This chapter presents a 1993 commentary on treatment choices for neonates. It considers a proposed observational study dubbed as a ‘preference trial’: the systematic follow up of patient cohorts where treatment assignments are made according to informed patient choice rather than by randomization. The proposal acknowledges doctors' limited ability to determine what treatments and what outcomes patients value most. Doctors provide continuously updated estimates of probabilities of all outcomes of interest for treatments, and each patient is free to make a choice based on the information provided.
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