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Work and Family—Allies or Enemies?What Happens When Business Professionals Confront Life Choices$

Stewart D. Friedman and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780195112757

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2011

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195112757.001.0001

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(p.175) Appendix One Design and Methodology of Our Study

(p.175) Appendix One Design and Methodology of Our Study

Source:
Work and Family—Allies or Enemies?
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The design of any research project must be consistent with its aims. And our aim has been to understand the relationships between the work lives and family lives of business professionals—how work affects family, how family influences work, and how men and women experience work and family. To achieve our objective required that we

  • Identify a sample of men and women business professionals

  • Assess their work and family experiences, as well as the outcomes of those experiences

  • Analyze the data and present the findings in a manner accessible to a broad spectrum of readers

The Survey Sample

The primary sample for our research consists of alumni of two university schools of business in Philadelphia: the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and the College of Business and Administration of Drexel University. Wharton, which provided about two-thirds of our sample, is consistently ranked among the nation's elite business schools, and draws its students from throughout the United States and abroad. Drexel, which provided about one-third of our sample, has an excellent regional reputation; most students there come from the greater Philadelphia area, but many states and countries are also represented among the student body.

A total of 861 alumni from these schools each completed written surveys that were mailed to their homes.1 Approximately 64 percent of the sample hold the MBA degree; the remainder have baccalaureate degrees in business.

We chose to study business school alumni for several reasons. First, most graduates of business schools work as managers or professionals in the private or public sector, which assured that we ended up with a large number of business professionals in our sample. Second, we wanted to avoid a sample within one particular organization; the alumni represent a (p.176) wide range of organizations, including the respondents' own businesses, as well as a broad spectrum of industries. Had we sampled individuals from only one or two employers, we doubt our findings would be as representative of our target population—business professionals in general—as they turn out to be.

We chose these two schools in particular because as faculty members at the respective institutions we were granted access to the names and addresses of our schools' graduates for the purposes of this study.

Appendix One Design and Methodology of Our Study

FIGURE APPENDIX 1.1 Who's who in our sample?

(p.177) The average age of our business professionals at the time of the survey is 38.4 years. Nearly two-thirds are men, and the vast majority are Caucasians and U.S. citizens.2 More than 80 percent of the sample are employed in organizations of various sizes, often quite large, and the great majority hold upper-or middle-level positions in those organizations. A sizable minority run their own businesses. Figure Appendix 1.1 provides a snapshot of personal, family, and work background characteristics of the business professionals we studied.

Of course, caution is the watchword when generalizing our findings to the broader population of business professionals. Nevertheless, we believe our sample does represent highly educated men and women who work in middleand upper-level managerial or professional positions for mid-size or large organizations in various sectors of the economy.

We mailed 4,101 surveys: 3,000 (73%) to alumni of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and 1,101 (27%) to alumni of the College of Business and Administration of Drexel University in the closing months of 1992. Approximately 60 percent of the surveys were sent to MBA graduates; the rest went to graduates of bachelor's degree programs. The MBA graduating classes of 1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, and 1989 were sampled, as were the bachelor's degree classes of 1964, 1974, and 1984.

To ensure that women would be represented among the respondents, we sent surveys to 100 percent of the women graduates in a given class and only a random sample of men.3 Of the 4,101 surveys, 2,957 (72%) were sent to men and 1,144 (28%) were sent to women.

Of the surveys we mailed, 3 3 were returned undelivered, leaving a total of 4,068 surveys we believe reached the alumni. From this group, completed surveys were returned by 927 alumni—a response rate of approximately 2 3 percent.4 Women were slightly overrepresented among the respondents: although they received 28 percent of the surveys, women constituted 36 percent of the group that returned completed surveys.

Wharton alumni comprised 71 percent of the respondent group, while Drexel alumni comprised 29 percent. These percentages correspond very closely to the percentages of surveys distributed to alumni of the two institutions.

Finally, of the 927 alumni who returned completed surveys, 861 are employed. This group of 861 constitutes the survey sample we examine throughout the book.

What Did We Ask?

The comprehensive written survey we mailed to the alumni in our main sample is adapted in part from the existing literature; we wrote other sections expressly for this study. We measured data from questions in six categories—the variables described briefly below and in more detail in the sections that follow.5

  1. 1. Personal background includes a variety of demographic characteristics, (p.178) life role priorities, and values and beliefs regarding career success and life success.

  2. 2. Career choices and experiences includes career goals, career involvement, adjustment of work schedule for family and personal reasons, job authority; receipt of key developmental assignments and coaching, participation in networking activities, family supportiveness of employer, and priority of career compared to the priority of the spouse's (or partner's) career.

  3. 3. Career outcomes includes level of position achieved in the organization, job performance, number of promotions in the current organization, career advancement expectations, probability of attaining career goal, annual income, income relative to peers, job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and organizational commitment.

  4. 4. Family and personal choices and experiences includes marriage, children, family structure, psychological involvement in family, time devoted to home and childcare, support received from spouse (or partner), and spouse or partner's involvement in career and family.

  5. 5. Family and personal outcomes includes satisfaction with family, personal life, and overall life, performance as a parent, child's development (emotional, health, and educational), and satisfaction with childcare arrangements.

  6. 6. Role conflicts includes work interference with family, work interference with leisure, family interference with work, behavioral work interference with family, and tradeoffs between work and family.

Definitions and Measures of Personal Background Variables

Sex (biological sex of the respondent)

One item: 1 = male, 2 = female

Race (racial identity of the respondent)

One item: 1 = African-American, 2 = Asian, 3 = Caucasian, 4 = Hispanic, 5 = Native American, 6 = other.

Age (chronological age of the respondent)

One item: Also recocled into a “decade” variable (from 20's = 1 to 50's = 4)

Educational Aspirations

What is the highest level of education you expect to attain in your life? 1 = bachelor's degree, 2 = bachelor's degree plus professional certificate, 3 = master's degree, 4 = Ph.D. or other advanced degree

Religion

Which of the following best describes your religious beliefs?

1 = Catholic, 2 = Protestant, 3 = Jewish, 4 = Agnostic, 5 = Muslim, 6 = Hindu, 7 = Buddhist, 8 = Other

Life Role Priority (relative priority or focus attached to work role, family role, other life roles)

Based on a combination of responses to three items: (a) a ranking of the two life roles (from career, family, religion, activities aimed at national or international (p.179) betterment, leisure, and community) that give the respondent the most satisfaction; (b) the rated importance of career on a five-point scale (from measures of Life Success Values described below); and (c) the rated importance of a long-term relationship on a five-point scale (from measures of Life Success Values described below). From the responses to these two items, four life role priorities were identified: career-focused (1), career + family-focused (2), family-focused (3), and self/society-focused (4).

Career Success Values (importance of different factors to respondents' judgment that their career is successful)

Based on a scale developed for this study in which respondents rated (on a five-point scale) the importance of 15 experiences in judging their level of career success. A factor analysis of the 15 items produced five dimensions of career success values:

Status, which consists of the mean of the following four items (alpha = .78):

having social status and prestige

having power and influence

earning a great deal of money

advancing rapidly to high level positions.

Time for self, which consists of the mean of the following three items (alpha = .69):

having flexibility in determining my work hours

having time for myself

having time for my family

Challenge, which consists of the mean of the following three items (alpha =.56):

working on challenging tasks

being creative in my work

enjoying my work

Security, which consists of the mean of the following three items (alpha = .50):

ensuring a comfortable retirement

having secure employment

living in a preferred geographical area

Social, which consists of the mean of the following two items (alpha = .24):

helping other people

being respected by others at work

Life Success Values (importance of different factors to respondents' judgment that their life is successful)

Based on a scale developed for this study in which respondents rated (on a five-point scale) the importance of 12 experiences in judging their level of life success. A factor analysis of the 12 items produced three dimensions of life success values:

Personal Growth, which consists of the mean of the following five items (alpha = .63):

personal growth and development

(p.180) helping other people

friendships

being politically active

creative activity

Material Wealth, which consists of the mean of the following three items (alpha = .65):

standard of living

career

material wealth

Family, which consists of the mean of the following two items (alpha = .37):

a long-term relationship

parenting

Definitions and Measures of Career Choice and Experiences Variables

Current Employment Status

One closed-ended item coded (1) work in family business, (2) run own business, (3) employed full-time in organization, or (4) employed part-time in organization.6

Time Commitment to Work (hours per week devoted to work)

One open-ended item: “n an average week, including weekends, how many hours do you devote to your work responsibilities?”

Psychological Involvement in Career (extent to which the respondent is involved in his or her career and the extent to which the career is a significant part of the respondent's life)7

The mean of the following three items (alpha = .79):

A major source of satisfaction in my life is my career.

Most of the important things that happen to me involve my career.

I am very much involved personally in my career.

Career Goal (aspirations for advancement within an organizational hierarchy) One item: “Assume that you are employed in an organization that has 9 levels of managerial/professional positions, ranging from (1) first level manager/professional to (5) middle level manager/professional to (9) top executive. Please indicate the highest position you would like to achieve.”

Recoded to create two additional variables: (a) aspiration to become CEO, coded 9 versus others and (b) aspiration to senior management coded 8 or 9 versus others.

Networking Activities (extent to which the respondent has established contacts or networks)

The mean of the following two items (alpha = .53):

Within the last two years, how often have you

established contacts or networks inside your company?

established contacts or networks outside your company?

(p.181) Job Authority (extent to which the respondent has authority and decision-making power on the job)

The mean of the following three items8 (alpha = .85):

I have a great deal of authority in my position.

I have considerable decision-making power on my job.

I have an opportunity to participate in setting company goals and policies.

Developmental Assignments (extent to which the respondent has been given special assignments to provide visibility, exposure, and opportunities to develop new skills)

The mean of the following two items (alpha = .65):

Within the last two years, how often have you

been given highly visible special assignments?

received job assignments that provided you with new skills, experience and exposure?

Coaching (extent to which the respondent has had opportunities to receive coaching, guidance, and training/development)

The mean of the following four items (alpha = .67):

Within the last two years, how often have you

participated in a company-sponsored training, education, or career planning program?

received coaching or counseling from your supervisor?

received coaching or counseling from your peers?

received guidance or assistance from a mentor or sponsor?

Adjustment of Work Schedule for Family and Personal Reasons (extent to which the respondent has adjusted or limited his or her work schedule to meet family or personal needs)

The mean of the following four items (alpha = .70):

Within the last two years, how often have you

adjusted your hours of arrival and departure from work to suit your personal and family activities?

structured your hours at work in order to be home at certain specific times?

limited the time you devoted to work during weekends?

limited the time you devoted to work-related travel?

Employer Support for Family (extent to which the organization supports employees' attempts to balance work and family responsibilities)

The mean of the following five items (alpha = .78):

The level of commitment expected by my organization requires that employees choose between advancing their careers and devoting time to their families, (reverse scored)

My organization is understanding when employees have a hard time juggling work and family responsibilities.

Career advancement is jeopardized if employees do not accept assignments because of their family responsibilities, (reverse scored)

My organization has a satisfactory family leave policy.

My organization allows for flexibility in work scheduling.

(p.182) Acceptance by Others in Organization (extent to which the respondent experiences mutually positive feelings between him/herself and coworkers)

The mean of the following three items9 (alpha = .75):

I am accepted in informal business activities with my peers within my organization.

I like the people with whom I work.

I am really a part of my work group.

Career Priority Relative to Partner's Career

(extent to which the respondent sees his or her career as having more or less priority than spouse or partner's career)10

One closed-ended item: “Which of the following best describes your current career priority relative to that of your partner?”

My career has a much higher priority than my partner's.

My career has a slightly higher priority than my partner's.

Our careers have equal priority.

My partner's career has a slightly higher priority than mine.

My partner's career has a much higher priority than mine.

Definitions and Measures of Career Outcome Variables

Level of Position in Organization (level of managerial/professional position achieved in current organization)

Single item: “Please indicate the highest position you have achieved in your current organization.” A nine-point scale was provided, ranging from (1) first level manager/professional to (5) middle level manager/professional to (9) top executive.

Since level in the organization is an indicator of career success (see Chapter 3), we wanted to develop a measure that was independent of personal background. Therefore, we regressed level on a range of background variables, three of which were related to level: age, organizationally employed versus own/family business, and finance versus other industries. A measure of level was then developed that was adjusted for these three background variables.

Annual Income (personal annual income in dollars)

Single closed-ended item indicating respondent's personal annual income on a scale ranging from (1) $ 0 to $24,999 to (16) $ 500,000 or more.

Since income is an indicator of career success (see Chapter 3), we wanted to develop a measure that was independent of personal background. Therefore, we regressed income on a range of background variables, three of which were related to level: age, organizationally employed versus own/family business, and finance versus other industries. A measure of income was then developed that was adjusted for these three background variables. See note 7 in Chapter 3.

Career Satisfaction (level of satisfaction with the career as a whole)

Single item developed for this study as part of a 12-item measure of different facets of life satisfaction. “Please indicate your current level of satisfaction with your career.” A five-point response scale was provided ranging from (1) not satisfied to (5) very satisfied.

(p.183) Since career satisfaction is an indicator of career success (see Chapter 4), we wanted to develop a measure that was independent of personal background. Therefore, we regressed career satisfaction on a range of background variables, three of which were related to career satisfaction: age, organizationally employed versus own/family business, and finance versus other industries. A measure of career satisfaction was then developed that was adjusted for these three background variables.

Job Performance (self-assessment of job performance during the last year)

Single item which asked respondents “How would you rate your job performance over the last year?” A five-point response option was provided, ranging from (1) deficient and below expectations to (5) far exceeds normal expectations.

Likelihood of Achieving Career Aspirations

Single item: “If you are not currently in the highest position you would like to attain, how likely is it that you will achieve this position?” Five-point response option ranging from (1) not likely to (5) highly likely.

Number of Promotions in Current Organization (number of promotions received since joining the current organization)

Single open-ended item: “How many promotions have you received since joining your current organization?”

Rate of Promotion (frequency of promotion over the total period of employment within the organization)

Computed by dividing the number of promotions received by the number of years the individual has worked in the organization.

Career Advancement Expectations (perceived likelihood of promotion within the next two years)

Single item: “How would you rate your chances for promotion within the next two years?” Five-point response option ranging from (1) poor to (5) excellent.

Income Relative to Peers (income relative to that of peers who graduated from the same college)

Single item which asks respondents to indicate on a five-point scale whether their annual income is (1) much higher than that of fellow graduates from the same college to (5) much lower than that of their peers.

Job Satisfaction (feelings of positive effect toward the job and level of satisfaction with the job)

The mean of the following three items11 (alpha = .87):

I am satisfied with my present job situation.

My job situation is very frustrating to me. (reverse scored)

I frequently think I would like to change my job situation, (reverse scored)

Organization Commitment (identification with and feelings of loyalty to the organization)

The mean of the following three items12 (alpha = .87):

I talk up my organization to my friends as a great organization to work for.

I am proud to tell others I am part of the organization

I feel very loyal to my organization.

(p.184) Definitions and Measures of Family and Personal Choices and Experiences

Marital Status

Based on one closed-ended item: married = 2; not married = 1.

Long-term Relationship (whether the respondent is currently married, living with a partner, or otherwise in a long-term relationship)

Based on one closed-ended item: in a long-term relationship = 2; not in a long-term relationship = 1.

Age Entered Relationship (age at which respondent entered current relationship) Based on the following open-ended item: “At what age did you enter your current relationship?”

We calculated the length of the relationship by subtracting the age at which the relationship was entered from the respondent's current age.

Parental Status (whether the respondent is currently a parent)

Receded from the following item: “How many children do you currently have?” One or more children = 2; no children = 1

Anticipated Parental Status (for those respondents not currently a parent, whether they anticipate being a parent at some time)

Based on responses to the following question “Do you have or do you expect to have/adopt any children?” in conjunction with their current parental status. Anticipate being a parent = 2; do not anticipate = 1

Value on Parenthood (importance of being a parent in the respondent's life)

The mean of the following three items (alpha = .80):

Being a parent gives me the opportunity to do interesting things that I might not otherwise do

Being a parent helps me put my life into better perspective

Being a good parent gives me a good feeling about myself

Number of Children

Based on the response to “How many children do you currently have?”

Anticipated Number of Children (number of children the respondent expects to have)

Based on the response to “How many children in all do you think you will have/adopt?”

Age of Youngest Child

Based on the ages of children listed.

Preschool Children (whether the respondent has any preschool children)

Computed from the age of the youngest child.

Youngest child less than or equal to six = 1; youngest child older than six or no children = 0.

(p.185) Family Structure (family structure is based on a combination of whether the respondent is in a long-term relationship (LTR), is a parent, has an employed partner, and is a man or a woman)13

If in LTR, is a parent, has an employed partner, and is a man = 1 (dual-earner father)

If in LTR, is a p yed partner, and is a woman = 2 (dual-earner mother)

If in LTR, is not a parent, has arent, has an emplo an employed partner, and is a man = 3 (dual-earner man with no children)

If in LTR, is not a parent, has an employed partner, and is a woman = 4 (dual-earner woman with no children)

If in LTR, is a parent, has a non employed partner, and is a man = 5 (single-earner father)

If not in LTR, is not a parent, and is a man = 6 (single man)

If not in LTR, is not a parent, and is a woman = 7 (single woman)

Time Off Following First Child (whether the respondent has taken or expects to take time off from job after the first child)14

“Did you, or do your expect to, take time off from your job with the birth or adoption of each child?” 1 = no, 2 = not sure, 3 = yes.

Amount of Time Off Following First Child (how much time off the respondent has taken or expects to take following the first child)

“Please indicate your actual or expected time off from work for each child.” From none (1) to more than 5 years (10).

Return to Work Full-Time After First Child (whether the respondent has or expects to return to work full time after the first child)

“Your employment status immediately after your time off.” Full-time = 2; part-time = 1.

Part-Time Then Full-Time After First Child (whether the respondent has or expects to return to work part-time initially and then full-time)

“If you did, or expect to, work part-time initially and then full-time at some later date, please check the box.” 2 = checked, 1 = not checked.

Amount of Time Part-Time After First Child (how long the respondent worked or expected to work part-time before returning to work full-time)

“If you checked a box in question E, indicate how long you worked, or expect to work, part-time before returning to work full-time (in months).”

Primary Childcare Arrangement For First Child

One closed-ended item that listed 10 possible child care arrangements in addition to an “other” category. The 10 listed arrangements were: own home with parent, own home with a relative, own home with a non-relative, another home with a relative, another home with a non-relative, job-provided daycare center, daycare center funded by self, daycare center funded with job-provided assistance or credit, preschool, school.

(p.186) Hours a Week in Primary Child Care Arrangement for First Child

“How many hours per week is each child in the primary child care arrangement indicated ahove?”

Psychological Involvement in Family of Origin (extent to which the respondent is involved in his or her family of origin—parents, siblings, etc.—and the extent to which the family of origin is a significant part of the respondent's life)

The mean of the following three items15 (alpha = .85):

A major source of satisfaction in my life is my family.

Most of the important things that happen to me involve my family.

I am very much involved personally in my family.

Psychological Involvement in Family of Creation (same definition and measurement as above, except the reference is family of creation—partner, children, etc.).

Alpha = .80

Time Spent on Household (hours a week spent on household activities)

Response to the following open-ended item: “In an average week, including weekends, how many hours do you devote to your household responsibilities (including housework and finances)?”

Time Spent on Childcare (hours a week spent on childcare activities)

Response to the following open-ended item: “In an average week, including weekends, how many hours do you devote to your childcare responsibilities?”

Partner Psychological Involvement in Career (extent to which the partner is involved in his or her career and the extent to which the career is a significant part of the partner's life)

The mean of the following three items (alpha = .89):

A major source of satisfaction in my partner's life is his/her career.

Most of the important things that happen to my partner involve his/her career.

My partner is very much involved personally in his/her career.

Partner Psychological Involvement in Family (extent to which the partner is involved in his or her family and the extent to which the family is a significant part of the partner's life)

The mean of the following three items (alpha = .88):

A major source of satisfaction in my partner's life is our family.

Most of the important things that happen to my partner involve our family.

My partner is very much involved personally in our family.

Partner Personal Support (extent to which partner provides respondent with emotional support regarding primarily personal and family issues)

The mean of the following five items based on the results of a factor analysis (alpha = .86):

My partner …

listens to me talk about my personal or family problems

is concerned about my welfare

gives me advice when I have a family or personal problem

praises me for my personal or family accomplishments

respects my personal accomplishments

(p.187) Partner Career Support (extent to which partner provides respondent with career support)

The mean of the following four items based on the results of a factor analysis (alpha = .60):

My partner …

plays an active role in my career

listens to me talk about my job-related problems

gives me advice when I have a work-related problem

praises me for my job-related accomplishments

Partner Time Spent on Household (hours a week partner spends on household activities)

Response to the following open-ended item: “In an average week, including weekends, how many hours does your spouse/partner devote to household responsibilities (including housework and finances)?”

Partner Time Spent on Child Care (hours a week partner spends on childcare activities)

Response to the following open-ended item: “In an average week, including weekends, how many hours does your spouse/partner devote to childcare responsibilities?”

Partner Employment Status

One item receded to 3 = full-time; 2 = part-time; 1 = not employed

Definitions and Measures of Family and Personal Outcomes

Satisfaction with Family of Origin (extent to which the respondent is satisfied with his or her family of origin)

The mean of the following three items16 (alpha = .86):

I am satisfied with my present family relationships.

My family relationships are very frustrating to me. (reverse scored)

I frequently think I would like to change my family relationships, (reverse scored)

Satisfaction with Family of Creation (extent to which the respondent is satisfied with his or her family of creation)

The mean of the following three items17 (alpha = .84):

I am satisfied with my present family relationships.

My family relationships are very frustrating to me. (reverse scored)

I frequently think I would like to change my family relationships, (reverse scored)

Satisfaction with Life (extent to which the respondent is satisfied with a variety of life factors)

Respondents rated their satisfaction (1 = not satisfied to 5 = very satisfied) with each of the following aspects of their lives: standard of living, career, a long-term relationship, parenting, health, material wealth, religious or spiritual development, personal growth and development, helping other people, friendships, being politically involved, and creative activity.

(p.188) In addition to satisfaction with the individual aspects of life, a measure of overall life satisfaction was calculated by averaging the responses to the items listed above.

Child's Behavior Problems (parent's assessment of the behavioral and emotional problems of the child closest to the age of eight years)18

Respondents rated how true each of the following statements are about their child closest to eight years of age. Ratings were made on a three-point scale from often true to never true that was later collapsed into two levels. The total score was calculated as the mean of the following 23 items (alpha = .88):

Has sudden changes in mood feelings

Feels or complains that no one loves him/her

Is rather high strung, tense, or nervous

Cheats or tells lies

Is too fearful or anxious

Argues too much

Has difficulty concentrating, cannot pay attention for long

Is easily confused, seems to be in a fog

Bullies or is cruel or mean to others

Is disobedient at home

Is disobedient at school

Does not seem to feel sorry after misbehaving

Is not liked by other children

Is restless or overly active, can't sit still

Is sullen, stubborn, or irritable

Has a strong temper and loses it easily

Is unhappy, sad, or depressed

Is withdrawn/doesn't get involved with others

Has a lot of difficulty getting his/her mind off certain thoughts, has obsessions

Feels worthless or inferior

Is impulsive or acts without thinking

Has trouble getting along with teachers

Has trouble getting along with other children

Child's Health (parent's assessment of the health of the child closest to the age of eight years)

“Which of the following best describes this child's general state of health”? 1 = excellent; 2 = very good; 3 = good; 4 = fair; 5 = poor.

Child's School Performance (parent's assessment of the school performance of the child closest to the age of eight years)

“Which of the following best characterizes what kind of student this child is now?” 1 = one of the best; 2 = above the middle; 3 = in the middle; 4 = below the middle; 5 = near the bottom.

Performance in Parental Role (self-assessment of performance as a parent)

Single item which asked respondents to indicate the extent to which they agree with the statement “Overall, I feel that I am a good parent” on a scale from (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree.

(p.189) Satisfaction with Childcare Arrangement for the First Child

(parent's degree of satisfaction with the child's primary childcare arrangements)19

“Please rate your satisfaction with the primary childcare arrangement above by writing in the spaces to the right the appropriate number from 1 to 5, with 1 “Not Satisfied” and 5 “Very Satisfied.”

Definitions and Measures of Role Conflicts20

Work Interference with Family (the perception that the demands of the work role interfere with the fulfillment of family role responsibilities)

The mean of the following four items (alpha = .73):

When I spend time with my family, I am bothered by all the things on the job that I should be doing.

Because of my job responsibilities, I have to miss out on home or family activities in which I should participate.

Because of my job responsibilities, the time I spend with my family is less enjoyable and more pressured.

Pursuing a demanding career makes it difficult for me to be an attentive spouse/partner.

Family Interference with Work (perception that family role demands interfere with work role responsibilities)

The mean of the following five items (alpha = .78):

When I spend time on my job, I am bothered by all the things I should be doing with my family.

The demands of family life interfere with achieving success in my career. Being a parent limits my career success.

Because of my family responsibilities, I have to turn down job activities or opportunities that I should take on.

Because of family responsibilities, the time I spend on my job is less enjoyable and more pressured.

Work Interference with Relaxation (perception that die demands of the work role make it difficult to relax and participate in leisure activities)

The mean of the following two items (alpha = .82):

When I spend time relaxing, I am bothered by all the things at my job I should be doing.

Because of my job responsibilities, any time I spend relaxing is less enjoyable and more pressured.

Behavioral Work Interference with Family: The perception that behavior expected at work conflicts with behavior expected at home.21

The mean of the following two items (alpha = .68):

My partner complains that I treat family members as if they are work associates or subordinates.

I find it difficult making the transition from my job to home life.

(p.190) Tradeoffs Between Work and Family: The belief that one has to trade success in one role to avoid failure in another role.

The mean of the following two items (alpha = .58):

I can “have it all” (a rewarding career, satisfying family relationships, and a fulfilling personal life), (reverse scored)

The conflicting demands of career and family require that I decide which is more important.

Statistical Analyses

The research conclusions we present are based on findings that achieved statistical significance in our study. For example, we present in Chapter 2 our observation that women are more psychologically involved in their families than men. We are drawn to that conclusion because the analysis of our data showed a statistically significant difference in family involvement between men and women. In fact, we established a rule for ourselves in presenting our findings: discussion of a relationship between any two variables requires that there be a statistically significant relationship between those variables.22

We've tried to keep tables to a minimum within each chapter, using the section at the end of the book, “Additional Tables,” to expand on our findings. Most of the tables present our findings in terms of percentages on a particular factor for different segments of the sample—for example, we show the percentage of men and women occupying upper-level positions in their organizations. We present data in this manner to make our findings accessible to the widest possible audience. It should be noted, though, that our analyses to determine whether findings are statistically significant are more complex than the tabular information.

For ease of understanding, the book's tables generally present percentages on variables for different subgroups of the sample. In fact, analyses of covariance, partial correlations, or multiple regression analyses generally served as the basis for our findings. We conducted partial correlations in lieu of multiple regression analyses when the listwise deletion of data, characteristic of multiple regression, would have substantially reduced the sample size in a given analysis.

Analyses statistically controlled for university affiliation (University of Pennsylvania versus Drexel University), and—because on average women are younger than men in our sample—all relationships involving gender controlled for age. To enhance the internal validity of our findings, virtually all analyses also controlled for potentially confounding variables that would have provided rival explanations for the relationship under investigation.

Because of the crucial role of gender in our study, nearly all of the substantive relationships were analyzed separately for men and women. For us to conclude that men and women are different on a variable required that the difference be statistically significant. For us to conclude that the relationship between two variables is different for men and women, there had to be a significant interaction between sex and the independent variable and/or a significant (p.191) difference in the partial correlations or the regression coefficients for men and women. In fact, we required of ourselves the existence of a significant interaction or difference between coefficients to conclude that any relationship is different for one segment of the sample compared to another segment.

One final point here. We realize that our cross-sectional methodology—in which all variables are measured at the same time—does not permit us to determine the direction of causality between two factors. So, for example, we can't be sure whether a high level of family involvement causes low career involvement or whether a high level of career involvement causes low family involvement. When we present empirical findings in Chapters 2 through 7, we often infer a causal direction when the data are consistent with a theoretically compelling explanation. (p.192)

Notes:

(1.) There were some significant differences in work and family experiences between the alumni from the two universities, although the pattern of relationships among the variables seemed similar for the two groups. Therefore, die alumni were combined to form one overall sample, and university affiliation was statistically controlled in virtually all analyses through analyses of covariance, partial correlations, or multiple regression analyses.

(2.) Although entering classes of business students are more sexually and racially diverse than the current sample, our procedure sampled graduating classes that went back as far as 1964. Since we observed that recent graduating classes had higher percent-ages of women than early classes, all analyses that examined sex statistically controlled for the individual's age.

(3.) The one exception is die 1984 bachelor's degree class of Drexel University, where 50 percent of the women were surveyed.

(4.) This response rate is, most likely, an underestimate because we have no assurance that the 4,068 surveys not returned as unde-livered actually reached the targeted alumnus or alumna. It is reasonable to assume that some unknown portion of the surveys were lost or discarded by parents or spouses of the potential members of die sample.

(5.) The survey also included other variables not relevant to the present research which are not described in this appendix.

(6.) Five other categories were included in this item: volunteer work, full-time homemaker, not currently employed, retired, and full-time student. Respondents who checked any of these categories were not included in our study sample.

(7.) This scale, adapted from Lodahl and Kcjner's measure of job involvement, has been used frequently in the literature. For the most recent use, see Greenhaus, Collins, Singh, & Parasuraman (1997).

(8.) Nixon 1985.

(9.) Nixon 1985.

(10.) This item was used previously by Greenhaus et al. (1989).

(11.) Hackman & Oldham (1975).

(12.) Mowday, Porter, & Steers (1982).

(13.) There was an insufficient number of single-earner women in the sample to form a separate categoiy.

(14.) Although this variable was calculated for each child, the measure used in this study was only for the first child. We did this because a number of respondents had only one child and we wanted to maximize the number of cases available for analysis. The same holds true for the six variables that immediately follow in this section.

(15.) These items were identical to the items assessing psychological involvement in career (see earlier note), with “family of origin” substituted for “career.”

(16.) Adapted from Kopelman, Greenhaus, & Connolly (1983).

(17.) Adapted from Kopelman, Greenhaus, & Connolly (1983).

(18.) A specific child (closest to eight years of age) was chosen for observation to assure there is no bias by the parent in reporting on their child's problems in terms of the child's birth order or sex. This scale was adapted from National Center for Health Statistics. National health interview survey [Report Series 10, number 1731. The same is true for the two variables that follow in this section, See endnote 4 in Chapter 6 for further information.

(19.) Although this variable was calculated for each child, the measure used in this study was only for the first child.

(20.) All the variables in this section were taken or adapted from a variety of studies, including Kopelman, Greenhaus, & Connolly (1983) and Parasuraman, Greenhaus, & Granrose (1992).

(21.) This definition is consistent with Greenhaus & Beutell (1985).

(22.) We adopted a two-tail probability level of.10 to determine whedier a relation-ship achieved statistical significance. We selected the.10 level (rather than.05 or.01) to minimize die occurrence of Type II errors, (p.245) in which a relationship that exists in a population goes undetected in a particular sample.