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Attention in Early DevelopmentThemes and Variations$
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Holly Alliger Ruff and Mary Klevjord Rothbart

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780195136326

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136326.001.0001

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Looking and Visual Attention: Overview and Developmental Framework

Looking and Visual Attention: Overview and Developmental Framework

Chapter:
(p.34) 3 Looking and Visual Attention: Overview and Developmental Framework
Source:
Attention in Early Development
Author(s):

Holly Alliger Ruff

Mary Klevjord Rothbart

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136326.003.0003

This chapter explores the development of a first attention or orienting/investigative system and a second system that underlies goal-oriented behaviour and involves higher-level inhibitory processes. Using patterns of looking as the main measure, it identifies several transition periods in the first few years. Between 2 and 3 months, infants show less compulsory attention and more interest in novelty and exploration as the first attention system emerges. Between 9 and 12 months of age, children become more focused in their attention and more intentional in their behaviour, signalling the emergence of the second attention system. From 18 to 24 months, children become increasingly able to direct their attention voluntarily and to plan ahead — further development of the second system. This development continues and is consolidated in the pre-school years.

Keywords:   duration of looking, developmental transitions, orienting, exploring, intentionality, inhibition, control of attention, executive control

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