This chapter discusses the upper and lower South's respective answers to the slavery question, which lay in different ways of reconfiguring the institution. In the upper South, that reconfiguration was a demographic one. The idea of a demographic reconfiguration of slavery emphasized the gradual whitening of the region and depended heavily on continued lower South demand for slaves and an active internal slave trade. The lower South's reconfiguration was ideological in nature, and it revolved around the embrace of race as the chief justification for slavery, the acceptance of white egalitarianism as the ethos of the region's political culture, and the triumph of paternalism as the lower South's prevailing ideology of slaveholding.
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