Neurons and Simple Memory Circuits
This chapter summarizes some of the key fundamental concepts about the anatomy and physiology of neurons, including the molecular basis of the unusual electrical properties of neurons, different forms of electrical conduction, and the transmission of information between neurons. Neurons are composed of three main elements: dendrites that are specialized for receiving signals from other cells, the cell body, and the axon that is specialized for conduction of the neural impulse. There are specialized areas of these cellular components that mediate communication between cells, called synapses, each composed of a presynaptic element where neurotransmitters are stored and released, and a postsynaptic element where there are receptors that recognize the neurotransmitter and generate signals in the postsynaptic cell.
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