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Land and FreedomRural Society, Popular Protest, and Party Politics in Antebellum New York$

Reeve Huston

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780195136005

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195136005.001.0001

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(p.218) (p.219) Statistical Appendix

(p.218) (p.219) Statistical Appendix

Source:
Land and Freedom
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Statistical Appendix

Figure A.1. Rent Payments as a Percentage of Rent Due, Rensselaerville/Westerlo, 1798–1837

Source: Van Rensselaer Manor Rent Books, Ledgers A and B, Manuscripts Division, New York State Library.

(p.220)
Statistical Appendix

Figure A.2. Overdue Rents, Rensselaerville/Westerlo, 1799–1837

Source: Van Rensselaer Manor Rent Books, Ledgers A and B, Manuscripts Division, New York State Library.

Statistical Appendix

Figure A.3. Federalist Vote, Albany County, 1792–1820

Source: First American Democratization Project Files, American Antiquarian Society.

(p.221)
Statistical Appendix

Figure A.4. Votes in Presidential Elections, Helderberg Towns, 1820–1840

Sources: First American Democratization Project Files, American Antiquarian Society, Albany Evening Journal, 1836–1840; Daily Albany Argus, 1824–1840. Stephen Van Rensselaer and his sons supported the Federalists in 1820, the Clintonian “People’s party” in 1824, the National Republicans in 1828 and 1832, and the Whigs thereafter.

Table A.1. Age of Heads of Family by Real Estate Leased or Owned Rensselaerville, 1800

Value of Real Estate

Aged 16–25

Aged 26–44

Aged 45 and up

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

$0

13

46.4

155

32.2

53

24.7

221

30.6

$1–299

4

14.3

43

8.9

18

8.4

65

9.0

$300–499

3

10.7

81

16.8

24

11.2

108

14.9

$500–999

7

25.0

134

27.9

71

33.2

212

29.3

$1,000–1,999

1

3.6

65

13.5

42

19.6

108

14.9

$2,000 and over

0

0.0

3

0.6

6

2.8

9

1.2

Total

28

100.0

481

99.9

214

99.9

723

99.9

Source: 1800 Rensselaerville, New York Assessment Roll; 1800 Manuscript Federal Census, Population, Rensselaerville, New York.

(p.222)

Table A.2. Production of Selected Crops and Livestock Helderbergs and Delaware County Leasehold Towns, 1825 and 1840

Crop

Helderbergs, 1825

Helderbergs, 1840

Delaware County, 1825

Delaware County, 1840

number

per person engaged in agric.

number

per person engaged in agric.

Cattle

13,530

15,990

4.1

19,690

23,758

8.5

Dairy products sold ($)

n/a

68,667

17.8

n/a

138,272

49.7

Sheep

36,479

39,436

10.2

49,941

56,546

20.3

Swine

13,911

18,387

4.8

12,786

9,847

3.5

Wheat (bu)

n/a

17,197

4.5

n/a

38,827

13.9

Rye (bu)

n/a

52,977

13.7

n/a

60,023

21.6

Buckwheat (bu)

n/a

74,326

19.2

n/a

28,192

10.1

Oats (bu)

n/a

427,659

110.7

n/a

225,510

81.0

Potatoes (bu)

n/a

313,913

81.2

n/a

315,890

113.4

Hay (tons)

n/a

27,188

7.0

n/a

33,125

11.9

Orchard products ($)

n/a

19,702

5.1

n/a

5,923

2.1

Corn (bu)

n/a

39,742

10.3

n/a

10,033

3.6

Home manufacturers ($)

131,808

30,693

2.0

141,276

24,011

1.8

Sources: Census of the State of New York for 1825; Statistics of the United States…1840.

Table A.3. Farm Size, Westerlo and Roxbury, 1840

Farm Size (acres)

Westerlo number

percent

Roxbury number

percent

1–24

52

13.1

31

8.3

25–49

47

11.8

26

6.9

50–99

138

34.8

94

25.1

100–149

90

22.7

118

31.5

150–199

58

14.6

51

13.6

200–299

11

2.8

39

10.4

300 and over

1

0.3

16

4.3

Total

397

100.1

375

100.1

Sources: Town of Westerlo, NT, Assessment Toll, 1840; Town of Roxbury, NY, Assessment Roll, 1840.

(p.223)

Table A.4. Labor Force Participation in Agriculture, Commerce, Manufacturing, and the Professions, Helderbergs and Delaware County Leasehold Towns, 1820 and 1840

Economic Sector

Helderbergs 1820

Helderbergs 1840

Delaware County 1820

Delaware County 1840

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

Agriculture

2,689

84.6

3,865

83.5

2,417

89.1

2,785

80.9

Commerce

35

1.1

104

2.2

17

0.6

79

2.3

Manufactures

456

14.3

605

13.1

279

10.3

528

15.3

Professions

n/a

n/a

57

1.2

n/a

n/a

50

1.5

Total

3,180

100.0

4,631

100.0

2,713

100.0

3,442

100.0

Sources: Fourth Census of the United States, 1820; Sixth Census of the United States, 1840.

Table A.5: Real Estate Holdings of Heads of Families, by Age, Westerlo, 1850

Real Estate Held

Aged 16–25

Aged 26–44

Aged 45 and up

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

$0

13

38.2

69

31.2

43

16.9

125

24.5

$1–499

2

5.9

13

5.9

15

5.9

30

5.9

$500–999

1

2.9

14

6.3

12

4.7

27

5.3

$1,000–1,999

9

26.5

43

19.5

45

17.7

97

19.0

$2,000–2,999

6

17.7

44

19.9

38

14.9

88

17.3

$3,000–4,999

3

8.8

28

12.7

70

27.5

101

19.8

$5,000 and over

0

0.0

10

4.5

32

12.6

42

8.2

Total

34

100.0

221

100.0

255

100.2

510

100.0

Source: 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Westerlo, NY

Table A.6. Real Estate Holdings of Heads of Families, by Age, Roxbury, 1850

Real Estate Held

Aged 16–25

Aged 26–44

Aged 45 and up

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

$0

16

59.3

90

34.1

49

24.4

155

31.5

$1–99

1

3.7

22

8.3

18

9.0

41

8.3

$100–299

2

7.4

35

13.3

21

10.5

58

11.8

$300–499

4

14.8

36

13.6

29

14.4

69

14.0

$500–999

2

7.4

34

12.9

34

16.9

70

14.2

$1,000–1,999

1

3.7

37

14.0

32

15.9

70

14.2

$2,000 and over

1

3.7

10

3.8

18

9.0

29

5.9

Total

27

100.0

264

100.0

201

100.1

492

99.9

Source: 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Westerlo, NY

(p.224)

Table A.7. Whig Vote (1840) and Selected Religious and Economic Data, Rural Albany County

Town

Whig vote 1840 (%)

Evangelical and/or New England churches

Conservative churches (Dutch Reformed or Episcopalian)

Percentage of population over 20 in temperance societies, 1833

Percentage of gainfully employed in agriculture

Manufacturing capital per inhabitant ($)

Wool produced per agricultural worker (lbs.)

Dairy produce per agricultural worker ($)

Bushels wheat per agricultural worker

Home Manufacturing per inhabitant ($)

Knox

76.2

2

1

16.4

85.3

4.00

35.0

21.24

13.3

3.94

Guilderland

61.2

2

2

n/a

90.7

2.49

8.4

11.32

1.2

2.35

New Scotland

56.7

6

4

n/a

91.4

1.58

3.1

10.99

0.2

0.00

Bethlehem

54.8

2

2

34.2

91.3

8.97

7.1

9.87

0.1

2.39

Average Whig

3.0

2.3

23.5

89.7

4.26

13.4

13.36

3.7

2.17

Bern

48.7

7

3

25.7

81.0

4.33

25.4

19.39

5.2

2.23

Westerlo

44.3

5

2

55.8

83.9

4.35

17.7

20.11

4.3

2.35

Rensselaerville

29.6

7

1

30.1

73.0

38.95

29.2

23.33

5.2

1.8

Coeymans

27.9

3

2

n/a

73.0

9.99

16.2

21.27

2.0

1.84

Average

5.5

2

36.7

77.7

14.41

22.1

21.02

4.2

2.05

Democratic

Sources: Albany Evening Journal, 19 Nov 1840; Census of the State of New York for 1845; Second Annual Report of the New-York State Society for the Promotion of Temperance (Albany: Packard and Van Benthuysen, 1831); Fourth Annual Report of the New-York State Society for the Promotion of Temperance (Albany: Packard and Van Benthuysen, 1833); Statistics of the United States…1840; Sixth Census of the United States. Statistics on the proportion of the adult population enrolled in temperance societies is based on membership figures in the Fourth Annual Report (1833); where no information was available for a town in that report, they are from the Second Annual Report (1831).

(p.225)

Table A.8. Whig Vote (1840) and Selected Religious and Economic Data, Delaware County

Town

Whig vote 1840 (%)

Evangelical and/or New England churches

Conservative churches (Dutch Reformed or Episcopalian)

Percentage of population over 20 in temperance societies, 1833

Percentage of gainfully employed in agriculture

Manufacturing capital per inhabitant ($)

Wool produced per agricultural worker (lbs.)

Dairy produce per agricultural worker ($)

Bushels wheat per agricultural worker

Home Manufacturing per inhabitant ($)

Andes

65.0

3

0

39.4

87.7

4.32

22.7

39.36

9.1

1.10

Hamden

63.4

1

0

n/a

82.0

14.53

30.7

26.37

0.0

1.68

Bovina

58.9

4

0

10.7

83.5

3.03

33.2

86.43

13.6

2.49

Masonville

57.3

3

0

37.6

90.0

4.96

30.9

22.10

0.0

2.60

Harpersfield

55.9

2

0

n/a

81.5

3.03

36.9

48.09

0.0

2.64

Roxbury

53.1

4

2

11.3

80.8

21.11

20.7

69.58

11.4

2.10

Delhi

52.8

5

1

n/a

66.6

13.98

32.6

44.89

0.0

1.85

Meredith

50.6

3

0

13.1

87.0

3.96

46.1

52.56

0.0

1.85

Average Whig

3.1

0.4

20.5

82.4

8.62

30.5

48.67

4.3

1.95

Stamford

49.9

4

1

17.1

70.2

4.82

91.4

39.41

22.6

1.96

Hancock

48.8

2

0

24.0

56.2

13.11

16.0

37.38

0.0

1.22

Kortright

43.5

5

0

11.6

83.8

5.53

35.5

38.97

17.8

1.83

Middletown

43.0

0

0

21.3

79.5

14.67

24.3

32.64

11.7

1.54

Walton

39.7

3

1

29.3

82.2

3.03

30.9

16.54

0.0

1.84

Colchester

31.4

1

0

38.9

85.9

0.57

19.2

4.11

0.0

1.57

Franklin

27.5

5

0

10.5

83.0

7.32

37.0

36.12

0.0

2.81

Sidney

27.4

2

0

15.9

89.2

6.81

24.9

18.51

0.0

3.22

Tompkins

22.4

5

0

61.7

75.8

8.70

22.2

27.34

0.0

3.22

Davenport

19.8

3

0

n/a

83.5

13.65

19.6

23.68

0.0

1.15

Average

3

0.2

23.5

78.9

7.82

32.1

27.47

5.2

1.89

Democratic

Sources: Delaware Gazette, 18 Nov. 1840; 18, Census of the State of New York for 1845; Second Annual Report of the New-York State Society for the Promotion of Temperance (Albany: Packard and Van Benthuysen, 1831); Fourth Annual Report of the New-York State Society for the Promotion of Temperance (Albany: Packard and Van Benthuysen, 1833); Statistics of the United States…1840; Sixth Census of the United States. Statistics on the proportion of the adult population enrolled in temperance societies is based on membership figures in the Fourth Annual Report (1833); where no information was available for a town in that report, they are form the Second Annual Report (1831).

(p.226)

Table A.9. Occupations of Anti-Rent Association Activists, 1850

Occupation

Albany County

Delawar e County

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

Farmers

106

80.92

35

66.04

141

76.63

Laborers

1

0.76

0

0.00

1

0.54

Millers and Manufacturers

3

2.29

3

5.66

6

3.26

Merchants

10

7.63

9

16.98

19

10.33

Professionals

7

5.34

4

7.55

11

5.98

Craftsmen

4

3.05

2

3.77

6

3.26

Total

131

99.99

53

100.00

184

100.00

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

Table A.10. Real Estate Holdings of Anti-Rent Association Activists Listed as Farmers, 1850

Value of Real Estate

Albany County

Delaware County

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

$0

13

12.26

0

0.00

13

9.22

$1–$999

8

7.55

3

8.57

11

7.80

$1000–$1999

11

10.38

2

5.71

13

9.22

$2000–$2999

19

17.92

12

34.29

31

21.99

$3000–$3999

17

16.04

7

20.00

24

17.02

$4000–$4999

14

13.21

7

20.00

21

14.89

$5000 and up

24

22.64

4

11.43

28

19.86

Total

106

100.00

35

100.00

141

100.00

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

Table A.11. Age of Anti-Rent Association Activists and “Indians,” Delaware County, 1845

Age in 1845

Association Activists

Indians

number

percent

number

percent

under 20

1

1.82

6

17.65

20–29

8

14.55

13

38.24

30–39

18

32.73

8

23.53

40–49

18

32.73

5

14.71

50–59

5

9.09

2

5.88

60 and older

5

9.09

0

0.00

Total

55

100.01

34

100.01

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Delaware Gazette, 15 Oct. 1845; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

(p.227)

Table A.12. Occupations of Indians and Anti-Rent Association Activists, Delaware County, 1845

Occupation

Association Activists

Indians

number

percent

number

percent

Farmers

34

65.38

18

52.94

Craftsmen

2

3.85

4

11.76

Laborers

0

0.00

10

29.41

Manufacturers

3

5.77

0

0.00

Merchants

9

17.31

1

2.94

Professionals

4

7.69

1

2.94

Total

52

100.00

34

99.99

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Delaware Gazette, 15 Oct. 1845; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

Table A.13. Landholdings of Anti-Rent Association Activists and Indians Listed as Farmers, Delaware County, 1850

Value of Real Estate

Association Activists

Indians

number

percent

number

percent

$0

0

0.0

1

5.6

$0–999

3

8.8

5

27.8

$1,000–1,999

2

5.9

5

27.8

$2,000–2,999

12

35.3

2

11.1

$3,000–3,999

7

20.6

1

5.6

$4,000–4,999

7

20.6

2

11.1

$5,000 and over

3

8.8

2

11.1

Total

34

100.0

18

100.1

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Delaware Gazette, 15 Oct. 1845; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

Table A.14. Landholdings of Anti-Rent Association Activists and Indians Listed as Farmers and Aged 35 to 54, Delaware County, 1850

Value of Landholdings

Association Activists

Indians

number

percent

number

percent

$1–999

0

0.0

3

42.9

$1,000–1,999

2

9.1

1

14.3

$2,000 and over

20

90.9

3

42.9

Total

22

100.0

7

100.1

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Delaware Gazette, 15 Oct. 1845; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

(p.228)

Table A.15. Occupations of Supporters and Nonsupporters of National Reform, 1850

Occupation

National Reform Supporters

Not National Reform Supporters

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

Farmers

14

66.67

142

79.33

156

78.00

Laborers

0

0.00

1

0.56

1

0.50

Millers and Manufacturers

0

0.00

6

3.35

6

3.00

Merchants

2

9.52

18

10.06

20

10.00

Professionals

4

19.05

7

3.91

11

5.50

Craftsmen

1

4.76

5

2.79

6

3.00

Total

21

100.00

179

100.00

200

100.00

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Anti-Renter, 1845–46; Young America, 1845–46; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

Table A.16. Real Estate Holdings of Supporters and Nonsupporters of National Reform Listed as Farmers, 1850

Value of Real Estate

National Reform Supporters

Not National Reform Supporters

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

$0

0

0.00

14

10.69

14

9.66

$1–$999

1

7.14

10

7.63

11

7.59

$1000–$1999

1

7.14

12

9.16

13

8.97

$2000–$2999

2

14.29

29

22.14

31

21.38

$3000–$3999

3

21.43

22

16.79

25

17.24

$4000–$4999

4

28.57

18

13.74

22

15.17

$5000 and up

3

21.43

26

19.85

29

20.00

Total

14

100.00

131

100.00

145

100.01

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Anti-Renter, 1845–46; Young America, 1845–46; 1850 Federal Manuscript Census, Population Schedules, Albany and Delaware Counties, New York.

Table A.17. Party Activities of Supporters and Nonsupporters of National Reform, 1832–1846

Party Affiliation

National Reform Supporters

Not National Reform Supporters

Total

number

percent

number

percent

number

percent

Democrats

9

90.0

55

60.4

64

63.4

Whigs

1

10.0

36

39.6

37

36.6

Total

10

100.0

91

100.0

101

100.0

Sources: Albany Freeholder, 1845–46; Anti-Renter, 1845–46; Young America, 1845–46; Albany Evening Journal, 1834–44; Daily Albany Argus, 1832–44.

(p.229)

Table A.18. Populations of Helderberg Towns, 1840 and 1865

Town

Population 1840

Population 1865

Percent Change

Bern

3,740

2,851

−23.8

Knox

2,143

1,809

−15.6

New Scotland

2,912

3,311

+ 13.7

Rensselaerville

3,705

2,745

−25.9

Westerlo

3,096

2,497

−19.3

Total

15,596

13,213

−15.3

Sources: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840; Census of the State of New York, for the Year 1865.

Table A.19. Population of Selected Delaware County Leasehold Towns 1840 and 1865

Town

Population 1840

Population 1865

Percent change

Andes

2,176

2,815

+ 29.4

Bovina

1,403

1,146

−18.3

Kortright

2,441

1,897

−22.3

Middletown

2,608

3,119

+ 19.6

Roxbury

3,013

2,335

−22.5

Stamford

1,681

1,556

−7.4

Total

13,322

12,868

−3.4

Sources: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840; Census of the State of New York, for the Year 1865.

Table A.20. Production of Selected Crops and Livestock in Selected Manor Towns, Albany and Delaware County, 1840 and 1865

Crops

Albany County, 1840

Albany County, 1865

Delaware County, 1840

Delaware County, 1865

Wheat (bu.)

17,197

2,008

38,197

1,667

Rye (bu.)

52,977

43,865

60,023

15,175

Potatoes (bu.)

313,913

152,435

315,890

151,158

Peas (bu.)

n/a

4,419

n/a

342

Beans (bu.)

n/a

2,009

n/a

354

Poultry ($)

14,242

23,373

5,826

8,050

Eggs Sold ($)

n/a

18,182

n/a

3,018

Home-manufactured cloth (yards)

n/a

15,640

n/a

23,445

Hay (tons)

27,188

33,978

33,125

41,199

Hogs

18,387

6,014

9,847

4,546

Sheep

39,436

32,167

56,546

17,277

Wool (lbs.)

72,800

138,093

97,059

56,205

Cattle

15,990

8,186

23,758

25,409

Dairy products ($)

$68,667

n/a

$138,272

n/a

Butter (lbs.)

429,169 (est.)

674,273

864,200 (est.)

2,002,357

Sources: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840; Census of the State of New York, for the Year 1865. To make production figures for butter comparable between years, the 1840 figures for dairy products, which were in dollars, were converted into pounds by dividing them by the average market price in Boston for the year 1840, as listed in Percy Wells Bidwell and John I Falconer, History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620–1860 (New York: Peter Smith, 1941), 502.

(p.230)

Table A.21. Votes Selected Leasehold Towns, Albany and Delaware Counties, 1848, 1856–60

Town

1848 (percentages)

1856 (percentages)

1858 (percentages)

1860 (percentages)

Free Soil

Dem.

Whig

Rep.

Dem.

Amer.

Rep.

Dem.

Amer.

Rep.

Dem.

Berne

18.3

30.1

51.5

39.0

29.5

31.5

48.3

38.9

7.4

50.7

49.3

Knox

11.7

15.2

73.1

48.7

15.4

35.9

49.4

30.5

20.1

66.3

33.7

New Scotland

10.8

33.0

56.1

46.2

28.6

25.2

44.3

35.9

19.1

59.3

40.7

Rensselaerville

38.9

38.5

22.6

34.9

56.2

9.0

29.8

57.2

7.5

38.5

61.5

Westerlo

12.5

48.3

39.2

45.0

36.8

18.2

44.1

39.0

15.8

49.4

50.6

Helderberg Average

19.0

33.9

47.1

42.2

34.8

23.0

42.7

41.1

13.6

52.0

48.0

Andes

84.2

1.4

14.4

42.3

6.64

51.0

37.2

10.4

52.4

63.7

36.3

Bovina

91.5

2.7

5.8

69.0

7.54

23.4

65.9

19.0

15.1

74.9

25.1

Kortright

79.4

8.9

11.7

31.4

22.0

46.5

37.3

30.6

32.1

53.0

47.0

Middletown

80.0

7.2

12.8

19.8

45.1

35.2

44.4

48.8

6.8

48.8

51.2

Roxbury

50.2

8.2

41.6

20.5

36.2

43.3

38.7

50.2

11.1

44.8

55.2

Stamford

54.3

9.8

36.0

30.5

33.0

36.6

39.6

35.7

24.8

53.4

46.6

Delaware County Average

70.9

6.6

22.5

32.5

26.9

40.7

42.0

34.4

23.7

54.9

45.1

Sources: Albany Evening Journal; Daily Albany Argus; Delaware Gazette; Joel Silbey-Lee Benson New York Election Data, 1845–1857.