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The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System$
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Alain Berthoz, Werner Graf, and P. P. Vidal

Print publication date: 1992

Print ISBN-13: 9780195068207

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.001.0001

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The Upright Head in Hominid Evolution

The Upright Head in Hominid Evolution

Chapter:
(p.5) Chapter 1 The Upright Head in Hominid Evolution
Source:
The Head-Neck Sensory Motor System
Author(s):

Phillip V. Tobias

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195068207.003.0001

Human uprightness and its anatomic basis are among the most outstanding features that differentiate the living man from the apes of Africa and Asia. The manner in which the body has modified its structure and biomechanics to the new forms of uprightness and bipedalism is only short of ingenious. After more than 4 to 5 million years, humans have not yet evolved a mechanism that is free of errors and vexatious problems. Our bodies are still subject to what Sir Arthur Keith termed the ills of uprightness. These include flat feet, slipped disks, hernias, prolapses, malposture, malocclusion, and painful cephalocervical pathology showing itself as headaches, hypertonicity of the neck muscles, and effects of pressure on motor and sensory nerves.

Keywords:   human uprightness, apes, bipedalism, malposture, flat feet, slipped disks, hernia, prolapses

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