Measurement and Analysis
This chapter focuses on measurement of exposures, risk factors, prognostic factors, in addition to statistical analysis methods for assessing the association of those factors with disease outcomes. Separate sections of the chapter are devoted to disease severity measures, general health and quality of life measures, and functional status measures, as well as methods of data collection (medical record abstraction, questionnaires, biological measures). The middle section of the chapter addresses issues regarding measurement error, including types of measurement error (random error, systematic error), misclassification (differential, nondifferential), and the effects of these errors on study validity. Methods for assessing and improving data reliability and validity are discussed. The last section of the chapter provides a concise but informative overview of statistical techniques for analyzing epidemiologic data.
Keywords: methods, questionnaires, quality of life measures, functional status measures, outcome measures, risk factors, prognostic factors, statistical analysis, statistical power, sample size estimation
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