring payment of ad valorum taxes on corporations but not individuals not violative of

Burger

Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)

1973

A Book Named “John Cleland's Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure” v. Attorney Gen. of Mass., 383 U.S. 413 (1966)

5 to 4

Memoirs test has been abandoned as unworkable by its author, and no Member of the Court today supports the Memoirs formulation,” 413 U.S. at 23

5 New

Amend. I

freedom of speech, obscenity test

Burger

North Dakota Pharmacy Bd. v. Snyder's Drug Stores, 414 U.S. 156 (1973)

1973

Liggett Co. v. Baldridge, 278 U.S. 105 (1929)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 414 U.S. at 167

All

Amend. XIV

equal protection, state law requiring pharmacists to be registered, or majority of stock to be owned by pharacists in good standing no violative of

Burger

Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651 (1974)

1974

Shapiro v. Thompson, 394 U.S. 618 (1969); State Dep't of Health and Rehab. Serv. v. Zarate, 407 U.S. 918 (1972); Sterrett v. Mothers' and Childrens' rights Org., 409 U.S. 809 (1972)

5 to 4

“we disapprove the Eleventh Amendment holdings of those cases to the extent that they are inconsistent with our holding today,” 415 U.S. at 671

3 New; 0 New; 0 New

Amend. XI

retroactive payment of benefits under AABD programs which were withhold wrongfully by state officials prohibited

Burger

Taylor v. Louisiana, 419 U.S. 522 (1975)

1975

Hoyt v. Florida, 368 U.S. 57 (1961)

8 to 1

“We cannot follow the contracy implications of the prior cases, including Hoyt v. Florida,” 419 U.S. at 537

3 New

Amend. VI

automatic exemptions cannot be used to exclude women from jury to obtain male venire

Burger

City of New Orleans v. Dukes, 427 U.S. 297 (1976)

1976

Morey v. Doud, 354 U.S. 457 (1957)

8 to 0

“overruled,” 427 U.S. at 306

8 New

Amend. XIV

due process, purely economic legislation given deferential treatment

Burger

Craig v. Boren, 429 U.S. 190 (1976)

1976

Goesaert v. Cleary, 335 U.S. 464 (1948)

7 to 2

“Insofar as Goesaert … may be inconsistent, that decision is disapproved,” 429 U.S. at 210 n. 23

All

Amend. XIV

equal protection, gender discrimination

Burger

Hudgens v. NLRB, 424 U.S. 507 (1976)

1976

Almalgamated Food Employees Union Local 590 v. Logan Valley Plaza, 391 U.S. 308 (1968)

5 to 3

“[W]e make it clear now … that the rationale of Logan Valley did not survive the Court's decision in the Lloyd case,” 424 U.S. at 518

5 New

Amend. I, XIV

freedom of speech, picketing is not protected speech on private shopping center property.

Burger

Michelin Tire Corp. v. Wages, 423 U.S. 276 (1976)

1976

Low v. Austin, 80 U.S. 29 (1971)

7 to 1

“overruled,” 423 U.S. at 301

5 New

Art. I, § 10, cl. 2

state may assess nondiscriminatory ad valorem tax on imported items.

Burger

National League of Cities v. Usery, 426 U.S. 833 (1976)

1976

Maryland v. Wirtz, 392 U.S. 183 (1968)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 426 U.S. at 855

4 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, Congress cannot force states to make certain choices in the guise of regulating interstate commerce.

Burger

Virginia Bd. of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, 425 U.S. 748 (1976)

1976

Valentine v. Chrestensen, 316 U.S. 52 (1942)

7 to 1

Overruling is implicit in the discussion of Valentine and the following contrary holding, 425 U.S. at 760 to 62

All

Amend. I

freedom of speech, purely commercial speech is protected speech but is subject to regulation

Burger

Complete Auto Transit v. Brady, 430 U.S. 274 (1977)

1977

Spector Motor Serv. v. O'Connor, 340 U.S. 602 (1951)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 430 U.S. at 289

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, state tax levied for the privilege of doing business is not per se unconstitional

Burger

Oregon v. Corvallis Sand & Gravel Co., 429 U.S. 363 (1977)

1977

Bonelli Cattle Co. v. Arizona, 414 U.S. 313 (1973)

6 to 3

Bonelli's application of federal common law to cases such as this must be overruled,” 429 U.S. at 382

1 New

disputed ownership of riverbed lands must be determined as a matter of state law

disputed ownership of riverbed lands must be determined as a matter of state law.

Burger

Shaffer v. Heitner, 433 U.S. 186 (1977)

1977

Pennoyer v. Neff, 95 U.S. 714 (1877)

8 to 0

The jurisdictional framework of Pennoyer is implicitly rejected in the Court's discussion, 433 U.S. at 197–206

All

Amend. XIV

due process and personal jurisdiction

Burger

Burks v. United States, 437 U.S. 1 (1978)

1978

Bryan v. United States, 338 U.S. 552 (1950); Sapir v. United States, 348 U.S. 373 (1955); Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 (1957); Forman v. United States, 361 U.S. 416 (1960)

8 to 0

“overruled,” 437 U.S. at 18

All; All; 8 New; 7 New

Amend. V

double jeopardy, appellate court's determination of insufficient evidence required it to acquit under the double jeopardy clause

Burger

Department of Revenue v. Association of Washington Stevedoring Cos., 435 U.S. 734 (1978)

1978

Puget Sound Stevedoring Co. v. State Tax Comm'n, 302 U.S. 90 (1937); Joseph v. Carter & Weekes Stevedoring Co., 330 U.S. 422 (1947)

8 to 0

“overruled,” 435 U.S. at 750

All; All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, business and occupation tax does not violate commerce clause when applied to the commercial activity of stevedoring

Burger

United States v. Scott, 437 U.S. 82 (1978)

1978

United States v. Jenkins, 420 U.S. 358 (1975)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 437 U.S. at 87

1 New

Amend. V

double jeopardy clause is not violated when a state appeals from a decision in favor of defendant when defendant sought termination of proceeding on a basis other than guilt/innocence.

Burger

Hughes v. Oklahoma, 441 U.S. 322 (1979)

1979

Geer v. Connecticut, 161 U.S. 519 (1896)

7 to 2

“overruled,” 441 U.S. at 335

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, state regulation of wildlife is to be analyzed by same rules in respect to commerce clause as other natural resources

Burger

United States v. Salvucci, 448 U.S. 83 (1980)

1980

Jones v. United States, 362 U.S. 257 (1960)

7 to 2

“We are convinced that the automatic standing rule of Jones has outlived its usefulness in this Court's Fourth Amendment jurisprudence,” 448 U.S at 95

7 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure, defendant's charged with possession may only claim benefits of exclusionary rule if their own Fourth Amendment rights have not been violated.

Burger

Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981)

1981

Heisler v. Thomas Colliery Co., 260 U.S. 245 (1922)

6 to 3

“Any contrary statements in Heisler and its progeny are disapproved,” 453 U.S. at 617

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, state tax is not protected from the commerce clause scrutiny by a claim that the tax is imposed on goods before they enter the stream of commerce.

Burger

Sporhase v. Nebraska ex rel. Douglas, 458 U.S. 941 (1982)

1982

Hudson County Water Co. v. McCarter, 209 U.S. 349 (1908)

7 to 2

Court explains that Hudson was based on Geer which was expressly overruled previously, 458 U.S. at 950–51

All

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, ground water is an article of commerce and is subject to commerce clause regulation.

Burger

United States v. Ross, 456 U.S. 798 (1982)

1982

Robbins v. California, 453 U.S. 420 (1981)

6 to 3

“[W]e reject the precise holding of Robbins,” 456 U.S. at 824

1 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure, scope of search in automobile not limited to the container, but by the object of the search and probable cause giving rise to the search.

Burger

Illinois v. Gates, 462 U.S. 213 (1983)

1983

Aguilar v. Texas, 378 U.S. 108 (1964); Spinelli v. United States, 393 U.S. 410 (1969)

6 to 3

The Court discussed the tests contained in Aguilar and Spinelli and concludes that “it is wiser to abandon the ‘two‐pronged test,’ established by our decision in Aguilar and Spinelli,” 462 U.S. at 238

5 New

Amend. IV

“totality of the circumstances” determines probable cause questions.

Burger

Limbach v. Hooven & Allison Co., 466 U.S. 353 (1984)

1984

Hooven & Allison Co. v. Evatt, 324 U.S. 652 (1945)

9 to 0

Hooven I, to the extent it espouses the [original package] doctrine, is not to be regarded as authority and is overruled,” 466 U.S. at 361

All

Art. I, § 10, cl. 2

focus on validity of ad valorem tax on imports should be on whether the tax is an “impost” or a “duty”

Burger

Pennhurst State Sch. & Hosp. v. Halderman, 465 U.S. 89 (1984)

1984

Rolston v. Missouri Fund Comm'rs, 120 U.S. 390 (1887); Siler v. Louisville & Nashville R.R. Co., 213 U.S. 175 (1909); Atchinson T. & S.F. Ry. V. O'Connor, 223 U.S. 280 (1912); Green v. Lousiville & Interurban R.R., 244 U.S. 499 (1917); Johnson v. Lankford, 245 U.S. 541 (1918); 28 additional cases listed at 465 U.S.89, 109 nn. 17–21, 165–68 nn. 50 & 52, and accompanying text

5 to 4

“In sum, contrary to the view implicit in decisions such as Green, …, neither pendent jurisdiction, nor any other basis of jurisdiction may override the Eleventh Amendment,” 465 U.S. at 121

All; All; All; All; All; All

Amend. XI

rule that claim against state officials is a claim against the state and is barred by the 11th Amendment also applies to state claims in federal court under pendant jurisdiction.

Burger

United States v. One Assortment of 89 Firearms, 465 U.S. 354 (1984)

1984

Coffey v. United States, 116 U.S. 436 (1886)

9 to 0

“[W]e reject the contrary rationale of Coffey v. United States,” 465 U.S. at 366

All

Amend. V

double jeopardy, remedial forfeiture proceeding following an acquittal on related criminal charges is not barred under the double jeopardy Clause

Burger

Garcia v. San Antonio Metro. Transit Auth., 469 U.S. 528 (1985)

1985

National League of Cities v. Usery, 426 U.S. 833 (1976)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 469 U.S. at 557

1 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause, determination of state immunity does not turn on whether the government function is traditional or integral

Burger

United States v. Miller, 471 U.S. 130 (1985)

1985

Ex parte Bain, 121 U.S. 1 (1887)

8 to 0

“[T]o the extent that Bain stands for the proposition…to avoid further confusion, we now explicitly reject that proposition,” 471 U.S. at 144

All

Amend. V

to drop allegations unnecessary to an offense that is clearly contained within an indictment is not an unconstitutional amendment

Burger

Batson v. Kentucky, 476 U.S. 79 (1986)

1986

Swain v. Alabama, 380 U.S. 202 (1965)

7 to 2

“For the reasons that follow, we reject this evidentiary formulation as inconsistent with standards that have developed since Swain,” 476 U.S. at 93

7 New

Amend. XIV

equal protection, defendant may present a prima facie case of discriminatory selection of venire based on prosecutorial conduct in his case, which gives rise to an inference of unconstitutional behavior

Burger

Daniels v. Williams, 474 U.S. 327 (1986)

1986

Parratt v. Taylor, 451 U.S. 527 (1981)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 474 U.S. at 330

1 New

Amend. XIV

due process, lack of due care by state official which amounts to negligence does not “deprive” a person of life or liberty and therefore does not implicate due process Clause

Burger

Puerto Rico v. Branstad, 483 U.S. 219 (1987)

1987

Kentucky v. Dennison, 65 U.S. 66 (1861)

9 to 0

“Kentucky v. Dennison is the product of another time … We conclude that it may stand no longer,” 483 U.S. at 230

8 New

Art. IV, §2, cl. 2

federal courts have authority to compel performance by asylum state to deliver fugitive upon proper demand.

Rehnquist

Solorio v. United States, 483 U.S. 435 (1987)

1987

O'Callahan v. Parker, 395 U.S. 258 (1969)

6 to 3

“overruled,” 483 U.S. at 436

6 New

Art. I, §8, cl. 14

jurisdiction of court martial depends upon status as a member of the military and not on the relationship between the offense and service

Rehnquist

Welch v. Texas Dep't of Highway's and Pub. Transp., 483 U.S. 468 (1987)

1987

Parden v. Terminal Ry., 377 U.S. 184 (1964)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 483 U.S. at 478

7 New

Amend. XI

if Congress intends to abrogate the Eleventh Amendment in exercising commerce clause power, it may do so expressly in the statute

Rehnquist

South Carolina v. Baker, 485 U.S. 505 (1988)

1988

Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co., 157 U.S. 429 (1895)

6 to 2

“We thus confirm that subsequent case law had overruled the holding in Pollock,” 485 U.S. at 524

All

Amend. XVI

state bond interest is not immune from nondiscriminatory federal tax

Rehnquist

Alabama v. Smith, 490 U.S. 794 (1989)

1989

Simpson v. Rice, 395 U.S. 711 (1969)

8 to 1

“Believing as we do that there is no basis for the presumption of vindictiveness where a second sentence imposed after a trial is heavier than a first sentence imposed after a guilty plea, we overrule Simpson v. Rice … to that extent,” 490 U.S. at 803

6 New

Amend. VI

sentencing

Rehnquist

Healy v. Beer Inst. Inc., 491 U.S. 324 (1989)

1989

Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc. v. Hostetter, 384 U.S. 35 (1966)

6 to 3

“to the extent that Seagram holds that retrospective affirmation statutes do not facially violate the commerce clause, it is no longer good law,” 491 U.S. at 343

7 New

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

commerce clause

Rehnquist

Thornburgh v. Abbott, 490 U.S. 401 (1989)

1989

Procunier v. Martinez, 416 U.S. 396 (1974)

6 to 3

“overrule,” 490 U.S. at 413

4 New

Amend. VIII

distinction between correspondence from prisoners or nonprisoners in prison regulations

Rehnquist

Collins v. Youngblood, 497 U.S. 37 (1990)

1990

Kring v. Missouri, 107 U.S. 221 (1883); Thompson v. Utah, 170 U.S. 343 (1898)

9 to 0

“overrule,” 497 U.S. at 51–52

All; All

Art. I, §10, cl. 1

ex post facto clause

Rehnquist

California v. Acevedo, 500 U.S. 565 (1991)

1991

Arkansas v. Sanders, 442 U.S. 753 (1979)

6 to 3

“We conclude that it is better to adopt one clear‐cut rule to govern automobile searches and eliminate the warrant requirement for closed containers set forth in Sanders,” 500 U.S. at 579

4 New

Amend. IV

search and seizure

Rehnquist

Estelle v. McQuire, 502 U.S. 62 (1991)

1991

Cage v. Louisiana, 498 U.S. 39 (1990); Yates v. Evatt, 500 U.S. 391 (1991)

6 to 2

“We now disapprove the standard of review language in Cage and Yates,” 502 U.S. at 71, n. 4

1 New; 0 New

Amend. XIV

due process standard of review for jury instruction

Rehnquist

Harmelin v. Michigan, 501 U.S. 957 (1991)

1991

Solem v. Helm, 463 U.S. 277 (1983)

5 to 4

“we conclude from this examination that Solem was simply wrong,” 501 U.S. at 965

3 New

Amend. VIII

proportionality of crime and punishment under cruel and unusual punishment clause

Rehnquist

Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S. 808 (1991)

1991

South Carolina v. Gathers, 490 U.S. 805 (1989); Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 496 (1987)

5 to 4

“Reconsidering these decisions now, we conclude for the reasons heretofore stated, that they were wrongly decided and should be, and now are, overruled,” 501 U.S. at 830

1 New, 1 New

Amend. VI

admissibility of victim impact evidence

Rehnquist

Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992)

1992

City of Akron v. Akron Center for Reproductive Health, 462 U.S. 416 (1983); Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 476 U.S. 747 (1986)

plurality

“overruled,” 505 U.S. at 870

4 New; 4 New

Amend. XIV

due process and right of privacy

Rehnquist

Quill Corp. v. North Dakota, 504 U.S. 298 (1992)

1992

National Bella Hess, Inc., v. Dept. of Revenue, 386 U.S. 753 (1967)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 504 U.S. at 302

8 New

Amend. XIV

due process and minimum contacts analysis

Rehnquist

United states v. Dixon, 509 U.S. 688 (1993)

1993

Grady v. Corbin, 495 U.S. 508 (1990)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 509 U.S. at 704

2 New

Amend. V

double jeopardy, definition of same offense under

Rehnquist

Nichols v. United States, 511 U.S. 738 (1994)

1994

Baldasar v. Illinois, 446 U.S. 222 (1980)

6 to 3

“overruled,” 511 U.S. at 748

6 New

Amend. V, XIV

prior conviction enhancing subsequent conviction

Rehnquist

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena, 515 U.S. 200 (1995)

1995

Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC, 497 U.S. 547 (1990)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 515 U.S. at 227

4 New

Amend. V, XIV

equal protection and level of scrutiny for racial classifications

Rehnquist

United States v. Gaudin, 515 U.S. 506 (1995)

1995

Sinclair v. United states, 279 U.S. 263 (1929)

9 to 0

“other reasoning in Sinclair not yet repudiated, we repudiate now,” 515 U.S. at 520

All

Amend. VI

jury determination of pertinency and materiality

Rehnquist

44 Liquormart, Inc. v. Rhode Island, 517 U.S. 484 (1996)

1996

California v. LaRue, 409 U.S. 109 (1972); New York State Liquor Auth. v. Bellanca, 452 U.S. 714 (1981); City of Newport v. Iacobucci, 479 U.S. 92 (1986)

9 to 0

“we now disavow its reasoning,” 517 U.S. at 516

7 New, 7 New, 5 New

Amend. XXI

state regulation of the use or delivery of intoxicating beverages

Rehnquist

Seminole Tribe v. Florida, 517 U.S. 44 (1996)

1996

Pennsylvania v. Union Gas Co., 491 U.S. 1 (1989)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 517 U.S. at 66

4 New

Amend. XI

state immunity in federal court.

Rehnquist

Agostini v. Felton, 521 U.S 203 (1997)

1997

School Dist. Grand Rapids v. Ball, 473 U.S. 373 (1985); Aquilar v. Felton, 473 U.S. 402 (1985)

5 to 4

“overruled,” 521 U.S. at 236

6 New; 6 New

Amend. I

freedom of religion, funding of religious schools under the etablishment clause

Rehnquist

Hudson v. United States, 522 U.S. 93 (1997)

1997

Halper v. United States, 490 U.S. 435 (1989)

9 to 0

“ill considered,” 522 U.S. at 101

4 New

Amend. V

double jeopardy, civil and criminal punishment for the same conduct under

Rehnquist

College Savings Bank v. Florida Prepaid PostSecondary Education Expense Board, 527 U.S. 666 (1999)

1999

Parden v. Terminal R. Co. of Ala. Docks Dept., 377 U.S. 184 (1964)

5 to 4

“expressly overruled,” 527 U.S. at 680

All

Amend. XI

state immunity in federal court.

Rehnquist

Mitchell v. Helms, 530 U.S. 793 (2000)

2001

Meek v. Pettenger, 421 U.S. 349 (1975); Wolman v. Walter, 433 U.S. 229 (1977)

6 to 3

“overrule,” 530 U.S. at 835

8 New; 7 New

Amend. I

freedom of religion, government aid to public and private schools under the etablishment clause

Rehnquist

United States v. Hatter, 532 U.S. 557 (2001)

2001

Evans v. Gore, 253 U.S. 245 (1920)

6 to 1

“overrule,” 532 U.S. at 567

All

Art. III, §1

nondiscriminatory taxes on federal judges under the compensation clause

Rehnquist

Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)

2002

Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U.S. 302 (1989)

6 to 3

“Much has changed since … our decision in Penry,” 536 U.S. at 314

4 New

Amend. VIII

cruel and unusual punishment prohibits death penalty for mentally retarded.

Rehnquist

Lapides v. Bd. of Regents, 535 U.S. 613 (2002)

2002

Ford Motor Co. v. Dept. of Treasury of Ind., 323 U.S. 459 (1945)

9 to 0

Ford, which is inconsistent with the basic rationale of those cases, is overruled insofar as it would otherwise apply,” 535 U.S. at 623

All

Amend. XI

state immunity in federal courts.

Rehnquist

Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584 (2002)

2002

Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639 (1990)

7 to 2

“overrule,” 536 U.S at 589

4 New

Amend. VI

sentencing

Rehnquist

United States v. Cotton, 535 U.S. 625 (2002)

2002

Ex parte Bain, 121 U.S. 1 (1887)

9 to 0

“overruled,” 535 U.S. at 631

All

Amend. VI

right to jury trial

Rehnquist

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003)

2003

Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186, (1986)

6 to 3

“overruled,” 539 U.S. 578

6 New

Amend. XIV

due process and the right to sexual autonomy

Rehnquist

Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004)

2004

Ohio v. Roberts, 448 U.S. 56 (1980)

7 to 2

“[Roberts] was a fundamental failure on our part to interpret the Constitution” 541 U.S. 67

7 New

Amend. VI

confrontation clause

Rehnquist

Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005)

2005

Stanford v. Kentucky, 492 U.S. 361 (1989)

6 to 3

“Stanford v. Kentucky should be deemed no longer controlling on this issue” 543 U.S. 574

4 New

Amend. VIII

cruel and unusual punishment prohibits death penalty for minors

Rehnquist

(p.207) (p.208) (p.209) (p.210) (p.211) (p.212) (p.213) (p.214) (p.215) (p.216) (p.217) (p.218) (p.219) (p.220) (p.221) (p.222) (p.223) (p.224) (p.225) (p.226) (p.227) (p.228) (p.229) (p.230) (p.231) (p.232) (p.233) (p.234) (p.235) (p.236) (p.237) (p.238) (p.239) (p.240) (p.241) (p.242) (p.243) (p.244) (p.245)

(p.246)

Appendix Table 2

Overrulings by Subject Matter

Subject Matter

Overrulings

Art. I (tax, ex post facto, etc.)

6

Art. I (commerce clause)

18

Art. III (jurisdiction / access to courts)

5

Art. IV (full faith and credit, etc.)

3

Art. VI, cl 2 (supremacy clause)

4

Amend. I—religion

3

Amend. I—speech

6

Amend. I—public employment

1

Amend. IV—search and seizure

11

Amend. V (double jeopardy, grand jury, self‐incrimination, takings, due process)

15

Amend. VI (sentencing, trial by jury, confrontation)

11

Amend. VIII (proportionality, cruel and unusual)

3

Amend. X

4

Amend. XI

7

Amend. XIII

1

Amend. XIV—due process

19

Amend. XIV—equal protection

8

Amend. XIV—privileges and immunities

1

Amend. XIV—citizenship clause

1

Amend. XV

2

Amend. XVI

1

Amend. XXI

1

Other

2

(p.247)

Appendix Table 3

Number of Overrulings by Change in Court Composition

New justices

Overrulings

0

4

1

8

2

8

3

10

4

17

5

7

6

18

7

23

8

12

9

101

(p.248)

Appendix Table 4

Number of Overrulings by Court

Court

Overrulings

Marshall Court

0

Taney

2

Chase

1

Waite

4

Fuller

1

White

3

Taft

4

Hughes

25

Stone

10

Vinson

11

Warren

32

Burger

76

Rehnquist

39

Roberts

0

(p.249)

Appendix Table 5

Number of Overrulings by Justices Who Served on Rehnquist Court

Justice

Overrulings

White

55

Marshall

36

Blackmun

38

Powell

31

Rehnquist

59

Stevens

42

O'Connor

42

Scalia

35

Kennedy

32

Souter

21

Thomas

29

Ginsburg

12

Breyer

14

(p.250)

Appendix Table 6

Samples of Occasions Cases Urged Overruled and Eventual Results

Case Urged Overruled

Number of Times Overruling Urged

Issue

Eventually Overruled?

Bacchus v. Dias, 468 U.S. 263 (1984)

1

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3

No

Davis v. Bandemer, 478 U.S. 109 (1986)

1

Amend. XIV (equal protection)

No

New York v. Belton, 453 U.S. 454 (1981)

1

Amend. IV

No

Nevada Dept. of Human Resources v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721 (2003)

1

Amends. XI, XIV

No

Austin v. Michigan Chamber of Commerce, 494 U.S. 652 (1990)

1

Amend. I

No

Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976)

3

Amend. I

No

Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U.S 466 (2000)

3

Amends. V, VI

No

McMillan v. Pennsylvania, 477 U.S. 79, 153 L.Ed.2d 524 (1986)

1

Amends. V, VI

No

Jones v. United States, 526 U.S. 227 (1999)

1

Amends. V, VI

No

Employment Div., Dept. of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872, (1990)

1

Amend. I

No

BMW v. Gore, 517 U.S. 559 (1996)

1

Amends. VIII, XIV

No

Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 505 U.S. 833 (1992)

1

Amend. XIV (due process)

No

Powers v. Ohio, 499 U.S. 400 (1991)

1

Amend. XIV (equal protection)

No

Wilson v. Seiter, 501 U.S. 294 (1991)

1

Amend. VIII

No

Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U.S. 302 (1989)

2

Amend. VIII

Yes

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973)

2

Amend. XIV (due process)

No

National Bellas Hess v. Department of Revenue of State of Ill., 386 U.S. 753 (1967)

1

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3

No

Branti v. Finkel, 445 U.S. 507 (1980)

1

Amend. I

No

Elrod v. Burns, 427 U.S. 347 (1976)

1

Amend. I

No

Booth v. Maryland, 482 U.S. 496 (1987)

1

Amend. VIII

Yes

Hans v. Louisiana, 134 U.S. 1 (1890)

2

Amend. XI

No

Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc. v. Hostetter, 384 U.S. 35, 86 S.Ct. 1254, 16 L.Ed.2d 336 (1966)

1

Art. I, § 8, cl. 3 (commerce clause)

Yes

Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323 (1974)

1

Amend. I

No

Estes v. State of Tex., 381 U.S. 532 (1965)

1

Amend. XIV

No

Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961)

1

Amend. IV

No

Ker v. California, 374 U.S. 23 (1963)

1

Amend. IV

No

Trimble v. Gordon, 430 U.S. 762 (1977)

1

Amend. XIV (equal protection)

No

Texas v. Florida, 306 U.S. 398 (1939)

1

Art. III, § 2

No

Board of Education v. Allen, 392 U.S. 236 (1968)

1

Amend. I

No

Washington v. Louisiana, 428 U.S. 906 (1976)

1

Amend. VIII

No

Younger v. Gilmore, 404 U.S. 15 (1971)

1

Amends. I, XIV

No

Davis v. Beason, 133 U.S. 333 (1890)

1

Amend. XIV

No

Murphy v. Ramsey, 114 U.S. 15 (1885)

1

Amend. XIV

No

O'Callahan v. Parker, 395 U.S. 258

1

Art. I, § 8, cl. 14

Yes

Spinelli v. United States, 393 U.S. 410 (1969)

1

Amend. IV

Yes

Aguilar v. Texas, 378 U.S. 108 (1964)

1

Amend. IV

Yes

Yee Hem v. United States, 268 U.S. 178 (1925)

1

Amend. V

No

Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476

1

Amend. I

No

Beauharnais v. Illinois, 343 U.S. 250

1

Amend. I

No

Braunfeld v. Brown, 366 U.S. 599

1

Amends. I, XIV

No

On Lee v. United States, 343 U.S. 747 (1952)

1

Amend. IV

No

Adamson v. California, 332 U.S. 46 (1947)

1

Amends. V, XIV

Yes

Betts v. Brady, 316 U.S. 455 (1942)

1

Amends. VI, XIV

Yes

(p.251) (p.252)

(p.253)

Appendix Table 7

Implicit Overrulings

Case

Date

Case Overruled

Vote

Subject Matter

Bunting v. Oregon, 243 U.S. 426

1917

Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 (1904)

5–3

Due Process

West Coast Hotel v. Parrish, 300 U.S. 379

1937

Morehead v. New York ex. rel. Tipaldo, 298 U.S. 587 (1936)

5–4

Due Process

O'Malley v. Woodrough, 307 U.S. 277

1939

Evans v. Gore, 253 U.S. 245 (1920)

7–1

Nondiscriminatory taxes on federal judges under the Compensation Clause

United States v. Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific RR, 312 U.S. 592

1941

US v. Heyward, 250 U.S. 633 (1919)

9–0

Commerce Clause

Oklahoma Tax Commission v. Texas Co, 336 U.S. 342, 365–66

1949

Howard v. Gipsy Oil Co., 247 U.S. 503 (1918); Large Oil Co. v. Howard, 248 U.S. 549 (1919); State of Oklahoma v. Bamsdall Refineries, 296 U.S. 521 (1936); Helvering v. Mountain Producers Corp., 303 U.S. 376 (1938)

9–0

Taxation and intergovernmental immunity

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483

1954

Cumming v. Board of Education, 175 US 528 (1899); Gong Lum v. Rice, 275 U.S. 78 (1927)

9–0

Equal Protection

Gayle v. Browder, 352 U.S. 903

1956

Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

9–0

Equal Protection

Elkins v. United States, 364 U.S. 206

1960

Weems v. United States, 232 U.S. 383 (1914); Center v. U.S., 267 U.S. 575 (1925); Byers v. U.S., 273 U.S. 28 (1927)

5–4

Search & Seizure

Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186

1962

Colegrove v. Green, 328 U.S. 549 (1946)

7–2

Equal Protection

Gray v. Sanders, 372 U.S. 368

1963

Overruling 3 Cases

8–1

Equal Protection & Due Process

Schneider v. Rusk, 377 U.S. 163

1964

Mackenzie v. Hare, 239 U.S. 299 (1915)

5–3

Naturalization

Dunn v. Blumstein, 405 U.S. 330

1972

Pope v. Williams, 193 U.S. 621 (1904)

6–1

Equal Protection

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238

1972

McGautha v. California, 402 U.S. 183 (1971)

5–4

Cruel and Unusual Punishment and Due Process

Dept. of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith, 485 U.S. 660

1988

Sherbet v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963)

5–3

Free Exercise Clause

Arizona v. Fulminate, 499 U.S. 279

1991

Chapman v. California, 386 U.S. 18 (1967)

5–4

Self Incrimination & Due Process

U.S. v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220

2005

Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U.S. 466 (2000)

5–4

Right to Jury Trial

(p.254)