Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Ambrose BierceAlone in Bad Company$

Roy Morris

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780195126280

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195126280.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.290) Bibliography

(p.290) Bibliography

Source:
Ambrose Bierce
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Manuscripts

Boston Public Library

University of Louisville

Brigham Young University

Marietta College

Brooklyn Public Library

University of Michigan

California State Library

Middlebury College

Connecticut Historical Society

New-York Historical Society

Dartmouth College

Oakland Public Library

Elkhart Public Library

Princeton University

Ella Strong Denison Library

University of Oregon

Filson Club

University of Pennsylvania

Harvard University

University of Rochester

Huntington Library

University of Southern California

University of Illinois

Stanford University

Indiana Historical Society

Syracuse University

Kentucky Historical Society

University of Virginia

Knox College

Wagner College

Library of Congress

Yale University

Newspapers

Chico Enterprise

San Francisco Argonaut

Elkhart Daily Truth

San Francisco Examiner

Elkhart Review

San Francisco News Letter

Indianapolis Journal

San Francisco Wasp

Indianapolis Sentinel

Washington Times

New York Times

Weekly Alta California

Government Documents

U.S. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. 128 vols. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901.

Ambrose Bierce Military Service Records and Pension Records, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Books By Ambrose Bierce

Bierce, Ambrose. Black Beetles in Amber. San Francisco: Western Authors Publishing Company, 1892.

———. Can Such Things Be? New York: Cassell Publishing Company, 1893.

——— [Dod Grile, pseud.]. Cobwebs from an Empty Skull. London: George Routledge and Sons, 1974.

———. The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce. 12 vols. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1909–1912.

———. The Cynic's Word Book. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1906.

——— [William Herman, pseud.]. The Dance of Death. San Francisco: Henry Keller and Company, 1877.

(p.291) ———. Fantastic Fables. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1899.

——— [Dod Grile, pseud.]. The Fiend's Delight. London: John Camden Hotten, 1873.

——— [with C. A. Danziger]. The Monk and the Hangman's Daughter. Chicago: F. J. Schulte, 1892.

——— [Dod Grile, pseud.]. Nuggets and Dust. London: Chatto and Windus, 1872.

———. The Shadow on the Dial and Other Essays. San Francisco: A. M. Robertson, 1909.

———. Shapes of Clay. San Francisco: W. E. Wood, 1903.

———. Tales of Soldiers and Civilians. San Francisco: E. L. G. Steele, 1892.

———. Write It Right. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1909.

Books, Articles, and Dissertations

Aaron, Daniel. “Ambrose Bierce and the American Civil War.” In Critical Essays on Ambrose Bierce, edited by Cathy N. Davidson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982.

———. The Unwritten War: American Writers and the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Anderson, Charles D., ed. The Centennial Edition of the Works of Sidney Lanier. 10 vols. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1945.

Anderson, D. D. “Can Ohio and the Midwest Claim Ambrose Bierce?” Ohioana 16 (Summer 1973), 84–89.

———. “The Old Northwest.” In Critical Essays on Ambrose Bierce, edited by Cathy N. Davidson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982.

Andrews, W. L. “Some New Ambrose Bierce Fables.” American Literary Realism 8 (Autumn 1975), 349–52.

Atherton, Gertrude. Adventures of a Novelist. New York: Liveright, 1923.

———. “The Literary Development of California.” Cosmopolitan 10 (January 1891), 269–78.

Atkin, Ronald. Revolution: Mexico, 1910–1920. New York: John Daly Co., 1970.

Austin, Mary. “George Sterling at Carmel.” American Mercury 41 (May 1927), 65–72.

Bachtzhold, Howard G. Mark Twain and John Bull: The British Connection. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1970.

Bahr, Howard W. “Ambrose Bierce and Realism.” Southern Quarterly 1 (July 1963), 309–31.

Beer, Thomas. The Mauve Decade, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1926.

Bell, William Gardner. “Attack Outside Fort's Walls.” Wild West (June 1993), 38–44.

Berkove, Lawrence. “Ambrose Bierce's Concern with Mind and Man.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1962.

———. Ambrose Bierce: Skepticism and Dissent. Selected Journalism from 1898–1901. Ann Arbor: Delmas Books, 1980.

———. “Arms and the Man: Ambrose Bierce's Response to War.” Michigan Academician 1 (1969), 21–30.

———. “‘Hades in Trouble’: A Rediscovered Story by Ambrose Bierce.” American Literary Realism 25, 67–84.

——— “The Heart Has Its Reasons: Ambrose Bierce's Successful Failure at Philosophy.” In Critical Essays on Ambrose Bierce, edited by Cathy N. Davidson. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982.

———. “The Man with the Burning Pen: Ambrose Bierce as Journalist.” Journal of Popular Cultured (February 1981), 34–40.

———. “A Strange Adventure: The Story Behind a Bierce Tale.” American Literary Realism 14 (1981), 70–76.

Berryman, John. Stephen Crane. New York: World Publishing Company, 1962.

Bierce, Helen. “Ambrose Bierce at Home.” American Mercury 30 (December 1933), 453–58.

(p.292) Braddy, Haldeen. “Ambrose Bierce and de Maupassant.” American Notes dr Queries 1 (April-May 1941), 67–68.

———. “Trailing Ambrose Bierce.” American Notes & Queries 1 (April-May 1941), 4–5, 20.

Brazil, John R. “Behind the Bitterness: Ambrose Bierce in Text and Context.” American Literary Realism 13 (1980), 225–37.

Brodsky, Alyn. Imperial Charade: A Biography of Emperor Napoleon III. Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1978.

Brooks, Van Wyck. The Confident Years: 1885–1915. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1952.

———. Emerson and Others. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1927.

Castel, Albert. Decision in the West: The Atlanta. Campaign of 1864. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1992.

Clayton, Juliana. “Lieutenant's Ghastly Discovery.” Wild West (August 1992), 26–32.

Conlogue, William. “A Haunting Memory: Ambrose Bierce and the Ravine of the Dead.” Studies in Short Fiction, 28 (Winter 1991), 21–29.

Connell, Evan S. Son of the Morning Star. San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984.

Cooper, A. B. “Ambrose Bierce, an Appraisal.” Bookman 33 (July 1911), 471–78.

Cornish, Dudley Warner. The Sable Arm: Black Troops in the U.S. Army, 1861–1865. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1956.

Coulter, E. Merton. The South During Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1947.

Couser, Thomas G. “Writing the Civil War: Ambrose Bierce's ‘Jupiter Doke, Brigadier-General.’” Studies in American Fiction 18 (Spring 1990), 87—98.

Cozzens, Peter. No Better Place to Die: The Battle of Stones River. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

———. This Terrible Sound: The Battle of Chickamauga. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Crane, J. K. “Crossing the Bar Twice: Post-Mortem Consciousness.” Studies in Short Fiction 6 (1968), 361–65.

Curry, Richard O., and F. Gerald Ham, eds. “The Bushwhackers' War: Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency in West Virginia.” Blue dr Gray (February-March 1985), 30–37.

Davidson, Cathy N., ed. Critical Essays on Ambrose Bierce. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1982.

———. The Experimental Fictions of Ambrose Bierce. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

———. “Literary Semantics and the Fiction of Ambrose Bierce.” ETC: A Review of General Semantics 31 (1974), 263–71.

DeCastro, Adolph. “Ambrose Bierce as He Really Was.” American Parade 1 (October 1926), 28–44.

———. Portrait of Ambrose Bierce. New York: Century Company, 1929.

DeGregorio, William A. The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents. New York: Dembner Books, 1984.

Dimeo, Steven. “Psychological Symbolism in Three Early Tales of Invisibility.” Riverside Quarterly 5 (1971), 20–27.

Dos Passos, John. The Best Times. New York: New American Library, 1966.

Dunbar, J. R. “Letters of George Sterling to Carey McWilliams.” California Historical Society Quarterly 46 (Summer 1967), 235–52.

Edel, Leon. Henry James. New York: Harper & Row, 1985.

Eisenhower, John S. D. Intervention: The U.S. and the Mexican Revolution, 1913–1917. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993.

Ellman, Richard. Oscar Wilde. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988.

Fadiman, Clifton, ed. The Collected Writings of Ambrose Bierce. New York: Citadel Press, 1946.

Farwell, Byron. Queen Victoria's Little Wars. New York: W. W. Norton, 1972.

Fatout, Paul. “Ambrose Bierce.” American Literary Realism 1 (Fall 1967), 13–19.

(p.293) ——— Ambrose Eierce and the Black Hills. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956.

———. “Ambrose Bierce: Civil War Topographer.” American Literature 36 (November 1954), 391–400.

———. Ambrose Bierce: The Devil's Lexicographer. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1951.

Faust, Patricia L, ed. Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.

Field, B. S., Jr. “Ambrose Bierce as Comic.” Western Humanities Review 31 (1977), 173–80.

Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Fleming, Walter L. Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama. New York: Columbia University Press, 1905.

———. Documentary History of Reconstruction. Vol. 1. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1906.

Follett, Wilson. “Ambrose Bierce—An Analysis of the Perverse Wit That Shaped His Work.” Bookman 68 (November 1928), 284–89.

———. “Ambrose, Son of Marcus Aurelius.” Atlantic Monthly (July 1937), 32–42.

Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. 3 vols. New York: Random House, 1958–74.

Fortenberry, G. E. “Ambrose Bierce: A Critical Bibliography of Secondary Comment.” American Literary Realism 4 (Winter 1971), 11–16.

Foulke, William Dudley. Life of Oliver Morton. Vol 1. Indianapolis and Kansas City: Bowen-Merrill Company, 1899.

Fox, William. Regimental Losses in the American Civil War: 1861–1865. Albany: Augustus S. Bradshaw, 1898.

Francedese, Janet M. “Ambrose Bierce as Journalist.” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1977.

Fraser, J. M. “Points South: Ambrose Bierce, Jorge Luis Borges.” Studies in 20th-century Literature 1 (1977), 173–81.

Frink, Maurice. “A Sidelight on Ambrose Bierce.” Book Notes (August 1923), 154.

Fuentes, Carlos. The Old Gringo. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1985.

Gold, Theodore S., ed. Historical Records of the Town of Cornwall, Connecticut. Hartford: Hartford Press, 1904.

Goldstein, J. S. “Edwin Markham, Ambrose Bierce, and ‘The Man with the Hoe.’” Modern Language Notes 58 (March 1943), 165–75.

Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. 2 vols. New York: Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885.

Grattan, C. Hartley. Bitter Bierce: A Mystery of American Letters. New York: Doubleday, 1929.

Grenander, M. E. Ambrose Bierce. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1971.

———. “Ambrose Bierce and Charles Warren Stoddard: Some Unpublished Correspondence.” Huntington Library Quarterly 23 (May 1960), 261–92.

———. “Ambrose Bierce and Cobwebs from an Empty Skull: A Note on BAL 1100 and 1107.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 69 (1975), 403–6.

———. “Ambrose Bierce, John Camden Hotten, The Fiend's Delight, and Nuggets and Dust.” Huntington Library Quarterly 28 (August 1965), 353–71.

———. “Bierce's Turn of the Screw: Tales of Ironical Terror.” Western Humanities Review 11 (Summer 1957), 257–63.

———. “California's Albion: Mark Twain, Ambrose Bierce, Tom Hood, John Camden Hotten, and Andrew Chatto.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 72 (1978), 457–62.

———. “H. L. Mencken to Ambrose Bierce.” Book Club of California Quarterly News Letter 22 (Winter 1956), 5–10.

(p.294) ———. “A London Letter of Joaquin Miller to Ambrose Bierce.” Yale University Library Gazetted (October 1971), 109–16.

———. “Seven Ambrose Bierce Letters.” Yale University Library Gazette 32 (July 1957), 12–18.

Guelzo, Allen C. “Bierce's Civil War.” Civil War Times Illustrated (September 1981), 36–45.

Gustaitis, Joseph. “South Carolina's Henry Timrod.” America's Civil War (September 1992), 10–14.

Guttman, Jon. “Emperor Norton I.” Wild West (February 1989), 8, 55–58.

Guzman, Martin Luis. The Eagle and the Serpent. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1930.

Harding, Ruth Guthrie. “Mr. Boythorn Bierce.” Bookman 61 (August 1925), 636–43.

Harris, Leon. “Satan's Lexicographer.” American Heritage 28 (April 1972), 57–63.

Hartwell, Ronald. “What Hemingway Learned from Ambrose Bierce.” Research Studies 38 (December 1970), 309–11.

Hazen, William B. A Narrative of Military Service. Boston: Ticknor & Company, 1885.

Hemingway, Ernest. The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1938.

Henry, Robert Selph. The Story of Reconstruction. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1938.

Highsmith, James Milton. “The Forms of Burlesque in The Devil's Dictionary.” Satire Newsletter (Spring 1970), 115–27.

Hobson, Fred. Mencken: A Life. New York: Random House, 1994.

Hopkins, Ernest Jerome, ed. The Ambrose Bierce Satanic Reader. Garden City: Doubledayand Company, 1968.

———. The Complete Short Stories of Ambrose Bierce. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.

Jacobus, Donald Lines. “The Bierce Family.” Connecticut Historical Society Genealogical Manuscript Collection.

Jones, Idwal. “San Francisco: An Elegy.” American Mercury 20 (August 1925), 477–84.

Jones, James P., Jr. “‘Bull’ and the ‘Damned Puppy’: A Civil War Tragedy.” American History Illustrated (November 1972), 12–21.

Kaplan, Justin. Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966.

———. Walt Whitman: A Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1980.

Kelly, Dennis. “Atlanta Campaign: Mountains to Pass, A River to Cross.” Blue & Gray (June 1989), 8–30, 46–58.

Ketz, Louise Bilebof, ed. Dictionary of American History. Vol. 5. New York: Scribner, 1976.

Kleber, John E., ed. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1992.

Klein, Marcus. “San Francisco and Her Hateful Ambrose Bierce.” Hudson Review 7 (August 1954), 392–407.

Knepper, George W., ed. Travels in the Southland, 1822–1823: The Journal of Lucius Vents Bierce. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1966.

Knight, Melinda. “Cultural Radicalism in the American Fin de Siecle: The Emergence of an Oppositional Literary Culture.” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1992.

Kramer, Carl E. Capital on the Kentucky: A Two-Hundred-Year History of Frankfort and Franklin County. Frankfort: Historic Frankfort, Inc., 1984.

Kroeker, Marvin E. “William B. Hazen: A Military Career in the Frontier West, 1855–1880.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1987.

Lamers, William M. The Edge of Glory: A Biography of General William S. Rosecrans, U.S.A. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961.

Leider, Emily. “‘Your Picture Hangs in My Salon’: The Letters of Gertrude Atherton to Ambrose Bierce.” California History (Winter 1981–82), 333–49.

Lewis, Oscar. San Francisco: Mission to Metropolis. Berkeley: Howell-North, 1966.

(p.295) —— This Was San Francisco. New York: David McKay, 1962.

Linderman, Gerald F. Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War. New York: Free Press, 1987.

———. The Mirror of War: American Society and the Spanish-American War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1974.

Lingeman, Richard. Theodore Dreiser: At the Gate of the City 1871–1907. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1986.

Lock, Rosalind. “Jim Beckwourth.” Wild West (Qune 1993), 8, 78–79.

Logan, F. J. “The Wry Seriousness of ‘Owl Creek Bridge.’” American Literary Realism 10 (Spring 1977), 101–13.

Mahoney, Tom. “The End of Ambrose Bierce.” Esquire (February 1936), 62, 149—50.

Mallinson, David. “Confused First Fight.” America's Civil War (January 1992), 46–52.

Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary of American Biography. Vol. 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1932.

Marberry, M. M. Splendid Poseur: Joaquin Miller—American Poet. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1953.

Marcus, F. H. “Film and Fiction: ‘An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.’” California English Journal 7 (1971), 14–23.

Marcus, Steven. The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England. New York: Basic Books, 1964.

Mariani, Giorgio. “Ambrose Bierce's Civil War Stories and the Critique of the Martial Spirit.” Studies in American Fiction 19 (Autumn 1991), 221–28.

Marszalek, John F. Sherman: A Soldier's Passion for Order. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Martin, Jay. “Ambrose Bierce.” The Comic Imagination of American Literature, edited by Louis D. Rubin, Jr. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1973.

McCann, William, ed. Ambrose Bierce's Civil War. Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York: Henry Regnery Company, 1956.

McDonough, James Lee. Chattanooga—A Death Grip on the Confederacy. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1984.

———. Shiloh—In Hell Before Night. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1977.

McDonough, James Lee, and Thomas L. Connelly. Five Tragic Hours: The Battle of Franklin. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983.

McFeely, William S. Grant: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton, 1981.

McGinty, Brian. “His Bones Were Never Found.” American History Illustrated (January-February 1990), 52–57.

McMichael, George, ed. Anthology of American Literature. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan, 1980.

McMurry, Richard. “Resaca: ‘A Heap of Hard Fiten.’” Civil War Times Illustrated (December 1971), 20–28, 43–49.

McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

McWilliams, Carey. Ambrose Bierce: A Biography. New York: A. and C. Boni, 1929.

———. “Ambrose Bierce and His First Love.” Bookman 35 (June 1932), 254–59.

———. “The Mystery of Ambrose Bierce.” American Mercury 22 (March 1931), 330–37.

Mencken, H. L. A Book of Prefaces. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1917.

———. “The Ambrose Bierce Mystery.” American Mercury 18 (September 1929), 124–26.

———. Prejudices, Sixth Series. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1927.

Millard, Bailey. “Personal Memories of Bierce.” Bookman 40 (February 1915), 653–58.

Miller, Arthur M. “The Influence of Edgar Allan Poe on Ambrose Bierce.” American Literature 4 (May 1932), 130–50.

Monaghan, Frank. “Ambrose Bierce and the Authorship of The Monk and the Hangman's DaughterAmerican Literature2 (January 1932), 337–49.

(p.296) Morrill, Sibley S. Ambrose Bierce, F, A. Mitchell-Hedges and the Crystal Skull. San Francisco: Cadleon Press, 1972.

Morris, Roy, Jr. “All Hell Can't Stop Them.” Military History (February 1986), 34–40.

———. “Battle in the Bluegrass.” Civil War Times Illustrated (December 1988), 15–23.

———. “A Bird of Evil Omen: The War Department's Charles Dana.” Civil War Times Illustrated (January 1987), 20–29.

———. “The Sack of Athens.” Civil War Times Illustrated (February 1986), 26–32.

———. Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan. New York: Crown, 1992.

Morris, Roy, Jr., and Phil Noblitt. “The History of a Failure.” Civil War Times Illustrated (September 1988), 36–43.

Muscatine, Doris. Old San Francisco: The Biography of a City. New York: Putnam's, 1975.

Nations, Leroy J. “Ambrose Bierce: The Gray Wolf of American Letters.” South Atlantic Quarterly 25 (1926), 253–58.

Neale, Walter. Life of Ambrose Bierce. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1929.

Nickell, Joe. Ambrose Bierce Is Missing and Other Historical Mysteries. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1992.

O'Brien, Matthew C. “Ambrose Bierce and the Civil War: 1865.” American Literature 48 (November 1976), 377–81.

O'Connor, Richard J. Ambrose Bierce: A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967.

Otis, Amos. “Bearse.” Genealogical Notes of Barnstable Families, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1979.

O'Toole, G. J. A. The Spanish War: An American Epic. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1984.

Owens, David M. “Bierce and Biography: The Location of Owl Creek Bridge.” American Literary Realism 26 (Spring 1994), 82–89.

Painter, Nell Irvin. Standing at Armageddon. New York and London: W. W. Norton, 1987.

Partridge, Eric. “Ambrose Bierce.” London Mercury 16 (October 1927), 625–38.

Peckham, Howard H. Indiana: A Bicentennial History. New York: W. W. Norton, 1978.

Peskin, Allan. Garfield. Kent: Kent State University Press, 1978.

Phelps, William Lyon, ed. Letters of James Whitcomb Riley. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1933.

Pollard, Percival. Their Day in Court. New York: Neale Publishing Company, 1909.

Pope, Bertha Clark, ed. The Letters of Ambrose Bierce. San Francisco: The Book Club of California, 1922.

Powers, James G. “Freud and Farquhar: An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge?” Studies in Short Fiction 19 (Summer 1982), 278–81.

Purdue, Howell and Elizabeth. Pat Cleburne: Confederate General. Hillsboro: Hill Junior College Press, 1973.

Randle, Kevin D. “Reckless Pursuit Halted.” Military History (August 1986), 20–25.

Rather, Lois. Bittersweet: Ambrose Bierce and Women. Oakland; Rather Press, 1975.

Reed, Ishmael. “On Ambrose Bierce's Tales of Soldiers and Civilians.” In Classics of Civil War Fiction, edited by David Madden and Peggy Bach. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 1991,37–43.

Richards, Robert F. Concise Dictionary of American Literature. New York: Philosphical Library, 1955.

Rogge, Robert G. “Heartland Hammered Furiously.” America's Civil War (May 1988), 18–25.

Roth, Russell. “Ambrose Bierce's ‘Detestable Creature.’” Western American Literature 9 (November 1974), 169–76.

Roundtree, Benjamin, ed. “Letters from a Confederate Soldier.” Georgia Review 18 (1964), 287–88.

(p.297) Saunders, Richard. Ambrose Bierce: The Making of a Misanthrope. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1985.

Schaefer, Michael Wingfield. “‘Just What War Is’: Realism in the Civil War Writings of John W. De Forest and Ambrose Bierce.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, 1990.

Sears, Stephen W. George B. McClellan: The Young Napoleon. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1988.

Secrest, Philip. “Scene of Awful Carnage.” Civil War Times Illustrated (June 1971), 5–9, 45–49.

Sefton, James E. United States Army and Reconstruction, 1865–1877. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967.

Silber, Nina. The Romance of Reunion: Northerners and the South, 1865–1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Slade, Joseph W. “‘Putting You in the Papers’: Ambrose Bierce's Letters to Edwin Markham.” Prospects 1 (1975), 335–68.

Smith, Page. The Rise of Industrial America. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984.

Solomon, Eric. “The Bitterness of Battle: Ambrose Bierce's War Fiction.” Midwest Quarterly 5 (1963–64), 147–65.

Starr, Edward C. A History of Cornwall, Connecticut. New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse and Taylor, 1926.

Starr, Kevin. Americans and the California Dream. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Starrett, Vincent. Buried Caesars. Chicago: Covici McGee, 1923.

Stein, W. B. “Bierce's ‘The Death of Halpin Frayser’: The Poetics of Gothic Consciousness.” Emerson Society Quarterly 18 (1972), 115–22.

Stephen, Sir Leslie, and Sir Sidney Lee, eds. Dictionary of National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1921.

Sterling, George. “The Shadow Maker.” American Mercury 6 (September 1925), 10–19.

Stoicheff, Peter. “‘Something Uncanny’: The Dream Structure of Ambrose Bierce's ‘An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge.’” Studies in Short Fiction 30 (Summer 1993), 355–65.

St. Pierre, Brian, ed. The Devil's Advocate: An Ambrose Bierce Reader. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1987.

Stubbs. John C. “Ambrose Bierce's Contributions to Cosmopolitan: An Annotated Bibliography.” American Literary Realism 4 (Winter 1971), 57–59.

Suhr, Robert Collins. “Storming Through the Ice.” America's Civil War (May 1989), 26–33.

Superintendent's Report, Kentucky Military Institute, June 16, 1859.

Swanberg, William A. Citizen Hearst. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1961.

Tepper, Michael, ed. Passengers to America. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1977.

Thomas, Jeffrey. “Ambrose Bierce.” American Literary Realism 8 (Summer 1975), 198–201.

Tucker, Glenn. Chickamauga: Bloody Battle in the West. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1961.

Utley, Robert M. Cavalier in Buckskin: George Armstrong Custer and the Western Military Frontier. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988.

———. The Indian Frontier and the American West, 1846–1890. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

Walker, Dale L. “A Last Laugh for Ambrose Bierce.” American West 10 (November 1973), 34–39, 63.

Walker, Franklin. Ambrose Bierce: The Wickedest Man in San Francisco. San Francisco: Colt Press, 1941.

—— San Francisco's Literary Frontier. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1939.

Wallace, Lew. An Autobiography. 2 vols. New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1906.

(p.298) Watkins, Sam R. Co. “Aytch.” New York: Collier Books, 1962.

Watson, Bruce. “Who Was It Wrote The Devil's Dictionary?Smithsonian (March 1992), 103–114.

Weeden, William B. War Government, Federal and State, in Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Indiana, 1861–1865. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1906.

Weimer, David R. “Ambrose Bierce and the Art of War.” In Essays in Literary History, edited by Rudolf Kirk and C. F. Main. New York: Russell and Russell, 1965.

West, George. “The California Literati.” American Mercury 8 (July 1926), 281–86.

Wiggins, R. A. “Ambrose Bierce: A Romantic in the Age of Realism.” American Literary Realism 4 (Winter 1971), 1–10.

Williams, Stanley T. “Ambrose Bierce and Bret Harte.” American Literature 17 (May 1945), 179–80.

Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

Wilt, Napier. “Ambrose Bierce and the Civil War.” American Literature 1 (November 1929), 260–85.

Woodruff, Stuart C. The Short Stories of Ambrose Bierce: A Study in Polarity. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1964.

Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1980.