- Title Pages
- Investigations Relating to the Head-Neck Movement System Around the Time of the French Revolution (1789)
- Chapter 1 The Upright Head in Hominid Evolution
- Chapter 2 Why Develop a Neck?
- Chapter 3 Evolution of the Dorsal Muscles of the Spine in Light of Their Adaptation to Gravity Effects
- Chapter 4 Modeling of the Craniofacial Architecture during Ontogenesis and Phylogenesis
- Chapter 9 Neural Processes between Visual Sign Stimuli and Head Movements in Toads
- Chapter 10 Control of Gaze in Salamanders
- Chapter 11 Reflex Contributions to the Control of Head Movement in the Lizard
- Chapter 12 Optocollic Reflexes and Neck Flexion—Related Activity of Flight Control Muscles in the Airflow-Stimulated Pigeon
- Chapter 13 Comparison of Head Movement Strategies among Mammals
- Chapter 14 Development of the Vertebral Joints (C3 through T2) in Man
- Chapter 15 Head Position and Posture in Newborn Infants
- Chapter 16 Head-Trunk Coordination and Locomotor Equilibrium in 3-to 8-Year-Old Children
- Chapter 24 Somatosensory Pathways from the Neck
- Chapter 25 Physiologic Properties and Central Actions of Neck Muscle Spindles
- Chapter 26 Excitatory and Inhibitory Mechanisms Involved in the Dynamic Control of Posture during the Cervicospinal Reflexes
- Chapter 27 Suppression of Cervical Afferents Impairs Visual Cortical Cells Development
- Chapter 28 Eye and Neck Proprioceptive Messages Contribute to the Specification of Gaze Direction in Visually Oriented Activities
- Chapter 29 Influence of Neck Receptor Stimulation on Eye Rotation and on the Subjective Vertical: Experiments on the Tilt Table, under Water, and in Weightlessness
- Chapter 30 Cervico-ocular Reflexes with and without Simultaneous Vestibular Stimulation in Rabbits
- Chapter 31 Vestibular and Optokinetic Asymmetries in the Ocular and Cervical Reflexes
- Chapter 32 Cervicovestibular Interactions in Coriolis-Like Effects
- Chapter 33 Gravitational, Inertial, and Coriolis Force Influences on Nystagmus, Motion Sickness, and Perceived Head Trajectory
- Chapter 34 Head Position versus Head Motion in the Inhibition of Horizontal Postrotary Nystagmus
- Chapter 86 What about the So-Called Neck Reflexes in Humans?
- Chapter 87 Do Head Position and Active Head Movements Influence Postural Stability?
- Chapter 88 Significance of Muscle Proprioceptive and Vestibulospinal Reflexes in the Control of Human Posture
- Chapter 89 Influence of Tactile Cues on Visually Induced Postural Reactions
- Chapter 90 Differential Influence of Vertical Head Posture during Walking
- Chapter 91 Control of Head Stability and Gaze during Locomotion in Normal Subjects and Patients with Deficient Vestibular Function
- Chapter 92 Head-Trunk Coordination in Man: Is Trunk Angular Velocity Elicited by a Support Surface Movement the Only Factor Influencing Head Stabilization?
- Chapter 93 Visual, Vestibular, and Somatosensory Control of Compensatory Gaze Nystagmus during Circular Locomotion
- Chapter 94 Different Patterns in Aiming Accuracy for Head-Movers and Non-Head Movers
- Chapter 95 Head Kinematics during Complex Movements
- Chapter 96 Head-Forelimb Movement Coordination and Its Rearrangement in the Course of Training in the Dog: Role of the Motor Cortex
- Chapter 97 Preferential Activation of the Sternocleidomastoid Muscles by the Ipsilateral Motor Cortex during Voluntary Rapid Head Rotations in Humans
Control of Gaze in Salamanders
Control of Gaze in Salamanders
- (p.85) Chapter 10 Control of Gaze in Salamanders
- The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System
- Oxford University Press
Studies of amphibian gaze control stems back to the 1930s and 1940s, when Birukow and Sperry investigated the optokinetic reflex in anurans and newts. In these initial researches, they discovered such fundamental properties as the unidirectionality of nystagmus under monocular vision. Birukow found the rostral in the frog Rana temporaria and presented indirect proof of the presence of an optokinetic after-reaction abolishing vestibular after-nystagmus. On the basis of optic nerve regeneration, Sperry found that retinal position and velocity signals rule the direction of gaze movements, even after functionally inadequate regeneration. Main visual relays in the control of optokinetic nystagmus are situated in the pretectum and the accessory optic nucleus. Vertical directional preferences in the accessory optic system and horizontal directional selectivity corroborate the lesion results.
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