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From Pariahs to Partners
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From Pariahs to Partners: How parents and their allies changed New York City's child welfare system

David Tobis


In 1995 New York City had one of the worst child welfare systems in the United States. The city’s system struggled under 20 class-action lawsuits and 11 court orders or stipulations resulting from these suits. Elisa Izquierdo, a 6-year old girl involved in the child welfare system, was killed by her mother while other families struggled without help until their situation exploded. The city’s response was to place children into foster care at an unprecedented rate, reaching 50,000 children in care in the early 1990s. Less traumatic and less expensive interventions could have protected many of t ... More

Keywords: parents, foster care, parent advocates, child welfare, organizing, New York City, reform

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2013 Print ISBN-13: 9780195099881
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2013 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195099881.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

David Tobis, author
Fund for Social Change