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Drinking, Conduct Disorder, and Social ChangeNavajo Experiences$

Stephen J. Kunitz and Jerrold E. Levy

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780195136159

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136159.001.0001

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(p.199) Appendix 3 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES FOR CHAPTER 4

(p.199) Appendix 3 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES FOR CHAPTER 4

Source:
Drinking, Conduct Disorder, and Social Change
Author(s):

Stephen J. Kunitz

K. Ruben Gabriel

Jerrold E. Levy

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Table A3-1. Multiple Ordinal Logistic Regression of Fathers' and Mothers' Drinking Patterns onto Several Risk Factors (Controls Only; Two-Sided P Values)

Effect Test

SOURCE

NO. OF PARAMETERS

D.F.

WAI.D CHI SQUARE

P > CHI SQUARE

Fathers

year Father born

1

1

1.403557

0.2361

Livestock

1

1

0.040591

0.8403

Father's education

1

1

2.447390

0.1177

TRAD.*

1

1

2.700083

0.1003

NAC

1

1

11.568028

0.0007

Sex, age, and type of community

10

10

16.260995

0.0924

Mothers

Sex, age, and type of community

11

11

4.8742948

0.9371

year Mother born

1

1

0.7959258

0.3723

Livestock

1

1

0.0050776

0.9432

Mother's education

1

1

1.7017072

0.1921

TRAD

1

1

0.0238756

0.8772

NAC

1

1

1.0039473

0.3164

Parameter Estimates for Fathers

TERM

ESTIMATED

S.E.

CHI SQUARE

P > CHL SQUARE

F-NAC

0.32252384

0.094827

11.57

0.0007

Note: The Regression coefficient for Q28-NAC is given for affirmative answers.

(*) Trad: Adherent of traditional religion

()  NAC: member of Native American church

() Parameter estimates are given only for variables for which the effect test is significant

(p.200)

Table A3-2. Proportion Who Drank Regularly Before Age 15 years and Average Age of First Regular Drinking, by conduct disorder (CD), Sex, and Sample

CAS

DEP

NADC

CD

NO CD

COMBINEI

CD

NO CD

COMBINED

CD

NO CD

COMBINED

Men

Average age at first drink (years)

12.1

15.9

13.8

12.2

14.6

13.9

11.7

16.5

16.0

(S.E.)

(0.5)

(0.5)

(0.3)

(0.4)

(0.3)

(0.2)

(1.6)

(0.5)

(0.4)

Proportion who drank regularly before age 15

36.0%

4.3%

21.6%

21.3%

5.9%

10.2%

18.7%

0.7%

2.6%

Average age at first regular drinking (years)

16.9

21.4

18.9

17.3

19.5

18.9

15.4

20.8

20.4

S.E.

(0.5)

(0.5)

(0.3)

(0.3)

(0.2)

(0.2)

(1.7)

(0.5)

(0.5)

Average age that drinking became a problem (years)

22.9

26.1

24.9

22.9

24.7

24.1

(S.E.)

(1.0)

(0.7)

(0.6)

(1.9)

(1.2)

(1.0)

Number for whom data are available

109

92

201

99

267

366

7

80

87

Unknown or not applicable

2

1

3

3

5

8

9

61

70

Total number of men in sample

111

93

204

102

272

374

16

141

157

Women

Average age at first drink (years)

14.0

17.4

16.3

13.1

16.8

15.9

17.7

19.0

18.9

(S.E.)

(0.7)

(0.5)

(0.4)

(0.3)

(0.3)

(0.2)

(0.2)

(0.5)

(0.4)

Proportion who drank regularly before age 15

32.7%

7.0%

15.5%

26.7%

8.9%

13.3%

0.0%

0.8%

0.7%

Average age at first regular drinking (years)

18.3

22.7

21.2

18.4

20.8

20.2

17.0

21.6

21.3

(S.E.)

(0.9)

(0.6)

(0.5)

(1.4)

(0.8)

(0.8)

(2.8)

(0.8)

(1.0)

Average age that drinking became a problem (years)

21.0

27.7

24.0

21.3

24.0

23.2

23.1

23.1

(S.E.)

(0.7)

(0.8)

(0.5)

(0.6)

(0.4)

(0.4)

(0.2)

(2.3)

Number for whom data are available

47

93

140

14

41

55

3

35

38

Unknown or not applicable

2

6

8

1

4

5

7

98

105

Total number of men in sample

49

99

148

15

45

60

10

143

143

(p.201)

Table A3-3. Logistic Regression of Physical Abuse Before Age 15 Years and of Sexual Abuse Before Age 15 years onto Stratification Variables of Age, Community of Residence, and Sex, Controls Only

Effect Test*

SOURCE

NO. OF PARAMETERS

D.F.

WALD CHI SQUARE

P > CHI SQUARE

Physical abuse before age 15

Community type

2

2

3.7801714

0.1511

Age 50

1

1

0.9940602

0.3188

Sex

1

1

0.9290747

0.3351

Sexual abuse before age 15

Community type

2

2

1.157386

0.5606

Age 50

1

1

1.506691

0.2196

Sex

1

1

22.805066

0.0000

Parameter Estimates

TERM

ESTIMATE

S.E.

CHI SQUARE

P > CHI SQUARE

Sex (female)

0.8575

0.1796

22.81

<0.0001

Note: Two-and three-way interactions are not significant.

(*) Parameter estimates are only provided for variables for which the effect test is significant.

Table A3-4. Highest Level of Schooling, by Sex and Sample, as Percentages

MALE *

FEMALE

CAS (N = 202)

DEP (N = 371)

NADC (N = 157)

CAS (N = 148)

DEP (N = 60)

NADC (N = 143)

None

1.0

0.5

5.7

1.3

1.7

2.8

Grade school

14.4

11.3

15.3

10.1

5.0

7.0

Some high school

34.2

29.9

14.0

49.3

33.3

22.4

High school graduate

32.7

36.1

40.1

18.9

18.3

20.3

Some college

17.8

18.9

21.7

18.2

40.0

42.7

College graduate

0.

3.2

3.2

2.0

1.7

4.9

(*) For males, chi square = 42.327; d.f. = 10; P = 0.0000.

() For females, chi square = 35.027; d.f. = 10; P = 0.0001.

(p.202)

Table A3-5. Ordinal Logistic Regression of Sample onto School Level and logASYES, Given Stratification.

Effect Test

SOURCE

NO. OF PARAMETERS

DEGREES OF FREEDOM

CHI-SQUARE

P

School level

5

5

44.14116

0.0000

LogASYES

1

1

104.69150

0.0000

Sex, age & community

11

11

12.19261

0.3493

Parameter Estimates

ESTIMATE

S.E.

CHI-SQUARE

P

School level

None

−0.7405

0.4110

3.25

0.0716

Grade school

0.7022

0.1867

14.13

0.0002

Some high school

0.7047

0.1452

23.56

<0.0001

High school grad.

0.1609

0.1462

1.21

0.2711

Some college or Assoc.degree.

−0.1261

0.1548

0.66

0.4152

College graduate

−0.7011

0.3253

4.65

0.0311

LogASYES

1.0250

0.1001

104.69

< 0.0001

Table A3-6. Ordinal Logistic Regression of Sample onto High School Type, logASYES, and Stratification, Effect Test

SOURCE

NO. OF PARAMETERS

D.F.

WALD CHI SQUARE

P > CHI SQUARE

High School Type

5

5

10.26951

0.0679

logASYES

1

1

104.33459

0.0000

Sex, age and type of community

11

11

9.05249

0.6170

Note: Parameter estimates are not presented because the effect test for high school type is not significant and because the parameter estimate for logASYES appears in Table A3-5. To reduce the number of categories, high school type has been classified as follows:

  1. (1.) On-reservation day school

  2. (2.) Off-reservation public school

  3. (3.) On-reservation boarding school

  4. (4.) Off-reservation boarding school

  5. (5.) Other (e.g., mission schools)

  6. (6.) Any combination