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The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System$
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Alain Berthoz, Werner Graf, and P. P. Vidal

Print publication date: 1992

Print ISBN-13: 9780195068207

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.001.0001

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Control of Gaze in Salamanders

Control of Gaze in Salamanders

Chapter:
(p.85) Chapter 10 Control of Gaze in Salamanders
Source:
The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System
Author(s):

Gerhard Manteuffel

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0010

Studies of amphibian gaze control stems back to the 1930s and 1940s, when Birukow and Sperry investigated the optokinetic reflex in anurans and newts. In these initial researches, they discovered such fundamental properties as the unidirectionality of nystagmus under monocular vision. Birukow found the rostral in the frog Rana temporaria and presented indirect proof of the presence of an optokinetic after-reaction abolishing vestibular after-nystagmus. On the basis of optic nerve regeneration, Sperry found that retinal position and velocity signals rule the direction of gaze movements, even after functionally inadequate regeneration. Main visual relays in the control of optokinetic nystagmus are situated in the pretectum and the accessory optic nucleus. Vertical directional preferences in the accessory optic system and horizontal directional selectivity corroborate the lesion results.

Keywords:   salamanders, gaze control, Birukow, Sperry, Rana temporaria

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