Adaptive and Maladaptive Fear-Related Behaviors
Implications for Psychopathology from Kalin’s Primate Model
This chapter expounds on Ned Kalin's primate model introduced in the previous chapter by exploring its implications for psychopathology. Specifically, the focus is on maladaptive fear responses occurring outside the normal contexts that elicit fear. The first section reviews Kalin's findings on fear-related defensive behaviors in infant primates such as freezing, cooing, and barking. The studies reveal that these behaviors develop around the same time and have particular environmental cues. Succeeding sections outline the ontogeny of these adaptive defensive behaviors and discuss the physiological characteristics of the fear-related behavioral system. Other sections explore individual differences in behavior which may be considered maladaptive and can be divided into two types: differences in intensity and the inappropriate use of behaviors. An alternative to the traditional syndrome-based conceptualization of fear-related psychopathology—one that highlights symptomatology—is also discussed. The final section examines psychopathological symptoms and its mechanisms for dysregulation and neural substrates.
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