The Development and History of Psychoneuroimmunology
This chapter reviews the history of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), highlighting the events which have transformed it to a highly respected scientific and medical discipline. The history of the development of PNI begins several thousand years ago and transcends many cultures. Indeed, long before Robert Ader first coined the term psychoneuroimmunology in 1975 to describe the study of the interrelationships among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, ancient mystics, philosophers and healers mused about the impact of one's mental state on physical health and vice versa. Although this chapter cannot nearly do justice to all the people who have contributed to the development of this field, it does attempt to highlight some of the more critical milestones along the way. This chapter looks at holism in ancient and medieval times, the transition from holism to dualism, the role of stress in viral infections and immune function, and the relationship between mind and body.
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