Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Brain Function and Psychotropic Drugs$

Heather Ashton

Print publication date: 1992

Print ISBN-13: 9780192622426

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780192622426.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.oxfordscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use (for details see http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.330) References

(p.330) References

Source:
Brain Function and Psychotropic Drugs
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abouh-Saleh, M.T., Gastpar, M. and Coppen, A. (1989). The dexamethasone suppression test in depression: WHO collaborative study. J. Psychopharmac, 3, 19P.

Adam, K. and Oswald, I. (1977). Sleep is for tissue restoration. J. Roy. Coll. Physns., 11, 376–88.

Adam, K., Adamson, L., Brezinova, V., Hunter, W.M. and Oswald, I. (1976). Nitrazepam: lastingly effective but trouble on withdrawal. Br. Med. J., 1, 1558–62.

Adam, K. and Oswald, I. (1987). Effects of ritanserin on middle-aged poor sleepers. Psychopharmacology, 99, 219–21.

Agarwal, D.P., Harada, S., Goedde, H. W. and Schrappe, O. (1983). Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcoholism. Lancet, 1, 68.

Aghajanian, G.K. and Rogawski, M.A. (1983). The physiological role of alpha-adrenoceptors in the CNS: new concepts from single cell studies. Trends in Pharmac. Sci., 4, 315–17.

Aghajanian, G.K., Sprouse, J.S. and Rasmussen, K. (1987). Physiology of the midbrain serotonin system. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 141–9. Raven Press, New York.

Agnew, H., Webb, W.B. and Williams, R.L. (1967). Comparison of stage 4 and 1-REM sleep deprivation. Perceptual Motor Skills,24, 851–8.

Agranoff, B.W., Burrell, H.R., Dokas, L.A. and Springer, A.D. (1978). Progress in Biochemical approaches to learning and memory. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 623–35. Raven Press, New York.

Ahlquist, R.P. (1948). A study of the adrenotropic receptors. Am. J. Physiol., 153, 586–600.

Akil, H., Richardson, D.E., Barchas, J.D. and Li, C.H. (1978a). Appearance of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in human ventricular cerebrospinal fluid upon analgesic electrical stimulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 75, 5170–2.

Akil, H., Richardson, D.E., Hughes, J. and Barchas, D. (1978b). Enkephalin-like material in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of pain patients after analgesic focal stimulation. Science, 201, 463–5.

Albin, R. L., Young, A. B., Penney, J. B., Handelin, B., Balfour, R., Andersen, K.D., Markel, D.S., Tourtelotte, W.W. and Reiner, A. (1990). Abnormalities of striatal projection neurons and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in presymptomatic Huntington’s disease. New Eng. J. Med., 322, 1293–8.

Aldrich, M.S. (1991). The neurobiology of narcolepsy. Trends Neurosci., 14, 235–9.

Alexander, B.K. and Hadaway, P.F. (1982). Opiate addiction: the case for an adaptive orientation. Psychol. Bull., 92, 367–81.

(p.331) Alkon, D. L. (1983). Learning in a marine snail. Scientific American, 249,64–74.

Almay, B.G.L., Johansson, F., von Knorring, L., Sedvall, G. and Terenius, L. (1980). Relationships between CSF levels of endorphins and monoamine metabolites in chronic pain patients. Psychopharmacology, 62, 139–42.

Almay, B.G.L., Johansson, F., von Knorring, L., Le Greres, P. and Terenius, L. (1988). Substance P in CSF of patients with chronic pain syndrome. Pain, 33, 3–9.

Alpern, H. P. and Jackson, S. J. (1978). Stimulants and depressants: drug effects on memory. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 663–75. Raven Press, New York.

Alpert, M. and Friedhoff, A.J. (1980). An un-dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bull. 6, 387–90.

Altman, J.S. and Kien, J. (1990). Highlighting aplysia’s networks. Trends in Neuroscience, 13, 81–2.

Altman, H.J., Nordy, D.A. and Ogren, S.O. (1984). Role of serotonin in memory: facilitation by alaprocate and zimeldine. Psyhopharmacology, 84, 496–502.

American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd edn, revised) (DSM-III-R). Washington DC.

Amsterdam, J., Brunswick, D. and Mendels, J. (1980). The clinical application of tricyclic antiderressant pharmacokinetics and plasma levels. Am. J. Psychiat., 137, 653–62.

Andersen, P.H., Gingrich, J.A., Bates, M.D., Dearry, A., Falardeau, P., Senogles, S. E. and Caron, M. G. (1990). Dopamine receptor subtypes: beyond the D1/D2 classification. Trends in Pharmac. Sci., 11, 231–6.

Anderson, P. (1982). Cerebellar synaptic plasticity—putting theories to the test. Trends Neurosci., 5, 324–5.

Andersson, K. (1975). Effects of cigarette smoking on learning and retention. Psychopharmacologia, (Berl.), 41, 1–5.

Andersson, K. and Hockey, G.R.J. (1977). Effects of cigarette smoking on incidental memory. Psychopharmacology, 52, 223–6.

Anderton, B. and Miller, C. (1986). Proteins in a twist: are neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease composed of the same protein? Trends in Neurosci., 9, 337–8.

Ando, K. and Yanagita, T. (1981). Cigarette smoking in rhesus monkey. Psychopharmacology, 72, 117–27.

Andorn, A.C., Vittorio, J.A. and Bellflower, J. (1989). 3H-Spiroperidol binding in temporal cortex (Brodmann areas 41–42) occurs at multiple high affinity states with serotonergic selectivity. Psychopharmacology, 99, 520–5.

Anggard, T. (1988). Ethanol, phosphoinositides, and transmembrane signalling-towards a unifying mechanism of action. In The psychopharmacology of addiction (ed. M. Lader), pp. 50–9. Oxford University Press.

Angrist, B., Rotrosen, J. and Gershon, S. (1980). Differential effects of amphetamine and neuroleptics on negative vs. positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology, 72, 17–19.

Angst, J., Stassen, H.H. and Woggon, B. (1989). Effects of neuroleptics on positive and negative symptoms and the deficit state. Psychopharmacology, 99, (Suppl.) S41–6.

(p.332) Anisman, H., Kokkinidis, L. and Sklar, L.S. (1981). Contribution of neurochemical change to stress-induced behavioural deficits. In Theory in psycho-pharmacology, Vol. I. (ed. S. J. Cooper), pp. 65–102. Academic Press, London.

Annear, W.C. and Vogel-Sprott, M. (1985). Mental rehearsal and classical conditioning contribute to ethanol tolerance in humans. Psychopharmacology, 87, 90–3.

Aoki, C. and Siekevitz, P. (1988). Plasticity in brain development. Scientific American, 259, 34–40.

Armitage, A.K., Hall, G. H. and Morrison, C. (1968). Pharmacological basis for the tobacco smoking habit. Nature, 217, 331–4.

Armitage, A.K., Hall, G.H. and Sellers, C.M. (1969). Effects of nicotine on electrical activity and acetylcholine release from the cat cerebral cortex. Br. J. Pharmac, 35, 152–60.

Artola, A. and Singer, W. (1987). Long-term potentiation and NMDA receptors in rat visual cortex. Nature, 330, 649–52.

Asanuma, C. (1991). Mapping movements within a moving motor map. Trends Neurosci., 14, 217–19.

Asberg, M. and Sjoqvist, F. (1981). Therapeutic monitoring of tricyclic antidepressants: clinical aspects. In Therapeutic drug monitoring. (ed. A. Richens and V. Marks), pp. 224–38. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Asberg, M., Cronholm, B., Sjoqvist, F. and Tuck, D. (1971). Relationship between plasma level and therapeutic effect of nortriptyline. Br. Med J., 3, 331–4.

Asberg, M., Thoren, P., Trasken, L., Bertilsson, L. and Ringberger, V. (1976). ‘Serotonin depression’ a biochemical subgroup within the affective disorders? Science, 191, 478–80.

Asberg, M., Schalling, D., Traskman-Benz, L. and Wagner, A. (1987). Psychobiology of suicide, impulsivity and related phenomena. In Psychophar-macology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 655–68. Raven Press, New York.

Aserinsky, E. and Kleitman, N. (1953). Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena during sleep. Science, 118, 273–4.

Ashton, H. (1982). Actions of cannabis: do they shed light on schizophrenia? In Biological aspects of schizophrenia and addiction (ed. G. Hemmings), pp. 225–41. Wiley, London.

Ashton, H. (1984). Benzodiazepine withdrawal: an unfinished story. Br. Med. J., 288, 1135–40.

Ashton, H. (1985). Benzodiazepine overdose: are specific antagonists useful? Br. Med J., 290, 805–6.

Ashton, H. (1986). Adverse effects of prolonged benzodiazepine use. Adverse Drug Reaction Bull., 118, 440–3.

Ashton, H. (1987a). Cannabis: dangers and possible uses. Br. Med. J., 294, 141–2.

Ashton, C.H. (1987b). Caffeine and health. Br. Med. J., 295, 1293–4.

Ashton, H. (1987c). Benzodiazepine withdrawal: outcome in 50 patients. Br. J. Addict., 82,665–71.

Ashton, H. (1989). Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs: a major problem of long-term treatment. Br. Med. J., 298, 103–4.

(p.333) Ashton, H. (1991a). Protracted withdrawal syndromes from benzodiazepines. J. Subst. Abuse Treatment, 8 19–28.

Ashton, H. (1991b). Adverse effects of nicotine. Adverse Drug React. Bull. 149, 560–3.

Ashton, H. and Golding, J.F. (1989a). Tranquillisers: prevalence, predictors and possible consequences. Data from a large United Kingdom Survey. Br. J. Addict., 84, 541–6.

Ashton, H. and Golding, J.F. (1989b). Smoking: motivation and models. In Smoking and human behaviour (ed. T. Ney and A. Gale), pp. 21–56. John Wiley, Chichester.

Ashton, H. and Stepney, R. (1982). Smoking: psychology and pharmacology. Tavistock Publications, London.

Ashton, H. and Watson, D. W. (1970). Puffing frequency and nicotine intake in cigarette smokers. Br. Med. J., 3, 679–81.

Ashton, H., Millman, J.E., Telford, R. and Thompson, J.W. (1974). The effect of caffeine, nitrazepam and cigarette smoking on the contingent negative variation in man. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 37, 59–71.

Ashton, H., Millman, J.E., Telford, R. and Thompson, J.W. (1976). A comparison of some physiological and psychological effects of propranolol and diazepam in normal subjects. Br. J. clin. Pharmac, 3, 551–9.

Ashton, H., Marsh, V.R., Millman, J.E., Rawlins, M.D., Telford, R. and Thompson, J.W. (1980). Biphasic dose-related responses of the CNV (contingent negative variation) to IV nicotine in man. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 10, 579–89.

Ashton, H., Golding, J.F., Marsh, V.R., Millman, J. E. and Thompson, J.W. (1981). The seed and the soil: effects of dosage, personality and starting state on the response to delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Br. J. Pharmac, 12, 705–20.

Ashton, H., Golding, J.F., Marsh, V.R., Thompson, J.W., Hassanyeh, F. and Tyrer, S.P. (1988). Cortical evoked potentials and clinical rating scales as measures of depressive illness. Psychological Medicine., 18, 305–17.

Ashton, H., Teoh, R. and Davies, D.M. (1989). Drug-induced stupor and coma: some physical signs and their pharmacological basis. Adverse Drug Reaction and Acute Poisoning Rev., 7, 1–59.

Ashton, C. H., Rawlins, M. D. and Tyrer, S. P. (1990). A double blind placebo controlled trial of buspirone in diazepam withdrawal in chronic benzodiazepine users. Br. J. Psychiat., 157, 232–8.

Ashworth, B. (1989). Intracranial bumps in the night. Br. Med. J., 299, 1117.

Atweh, S.F. and Kuhar, M.J. (1983). Distribution and function of opioid receptors. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 47–52.

Averback, P. (1983). Two new lesions in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, ii, 1203.

Ayd, F.J. (1986). Five to fifteen years’ maintenance doxepin therapy. Int. Clin. Psychopharmacol, 1, 53–65.

Azmitia, E. (1978). Reorganisation of the 5-HT projections to the hippocampus. Trends Neurosci., 1, 45–8.

Baber, N.S., Dourish, C.T. and Hill, D. R. (1989) The role of CCK, caerulein, and CCK antagonists in nociception. Pain, 39, 307–28.

(p.334) Badawy, A. A-B. and Evans, M. (1981). The mechanism of the antagonism by naloxone of acute alcohol intoxication. Br. J. Pharmac, 74, 514–6.

Baldessarini, R.J. (1984). Treatment of depression by altering monoamine metabolism. Psychopharmacol Bull., 20, 224–30.

Baldessarini, R.J. (1985). Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, T. W. Rail, and F. Murad), pp. 387–445. Macmillan, New York.

Ball, M.J., Fisman, M. Hachinski, V., Blume, W., Fox, A., Kral, V.A., Kirshen, A.J., Fox, H. and Merskey, H. (1985). A new definition of Alzheimer’s disease: a hippocampal dementia. Lancet, 1, 14–16.

Baiter, M. H., Manheimer, D. I., Melinger, G. D. and Uhlenhuth, E. H. (1984). A cross-national comparison of antianxiety/sedative drug use. Curr. Med. Res. Opinion, 8, 5–20.

Ban, T. A. (1978). Vasodilators, stimulants, and anabolic agents in the treatment of geropsychiatric patients. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam), pp. 1525–33. Raven Press, New York.

Banki, C.M. (1977). Correlation of anxiety and related symptoms with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in depressed women. J. Neurol. Transm., 41, 135–43.

Banks, W.A. and Kastin, A.J. (1983). Aluminium increases permeability of the blood-brain barrier to labelled D.S.I.P. and beta-endorphin: possible implications for senile and dialysis dementia. Lancet, ii, 1227–9.

Barbaccia, M.L., Reggiani, A., Spano, P.F. and Trabucchi, M. (1981). Ethanol-induced changes of dopaminergic function in three strains of mice characterised by a different population of opiate receptors. Psychopharmacology, 74, 260–2.

Barbaccia, M.L., Chuang, D-M., Gandolfi, O. and Costa, E. (1983). Trans-synaptic mechanisms in the actions of imipramine. In Frontiers in neuropsychiatric research, (ed. E. Usdin, M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, and A. Georgatas), pp. 19–31. Macmillan, London.

Barker, W.A., Scott, J.S. and Eccleston, D. (1987). The Newcastle chronic depression study: results of a treatment regime. Int. Clin. PsychopharmacoL, 2, 261–72.

Barnard, E. A. and Demoliou-Mason, C. (1983). Molecular properties of opioid receptors. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 37–46.

Barnas, C., Miller, C., Ehrman, D.I., Schett, P., Gunther, V. and Fleischhacker, W.W. (1990). High versus low-dose piracetam in alcoholic organic mental disorder: a placebo controlled study. Psychopharmacology, 100, 361–5.

Barnes, P.J. (1981). Radioligand binding studies of adrenergic receptors and their clinical relevance. Br. Med. J., 282, 1207–10.

Barnes, J.M., Barnes, N.M., Costall, B., Naylor, R. J. and Tyers, M.B. (1989). 5-HT3 receptors mediate inhibition of acetylcholine release in cortical tissue. Nature, 338, 762–3.

Bartholini, G. and Lloyd, K.G. (1980). Biochemical effects of neuroleptic drugs. In Psychotropic agents part I: antipsychotics and antidepressants (ed. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 193–212. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

(p.335) Baskin, D.S. and Hosobuchi, Y. (1981). Naloxone reversal of ischaemic neurological deficits in man. Lancet, ii, 272–5.

Bassenge, E. (1988). Cardiovascular actions of nicotine. In The pharmacology of nicotine (ed. M. R. Rand and K. Thurau), pp. 117–37. IRL Press, Oxford.

Batini, C, Moruzzi, G., Palestrini, M., Rossi, G.R. and Zanchetti, A. (1959). Effects of complete pontine transection on the sleep-wakefulness rhythm: The mid-pontine pretrigeminal section. Arch. Ital. Biol., 97, 1–12.

Beart, P.M. (1982). Multiple dopamine receptors-new vistas. In More about receptors. (ed. J.W. Lamble), pp. 87–92. Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.

Beary, M.D., Lacey, J.H. and Bhat, A.V. (1983). The neuroendocrine impact of 3-hydroxy-diazepam (temazepam) in women. Psychopharmacology, 79, 295–7.

Beaumont, G. (1988). Buspirone: clinical studies in general practice. In Buspirone: a new introduction to the treatment of anxiety (ed. M. Lader), pp. 51–7. Royal Society of Medicine Services, London, New York.

Beck, A.T. (1967). Depression: clinical experimental and theoretical aspects. Harper and Row, New York.

Beeley, L. (1978). Drugs in early pregnancy. J. Pharmacother., 1, 189.

Beersma, D.G.M., Dijk, D.J., Blok, C.G.H. and Everhardus, I. (1990). REM sleep deprivation during 5 hours leads to an immediate REM sleep rebound and to suppression of non-REM sleep intensity. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 76, 114–22.

Behar, M., Magora, F., Olshwang, D. and Davidson, J.T. (1979). Epidural morphine in treatment of pain. Lancet, i, 527–8.

Behdehami, M.M., Jiang, M., Chanella, S.D. and Ennis, M. (1990). The effect of GABA and its antagonists on midbrain periaqueductal grey neurons in the rat. Pain, 40, 195–204.

Bejerot, N. (1980). Addiction to pleasure: a biological and social-psychological theory of addiction. In Theories on drug abuse (ed. D.J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, and H.W. Pearson), pp. 246–55. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland.

Benedittis, G. de and Gonda, F. de, (1985). Hemispheric specialisation and the perception of pain: a task-related EEG power spectrum analysis in chronic pain patients. Pain, 22, 375–84.

Benowitz, N.L. (1988). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nicotine. In The pharmacology of nicotine (ed. M. R. Rand and K. Thurau), pp. 3–18. IRL Press, Oxford.

Benton, D. (1988). The role of opiate mechanisms in social relationships. In The psychopharmacology of addiction (ed. M. Lader), pp. 115–40. Oxford University Press.

Berger, P. A. and Barchas, J.D. (1977). Biochemical hypotheses of affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: from theory to practice (ed. J.D. Barchas, P.A. Berger, R.D. Ciaranello, and G.R. Elliott), pp. 151–73. Oxford University Press, New York.

Berger, P.A. and Dunn, M.J. (1985). Tardive dyskinesia: the major problem with antipsychotic maintenance therapy. In Drugs in psychiatry. (ed. G. D. Burrows, T. R. Norman, and B. Davies), Vol. 3, pp. 185–212. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

(p.336) Berger, P. A. and Nemeroff, C. B. (1987). Opioid peptides in affective disorder. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 637–54.Raven Press, New York.

Berntson, G.G., Beattie, M.S. and Walker, J.M. (1976). Effects of nicotine and muscarinic compounds in biting attack in the cat. Pharmacol. Biochem. and Behav., 5, 235–9.

Berridge, M.J. (1981). Receptors and calcium signalling. In Towards understanding receptors (ed. J. W. Lamble), pp. 122–31. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.

Besson, J. (1983). Dementia: biological solution still a long way off. Br. Med. J., 287, 926–7.

Betts, T. A. and Birtle, J. (1982). Effects of two hypnotic drugs on actual driving performance next morning. Br. Med J., 285, 852.

Bevan, P., Bradshaw, C.M. and Szabadi, E. (1977). The pharmacology of adrenergic neuronal responses in the cerebral cortex: evidence for excitatory alpha and inhibitory beta receptors. Br. J. Pharmac., 59, 635–41.

Bialos, D., Giller, E., Jatlow, P., Docherty, J. and Harkness, M.S.W. (1982). Recurrence of depression after long-term amitriptyline treatment. Am. J. Psychiat., 139, 325–7.

Bickford, R.G., Mulder, D.W., Dodge, H.W., Svien, H.J. and Rome, P.R. (1958). Changes in memory function produced by electrical stimulation of the temporal lobe in man. Res. Publ. Ass. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 36, 227.

Biegon, A. and Samuel, D. (1980). Interaction of tricyclic antidepressants and opiate receptors. Biochem. Pharmacol., 29, 460–2.

Biegon, A., Essar, N., Israeli, M., Elizur, A., Bruch, S. and Bar-Nathan, A. A. (1990a). Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor binding on blood platelets as a state dependent marker in major affective disorder. Psychopharmacology, 100, 73–5.

Biegon, A., Gruispoon, A., Blumenfeld, B., Bleich, A., Apter, A. and Merter, R. (1990b). Increased serotonin 5-HT2 receptor binding on blood platelets of suicidal men. Psychopharmacology, 100, 165–7.

Bierness, D. and Vogel-Sprott, M. (1984). Alcohol tolerance in social drinkers: operant and classical conditioning effects. Psychopharmacology, 84, 393–7.

Birchall, J.D. and Chappell, J.S. (1988). Aluminium, chemical physiology, and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, ii, 1008–10.

Bird, K.D., Chesher, G.B., Perl, J. and Starmer, G. A. (1982). Naloxone has no effect on ethanol-induced impairment of psychomotor performance in man. Psychopharmacology, 76, 193–7.

Black, D. (1982). Misuse of solvents. Health Trends., 14, 27–8.

Blackburn, J.R., Phillips, A.C., Jakubovic, A. and Fibiger, H.C. (1989). Dopamine and preparatory behaviour: II a neurochemical analysis. Behav. Neurosci, 103, 15–23.

Bliss, T. V. P. (1979). Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Trends Neuroscl, 2, 42–5.

Bliss, T. V.P. and Dolphin, A.C. (1982). What is the mechanism of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus? Trends Neurosci, 5, 289–90.

Bliss, T.V.P. and Gardner-Medwin, A.R. (1973). Long-lasting potentiation (p.337) of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the unanaesthetised rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. J. Physiol. Lond., 232, 357–74.

Bliss, T.V.P., Douglas, R.M., Errington, M.L. and Lynch, M.A. (1986). Correlation between long-term potentiation and release of endogenous amino acids from dentate gyrus of anaesthetised rats. J. Physiol., 377, 394–408.

Bloch, V. and Bonvallet, M. (1960). Lecontrole inhibiteur bulbaire des responses electrodermales. C. R. Soc. Biol., 154, 42–5.

Bloom, F.E. (1985). Neurotransmitter diversity and its functional significance. J. Roy. Soc. Med. 78, 189–92.

Blum, K., Hamilton, M.G., Hirst, M. and Wallace, J.E. (1978). Putative role of isoquinoline alkaloids in alcoholism: a link to opiates. Alcoholism: clinical and Exp. Res. 2, 113–20.

Blum, K., Noble, E.P., Sheridan, P.J., Montgomery, A., Ritchie, T., Jagadesswaran, P., Nogami, H., Briggs, A.H. and Cohn, J.B. (1990). Allelic association of human dopamine D2 receptor gene in alcoholism. J. Am. Med. Ass., 263, 2055–60.

Blundell, J. (1991). Pharmacological approaches to appetite suppression. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 12, 147–57.

Bobker, D.H. and Williams, J.T. (1990). Ion conductance affected by 5-HT receptor subtypes in mammalian neurons. Trends in Neurosci., 13, 169–73.

Bohus, B., Gispen, W. H. and Wied, D. de, (1973). Effect of lysine vasopressin and ACTH 4–10 on conditional avoidance behaviour of hypophysectomised rats. Neuroendocrinology, 11, 137–43.

Bohus, B., Kovacs, G.L. and Wied, D. de, (1978). Oxytocin, vasopressin and memory: opposite effects on consolidation and retrieval processes. Brain Research, 157, 414–17.

Bolles, R.C. and Fanselow, M.S. (1982). Endorphins and behaviour. Ann. Rev. Psychol., 33, 87–101.

Bond, M.R. (1979). Pain its nature, analysis and treatment. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Bond, M. R. (1980). Personality and Pain. In Persistent Pain: modern methods of treatment (ed. S. Lipton), Vol. 2, pp. 1–26. Academic Press, London and Grune and Stratton, New York.

Bond, A. and Lader, M. (1981). After-effects of sleeping drugs. In Psychophar-macology of sleep (ed. D. Wheatley), pp. 177–97. Raven Press, New York.

Bond, A. and Lader, M. (1988). Differential effects of oxazepam and lorazepam on aggressive responding. Psychopharmacology, 95, 369–73.

Bondareff, W. (1983). Age and Alzheimer disease. Lancet, i, 1447.

Bondareff, W., Mountjoy, C.Q. and Roth, M. (1981). Selective loss of neurones of origin of adrenergic projection to cerebral cortex (nucleus locus coeruleus) in senile dementia. Lancet, i, 783–4.

Bottjer, S.W. and Arnold, A. P. (1984). Hormones and structural plasticity in the adult brain. Trends Neurosci., 7, 168–71.

Boulenger, J-P., Uhde, T.W., Wolff, E. A. and Post, R.M. (1984). Increased sensitivity to caffeine in patients with panic disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 41, 1067–71.

Bourne, H.R., Bunney, W.E., Colburn, R.W., Davis, J.M., Davis, J.N., Shaw, D. M. and Coppen, A. J. (1968). Noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, (p.338) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in hind brains of suicidal patients. Lancet, ii, 805–8.

Bousigue, Y.X., Girand, L., Fournie, D. and Tremoulet, M. (1982). Naloxone reversal of neurological deficit. Lancet, ii, 618–19.

Bouthillier, A., Blier, P. and Montigny C. de (1991). Flerobuterol, a beta-adrenoceptor agonist, enhances serotonergic neurotransmission: an electrophysiological study in the rat brain. Psychopharmacology, 103, 357–65.

Bowen, D.M. and Davison, A.N. (1984). Dementia in the elderly: biochemical aspects. J. Roy. Coll. Physicians, 18, 25–7.

Bowman, W.C., Rand, M. J. and West. G.B. (1968). Textbook of pharmacology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Bowsher, D. (1978a). Pain pathways and mechanisms. Anaesthesia, 33, 935–44.

Bowsher, D. (1978b). Mechanisms of nervous disorder: an introduction. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Bradley, P.B. (1961). The pathophysiology of consciousness. In Bewussteins-storung. (ed. H. Staub and H. Tholen), pp. 14–22. Symposium von 10 January. St. Moritz, Switzerland Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.

Bradley, P.B. and Key, B.J. (1958). The effect of drugs on arousal responses produced by electrical stimulation of the reticular formation of the brain. Electroenceph. Clin. NeurophysioL, 10, 97–110.

Bradley, P.B., Engel, G., Feniuk, W., Fozard, J.R., Humphrey, P.B.A., Middlemiss, D.N., Mylecharane, E. J., Richardson, B.P. and Saxena, P.R. (1986). Proposals for the classification and nomenclature of functional receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine. Neuropharmacol., 25, 563–75.

Braestrup, C. and Nielsen, M. (1980). Benzodiazepine receptors. Arzneimittel-forschung, 30, 852–7.

Braestrup, C, Nielsen, M., Jenson, L.H., Honore, T. and Petersen, E.N. (1983). Benzodiazepine receptor ligands with positive and negative efficacy. Neuropharmacol., 22, 1451–8.

Branconnier, R.J. and Cole, J.O. (1977). Effects of chronic papaverine administration on mild senile Organic Brain Syndrome. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc, 25, 458–62.

Brayne, C. and Calloway, P. (1988). Normal ageing, impaired cognitive function and senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type: a continuum? Lancet, ii, 1265–6.

Brecher, E.M. (1972). Licit and illicit drugs. Consumers Union, Mount Vernon, New York.

Bremer, F. (1935). Cerveau isolé et physiologie du sommeil. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), 118, 1235–42.

Bremer, F. (1970). Preoptic hypnogenic focus and mesencephalic reticular formation. Brain Res., 21, 132–4.

Bridges, R.J., Gedder, J.W., Monaghan, D.T. and Cotman, C.W. (1988). Excitatory amino acid receptors in Alzheimer’s disease. In Excitatory amino acids in health and disease (ed. D. Lodge), pp. 321–35. Wiley, Chichester.

Brierley, J.B. (1977). Neuropathology of amnesic states. In Amnesia. (ed. C.W.M. Whitty and O.L. Zangwill), pp. 199–23. Butterworth, London, Boston.

British Medical Bulletin (1983). Opioid peptides. (ed. J. Hughes), 39, 1–100.

British Medical Journal (1968). Sleep disorder. Br. Med. J., 2, 450.

(p.339) British Medical Journal (1971). Terrors of sleep. Br. Med. J., 2, 507–8.

British Medical Journal (1977). Depression in men and women. Br. Med. J., 2, 849–50.

British Medical Journal (1980). Phencyclidine: the new American street drug. Br. Med. J., 281, 1511–12.

British Medical Journal (1981). Minor brain damage and alcoholism. Br. Med. J., 282, 455–6.

Broughton, R. and Gastaut, H. (1973). Memory and sleep. In Sleep: physiology, biochemistry, psychology, pharmacology, clinical implications (ed. W.P. Koella and P. Levin), pp. 53–8. S. Karger, Basel.

Brown, G.M. and Birley, J.L.T. (1968). Crises and life changes at the onset of schizophrenia. J. Health and Soc. Behav., 9, 203–24.

Brown, R., Colter, N. and Corsellis, J.A.N. (1986). Post-mortem evidence of structural; brain changes in schizophrenia. Differences in brain weight, temporal horn area, and parahippocampal gyrus compared with affective disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 43, 36–42.

Brown, P., Goldfarb, L.G. and Gajdusek, D.C. (1991) The new biology of spongiform encephalopathy: infectious amyloidoses with a genetic twist. Lancet, 337, 1019–22.

Buchsbaum, M.S. (1987). Positron emission tomography in schizophrenia. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 783–91. Raven Press, New York.

Buchsbaum, M.S., Mendelson, B., Duncan, W.C., Coppola, R., Kelsoe, J. and Gillin, J.C. (1982). Topographical cortical mapping of EEG sleep stages during daytime naps in normal subjects. Sleep, 5, 248–55.

Buchsbaum, M.S., Davis, G.C., Naber, D. and Pickar, D. (1983). Pain enhances naloxone-induced hyperalgesia in humans as assessed by somatosensory evoked potentials. Psychopharmacology, 79, 99–103.

Buchsbaum, M.S., Wu, J., Haier, R., Hazlett, T., Ball, R., Katz, M., Sokolski, K., Lagunas-Solar, M. and Langer, D. (1987). Positron emission tomography assessment of effects of benzodiazepines on regional glucose metabolic rate in patients with anxiety disorder. Life Sciences, 40, 2393–400.

Bunney, W.E. (1978). Psychopharmacology of the switch process in affective illness. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1249–59. Raven Press, New York.

Bunney, B.S. (1984). Antipsychotic drug effects on the electrical activity of dopaminergic neurones. Trends Neurosci., 7, 212–15.

Bunney, W.E. and Davis, J.M. (1965). Norepinephrine in depressive reactions. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 13, 483.

Bunney, W.E. and Garland-Bunney, B.L. (1987). Mechanisms of action of lithium in affective illness: basic and clinical implications. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 553–65. Raven Press, New York.

Bureseva, O. and Bures, J. (1976). Piracetam-induced facilitation of inter-hemispheric transfer of visual information in rats. Psychopharmacologia, 46, 93–102.

Burns, A., Luthest, P., Levy, R., Jacoby, R. and Lentos (1990). Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Br. Med. J., 301, 1026.

(p.340) Burrows, G. D. and Davies, B. (1984). Recognition and management of anxiety. In Antianxiety agents (ed. G.D. Burrows, T.R. Norman, and B. Davies), pp. 1–11. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Butler, S. (1979). Interhemispheric relations in schizophrenia. In Hemisphere asymmetries of function in psychopathology (ed. J. Gruzelier and P. Flor-Henry), pp. 47–59. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.

Butler, S.H., Colpitts, Y.H., Gagliardi, G. J., Chen, A.C.N. and Chapman, C.R. (1983). Opiate analgesia and its antagonism in dental event-related potentials: evidence for placebo antagonism. Psychopharmacology, 79,325–8.

Byerley, W., Mellor, C, O’Connell, P., Lalouel, J-M, Nakamura, Y., Leppert, M. and White, R. (1988). Mapping genes for manic-depression and schizophrenia with DNA markers. Trends Neurosci., 12, 46–8.

Byerly, W.F. and Risch, S.C. (1985). Depression and serotonin metabolism: rationale for neurotransmitter precursor treatment. J. Clin. Psychophar-macol., 5, 191–206.

Byrne, J.H. (1985). Neural and molecular mechanisms underlying information storage in Aplysia: implications for learning and memory. Trends in Neurosci., 8, 478–82.

Byrne, J. and Arie, T. (1989). Tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) in Alzheimer’s disease. Br. Med. J., 298, 845–6.

Caine, E.D., Weingartner, H., Ludlow, C.L., Cudahy, E.A. and Wehry, S. (1981). Qualitative analysis of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Psychopharmacology, 74, 74–80.

Calloway, S.P. (1982). Endocrine changes in depression. Hospital Update, 8, 1345–50.

Colloway, S.P., Dolan, R. J., Fonagy, P., Souza, V.F. A. de and Wakeling, A. (1984). Endocrine changes and clinical profiles in depression: II. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone test. Psychol. Med., 14, 759–65.

Calne, D.B., Eisen, A., McGear, E. and Spencer, P. (1986). Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and motoneurone disease: a biotropic interaction between ageing and environment? Lancet, ii, 1067–70.

Campbell, I.C. and Durcan, M.J. (1982). Genetic variation in response of central adrenoceptors to stress.? Br. J. Clin. Pharmac. 75, 32P.

Campkin, N.T. A. and Davies, U.M. (1992). Another death from Ecstasy. J. Roy. Soc. Med., 85, 61.

Candy, J.M. and Key, B.J. (1977). A presynaptic site of action within the mesencephalic reticular formation for (+)-amphetamine-induced electro-cortical desynchronisation. Br. J. Pharmac., 61, 331–8.

Candy, J.M., Oakley, A.E., Atak, J., Perry, R.H., Perry, E.K. and Edwardson, J. A. (1984). New observations on the nature of senile plaque cores. In Regulation of transmitter function. Proc. 5th Meeting Eur. Soc. Neurochem. Budapest. (ed. E.S. Vizi and K. Magyar). Academic Press, New York.

Candy, J.M., Edwardson, J. A., Klinowski, J., Oakley, A.E., Perry, E.K. and Perry, R.H. (1985). Co-localisation of aluminium and silicon in senile plaques: implications for the neurochemical pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. In Ageing of the brain (ed. W.H. Crispen and J. Traber). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

(p.341) Candy, J.M., Klinowski, J., Perry, R.H., Perry, E.K., Fairbrain, A., Oakley, A.E., Carpenter, T.A., Atack, J.R., Blessed, G. and Edwardson, J. A. (1986). Aluminosilicates and senile plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, i, 354–7.

Canon, W. B. (1936). Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear and rage. (2nd ed). Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Capell, P.J. (1978). Trends in cigarette smoking in the U.K. Health Trends, 10, 49–54.

Carlsson, M. and Carlsson, A. (1990). Interactions between glutaminergic and monoaminergic systems within the basal ganglia—implications for schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci., 13, 272–6.

Carlton, P.L. and Wolgin, D.C. (1971). Contingent tolerance to the anorexi-genic effect of amphetamine. Physiol. Behav., 7, 331–3.

Carmichael, F.J. and Israel, Y. (1975). Effects of ethanol on neurotransmitter release by rat brain cortical slices. J. Pharmac. Exp. Therap., 193, 824–34.

Carr, G. D. and White, N. M. (1986). Anatomical dissociation of amphetamine’s rewarding and aversive sites: an intracranial microinjection study. Psycho-pharmacology, 89, 340–6.

Carroll, B.J. (1978). Neuroendocrtine function in psychiatric disorders. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 487–97. Raven Press, New York.

Carroll, B.J., Feinberg, M. and Greden, J.F. (1981). A specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of melancholia. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 38, 15–24.

Castleden, CM. (1984). Therapeutic possibilities in patients with senile dementia. J. Roy. Coll. Physicians., 18, 28–31.

Castleden, C.M., George, C.F., Marcer, D. and Hallett, C (1977). Increased sensitivity to nitrazepam in old age. Br. Med. J., i, 1067–70.

Catley, D.M., Lehane, J.R. and Jones, J.G. (1981). Failure of naloxone to reverse alcohol intoxication. Lancet, i, 1263.

Changeux, J-P. (1985). Neuronal man: the biology of mind, Oxford University Press.

Changeux, J-P. and Danchin, A. (1976). Selective stabilisation of developing synapses as a mechanism for the specification of neuronal networks. Nature, 264, 705–12.

Chapman, C.R. and Bonica, J.J. (1985). Chronic pain. Current Concepts. Scope publication, Upjohn Company.

Charney, D.S., Heninger, G.R., Sternberg, D.E., Redmond, D.E., Leckman, J.F., Maas, J. W. and Roth, R.H. (1981a). Presynaptic adrenergic receptor sensitivity in depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 38, 1334–40.

Charney, D.S., Menkes, D.B. and Heninger, G. R. (1981b). Receptor sensitivity and the mechanism of action of antidepressant treatment. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 38, 1160–80.

Charney, D.S., Heninger, G.R., Sternberg, D.E. and Landis, H. (1982). Abrupt discontinuation of tricyclic antidepressant drugs: evidence for noradenergic hyperactivity. Br. J. Psychiat., 141, 377–86.

Chase, M.H. and Morales, F.R. (1984). Supraspinal control of spinal cord motoneurone membrane potential during active sleep. In Modulation of sensorimotor activity during alterations in behavioural states (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 167–78. Alan R. Liss, New York.

(p.342) Chatellier, G. and Lacamblez, L. (1990). On behalf of Groupe Francais d’Etude de la Tetrahydroaminoacridine Tacrine (tetrahydroaminoacrinidine; THA) and lecithin in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a multicentre trial. Br. Med. J., 300, 495–9.

Cheetham, S.C., Crompton, M.R., Katona, C.L.E. and Horton, R. W. (1989). 5- HT1 and 5-HT1A binding sites in brains of depressed suicides. J. Psycho- pharmac, 3, 23P.

Chen, J., Paredes, W., Li, J., Smith, D., Lowinson, J. and Gardner, E.L. (1990). Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol produces naloxone-blockade enhancement of presynaptic dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens of conscious, freely moving rats as measured by intracerebral microdialysis. Psychopharmacology, 102, 156–62.

Choi, D. (1988). Calcium-mediated neurotoxicity: relationship to specific channel types and role in ischaemic damage. Trends Neurosci., 10, 465–9.

Chopin, P. and Briley, M. (1987). Animal models of anxiety: the effect of compounds that modify 5-HT transmission. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 303–8.

Chouinard, G. and Jones, B. D. (1978). Schizophrenia as a dopamine deficiency disease. Lancet, ii, 99–100.

Church, R.E. (1989). Smoking and the human EEG. In Smoking and human behaviour (ed. T. Ney and A. Gale), pp. 115–40 Wiley, Chichester.

Cicero, T.J. (1978). Tolerance to and physical dependence on alcohol: behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. In Brain and pituitary peptides, Ferring Symposium, Munich, 1979, pp. 1603–17 Karger, Basel.

Clark, D. and White, F.J. (1988). D, dopamine receptor—the search for a function: a critical evaluation of the D1 /D2 dopamine receptor classification and its functional implications. Synapse, 1, 347–88.

Clark, C.R., Geffen, L.B. and Geffen, G.M. (1984). Monoamines in the control of state-dependent cortical functions: evidence from studies of selective attention in animals and humans. In Modulation of sensorimotoractivity during alterations in behavioural states (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 487–502. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Clement-Jones, V. and Besser, G.M. (1983). Clinical perspectives in opioid peptides. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 95–100.

Clement-Jones, V., McLoughlin, L., Lowry, P. J., Besser, G.M., Rees, L.H. and Wen, L.H. (1979). Acupuncture in heroin addicts: changes in metenkephalin and beta endorphin in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet, ii, 380–2.

Cloninger, C.R. (1987). Recent advances in the genetics of anxiety and somatoform disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 955–65. Raven Press, New York.

Clough, C. (1989). Non-migrainous headaches. Br. Med. J., 299, 70–2.

Cohen, S. I. (1989). Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs. Br. Med. J.,298, 456–7.

Cohen, M.R., Cohen, R.M., Pickar, D., Weingartner, H., Murphy, D.L. and Bunney, W.E. (1981). Behavioural effects after high dose naloxone administration to normal volunteers. Lancet, ii, 1110.

(p.343) Cohen, R. M., Campbell, I. C, Dauphin, M., Tallman, J. F. and Murphy, D. L. (1982). Changes in alpha and beta receptor densities in rat brain as a result of treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibiting antidepressants. Neuropharmacology, 21, 293–8.

Collingridge, G. L. (1985). Long-term potentiation in the hippocampus: mechanisms of initiation and modulation by neurotransmitters. Trends Pharmac. Sc/., 6, 407–11.

Collingridge, G.L. and Bliss, T.V.P. (1987). NMDA receptors: their role in long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci., 10, 288–93.

Collins, M. A. (1982). A possible neurochemical mechanism for brain and nerve damage associated with chronic alcoholism. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 3, 373–5.

Collins, M.A., Nijm, W.F., Borge, G.F., Teas, G. and Golfarb, C. (1979). Dopamine-related tetrahydroisoquinolines: significant urinary excretion by alcoholics after alcohol consumption. Science, 206, 1184–6.

Comb, M., Hyman, S.E. and Goodman, H.M. (1987). Mechanisms of trans-synaptic regulation of gene expression. Trends Neurosci., 10, 473–78.

Committee on Safety of Medicines (1990). Current Problems, 30.

Cook, P. (1979). How drug activity is altered in the elderly. Geriatric Medicine, 9, 45–6.

Cook, N.D. (1986). The brain code. Methuen, London.

Cookson, J.C. (1982). Post-partum mania, dopamine and oestrogens. Lancet, ii, 672.

Cools, A. R. (1982). The puzzling ‘cascade’ of multiple receptors for dopamine: an appraisal of the current situation. In More about receptors (ed. J.W. Lamble), pp. 76–86. Elsevier Amsterdam.

Cooper, S.J. (1984). Neural substrates for opiate-produced reward: solving the dependency puzzle. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 5, 49–50.

Cooper, S.J. (1985). Possible endogenous basis for anxiety. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 6, 312.

Cooper, J.R., Bloom, F.E. and Roth, R.H. (1978). The biochemical basis of pharmacology. Oxford University Press, New York.

Cooper, R., Newton, P. and Reed, M. (1985). Neurophysiological signs of brain damage due to glue sniffing. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 60, 23–6.

Cooper, R., Osselton, J. W. and Shaw J.C. (1980). EEG technology (3rd edn). Butterworth, London.

Cooper, S.J., Kirkham, T.C. and Estall, L.B. (1987). Pyrazoloquinolones: second generation benzodiazepine receptor ligands have heterogeneous effects. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 180–4.

Coper, H. (1982). Pharmacology and toxicology of cannabis. In Psychotropic agents part III (ed. F. Hoffmeister and S. Stille), pp. 135–58. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Coppen, A. and Wood, K. (1978). Tryptophan and depressive illness. Psychol. Med., 8, 49–57.

Coppen, A., Whybrow, P.C., Noguera, R., Maggs, R. and Prange, A.J. (1972). The comparative antidepressant value of L-tryptophan and imipramine with and without attempted potentiation by liothyronine. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 26, 234–7.

(p.344) Coppen, A., Standish-Barry, H., Bailey, J., Honston, G., Silcocks, P. and Hermon, C. (1990). Long-term lithium therapy and mortality. Lancet, 335, 1347.

Corcoran, D.W.J. (1965). Personality and the inverted-U relation. Br. J. Psychol., 56, 267–73.

Corkin, S. (1981). Acetylcholine, ageing and Alzheimer’s disease: implications for treatment. Trends Neurosci., 4, 287–90.

Costa, E. (1981). Receptor plasicity: biochemical correlates of pharmacological significance. In Long-term effects of neuroleptics, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol, Vol. 24 (ed. F. Cattabeni) pp. 363–77. Raven Press, New York.

Costa, E., Corda, M.G. and Guidotti, A. (1983). On a brain polypeptide functioning as a putative effector for the recognition sites of benzodiazepine and beta-carboline derivatives. Neuropharmacol., 22, 1481–92.

Cousins, M. J., Mather, L.E., Glynn, C.J., Wilson, P.R. and Graham, J.R. (1979). Selective spinal analgesia. Lancet, i, 1141.

Cowburn, J.D. and Blair, J.A. (1989). Aluminium chelator (transferrin) reverses biochemical deficiency in Alzheimer brain preparations. Lancet, i, 99.

Cowen, P.J. (1987). Psychotropic drugs and human 5-HT neuroendocrinology. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 105–8.

Cowen, P.J. (1988). Depression resistant to tricyclic antidepressants. Br. Med. J., 297, 435.

Cowen, P.J. and Nutt, D.J. (1982). Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal from tranquillising drugs: is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet, ii, 360–2.

Cox, S.M. and Ludwig, A.M. (1979). Neurological soft signs and psychopathology. I. Findings in Schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 167, 161–5.

Coyle, J.T., Price, D. and Long, M. de (1983a). Anatomy of cholinergic projections to cerebral cortex: implications for the pathophysiology of senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Trends Pharmac. Sci., Suppl. 90–3.

Coyle, J.T., Price, D.L. and Long, M.R. de (1983b). Alzheimer’s disease: a disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation. Science, 219, 1184–90.

Crabbe, J.C. and Rigter, H. (1980). Learning and the development of alcohol tolerance and dependence. The role of vasopressin-like peptides. Trends Neurosci., 3, 20–3.

Crapper, D.R., Krishman, S.S. and Quittket, S. (1976). Aluminium, neurofibrillary degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain, 99, 67–80.

Creese, I. (1983). Classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs: new insights. Trends Neurosci., 6, 479–81.

Creese, I. (1987). Biochemical properties of CNS dopamine receptors. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 257–64. Raven Press, New York.

Creese, I. and Sibley, D.R. (1981). Receptor adaptations to centrally acting drugs. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 21, 357–91.

Creese, I. and Snyder, S. H. (1980). Chronic neuroleptic treatment and dopamine receptor regulation. In Long-term effects of neuroleptics, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol., Vol.24. (ed. F. Cattabeni), pp. 89–94. Raven Press, New York.

(p.345) Crick, F. (1982). Do dendritic spines twitch? Trends Neurosci., 5, 44–6.

Crick, F. and Mitchison, G. (1983). The function of dream sleep. Nature, 304, 111–4.

Crisp, A.H., Matthews, B.M., Oakey, M. and Crutchfield, M. (1990). Sleepwalking, night terrors and consciousness. Br. Med. J., 300, 360–2.

Criswell, H.E. and Levitt, R.A. (1975). Cholinergic drugs. In Psychopharmacology: a biological approach (ed. R.A. Levitt), pp. 91–117. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington DC.

Cross, A. J., Crow, T.J. and Owen, F. (1981). 3 H-flupenthixol binding in post-mortem brains of schizophrenics: evidence for a selective increase in dopamine D 2 receptors. Psychopharmacology, 74, B 122–4.

Cross, A.J., Slater, P. and Reynolds, G.P. (1986). Reduced high-affinity glutamate uptake sites in the brains of patients with Huntington’s disease. Neurosci. Lett., 67, 198–202.

Cross, A. J., Stirling, J.M., Robinson, T.N., Bowen, D.M., Francis, P.T. and Green, R. (1989). The modulation by chlormethiazole of the GABAA- receptor complex in rat brain. Br. J. Pharmac, 98, 284–90.

Crow, T.J. (1978). Rational drug treatment in schizophrenia. In Biological basis of schizophrenia. (ed. G. Hemmings and W. A. Hemmings), pp. 113–16.MTP Press,

Lancaster. Crow, T.J. (1980). Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process? Br. Med. J., 1, 66–8.

Crow, T. J. (1982). Two syndromes in schizophrenia? Trends Neurosci. ,5,351–4.

Crow, T.J. (1985). Integrated viral genes as the cause of schizophrenia: a hypothesis. In Psychopharmacology; recent advances and future prospects (ed. S.D. Iverson), pp. 228–42.Oxford University Press.

Crow, T.J. (1986a). Left brain, retrotransposons, and schizophrenia. Br. Med. J., 293, 3–4.

Crow, T.J. (1986b). The continuum of psychosis and its implication for the structure of the gene. Br. J. Psychiat., 149, 419–29.

Crow, T. J. (1987). Psychosis as a continuum and the virogene concept. Br. Med. Bull., 43, 754–67.

Crow, T.J. and Alkon, D.L. (1978). Retention of an associative behavioural change in Hermissenda. Science, 201, 1239–41.

Crow, T.J., Frith C.D., Johnstone, E.C. and Owen, D.G.C. (1980). Schizophrenia and cerebral atrophy. Lancet, i, 1129–30.

Crow, T.J. and Johnstone, E.C. (1980). Dementia praecox and schizophrenia: was Bleuler wrong? J. Roy. Coll. Phys., 14, 238–40.

Cuello, A.C. (1983). Central distribution of opioid peptides. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 11–6.

Cuello, A. C. and Sofroniew, M. V. (1984). The anatomy of the CNS cholinergic neurons. Trends Neurosci., 7, 74–8.

Curran, H.V. (1986). Tranquillising memories: a review of the effects of benzodiazepines on human memory. Biol. Psychol., 23, 179–213.

Curran, H.V. and Birch, B. (1991). Differentiating the sedative, psychomotor and amnesic effects of benzodiazepines: a study with midazolam and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Psychopharmacology, 103, 519–23.

(p.346) Dackis, C.A., Gold, M.S. and Sweeney, D.R. (1989). Physiology of cocaine craving and ‘crashing’. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 44, 298–9.

Dalton, K. (1964). The premenstrual syndrome. Heinemann, London.

Damasio, A.R. (1983). Language and the basal ganglia. Trends Neurosci., 6, 442–4.

Damasio, A.R. (1985). Prosopagnosia. Trends Neurosci., 8, 132–5.

Damasio, A.R. (1990). Category-related recognition defects as a clue to the neural substrates of knowledge. Trends Neurosci., 13, 95–8.

Damluji, N. F. and Ferguson, J. M. (1988). Paradoxical worsening of depressive symptomatology caused by antidepressants. J. Clin. Psychopharmac, 8, 347–9.

Darragh, A., Lambe, R., Kenny, M., Brick, I., Taaffe, W. and O’Boyle, C. (1982). RO 15–1788 antagonises the central effects of diazepam in men without altering diazepam bioavailability. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac., 14, 677–82.

Darragh, A., Lambe, R., O’Boyle, C, Kenny, M. and Brick, I. (1983). Absence of central effects in man of the benzodiazepine antagonist RO 15–1788. Psychopharmacology, 80, 192–5.

Davis, M. (1989). The role of the amygdala and its efferent projections in fear and anxiety. In Psychopharmacology of anxiety, pp. 52–79. Oxford University Press.

Davis, M. and Menkes, D. B. (1982). Tricyclic antidepressants vary in decreasing alpha2-adrenoceptor sensitivity with chronic treatment: assessment of clonidine inhibition of acoustic startle. Br. J. Pharmac, 77, 217–22.

Davis, M., Cassella, J.V. and Kehne, J.H. (1988). Serotonin does not mediate anxiolytic effects of buspirone in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm: comparison with 8-OH-DPAT and ipsapisone. Psychopharmacology, 94, 14–20.

Davison, A.N. (1982). Ageing research matures. TrendsNeurosci., 5, 217–18.

Deakin, J.F.W. (1983). Alzheimer’s disease: recent advances and future prospects. Br. Med. J., 287, 1323–4.

Deakin, J.F.W., Pennell, I., Upadhyaya, A.J. and Lofthouse, R. (1990). A neuroendocrine study of 5HT function in depression: evidence for biological mechanisms of endogeneous and psychosocial causation. Psycho-pharmacology, 101, 85–92.

Deary, I.J. and Hendrickson, A.E. (1986). Calcium and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, i, 1219.

Deary, I.J. and Tait, R. (1987). Effects of sleep disruption on cognitive performance and mood in medical house officers. Br. Med. J., 295, 1513–16.

Deary, I.J. and Whalley, L.J. (1988). Recent research on the causes of Alzheimer’s disease. Br. Med. J., 297, 807–10.

De Freitas, B. and Schwartz, G. (1979). Effects of caffeine in chronic psychiatric patients. Am. J. Psychiat., 136, 1337–8.

Dehen, H., Wilier, J.C., Boureau, F. and Cambier, J. (1977). Congenital insensitivity to pain, and endogenous morphine-like substances. Lancet, ii, 293–4.

Delay, J. and Deniker, P. (1952). Trente-hiut cas de psychoses traitees par la cure prolongee et continue de 4560RP. Le Congres des Al. et Neurol. de Langue Fr. Compte rendu de Congres. Masson et Cie, Paris.

(p.347) De Leon, M. J., George, A.E., Stylopoulos, L.S., Smith, G. and Miller, D.C. (1989). Early marker for Alzheimer’s disease: the atrophic hippocampus. Lancet, ii, 672–3.

Delgado, J.M.R., Roberts, W. W. and Miller, N.(1954). Learning motivated by electrical stimulation of the brain. Am. J. Physiol., 179, 587–9.

Demellweek, C. and Goudie, A.J. (1983). Behavioural tolerance to amphetamine and other psychostimulants: the case for considering behavioural mechanisms. Psychopharmacology, 80, 287–307.

Dement, W. and Kleitman, N. (1957). Cyclic variations in EEG during sleep and their relation to eye movements, body motility, and dreaming. Electroenceph. clin. Neurophysiol., 9, 673–90.

Deneau, G. and Inoki, C. (1967). Nicotine self-administration in monkeys. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 142, 277–9.

Deneau, G., Yanagita, T. and Seevers, M.H. (1969). Self-administration of psychoactive substances by the monkey. Psychopharmacologia, (Berl.), 16, 30–48.

Desai, N.y, Taylor-Davies A. and Barnett, D. B. (1983). The effects of diazepam and oxprenolol on short term memory in individuals of high and low state anxiety. Br. J. clin. Pharmac., 15, 197–202.

Deutsch, J. A. (1971). The cholinergic synapse and the site of memory. Science, 174, 788–94.

Di Chiari, G. and Imperato, A. (1988). Drugs abused by humans preferentially increase synaptic dopamine concentrations in the mesolimbic system of freely moving rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A., 85, 5274–8.

Dickinsen, A.H. (1990). A cure for wind-up; NMDA receptor antagonists as potential analgesics. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 307–9.

Dilsaver, S.C. (1989). Antidepressant withdrawal syndrome: phenomenology and pathophysiology. Acta. Psychiat. Scand., 79, 113–17.

Dilsaver, S.C, Snider, R.M. and Alessi, N.E. (1987a). Amitriptyline super-sensitises a central cholinergic mechanism. Biol. Psychiat., 22, 495–507.

Dilsaver, S.C, Greden, J.F. and Snider, R.M. (1987b). Antidepressant withdrawal syndromes: phenomenology and pathophysiology. Int. Clin. Psychopharmac, 2, 1–19.

Dingledine, R. (1986). NMDA receptors: what do they do? Trends Neurosci., 9, 47–9.

Dolphin, A.C (1985). Long-term potentiation at peripheral synapses. Trends Neurosci., 8, 376–8.

Domino, E. F. (1979). Behavioural, electrophysiological, endocrine and skeletal muscle actions of nicotine and tobacco smoking. In Electrophysiological effects of nicotine (ed. A. Remond and C. Izard), pp. 136–46. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.

Dongier, M., Dubrovsky, B. and Engelsmann, L. (1977). Event-related slow potentials in psychiatry. In Psychopathology and brain dysfunction (ed. C. Shagass, S. Gershon, and A.J. Friedhoff), pp. 291–352. Raven Press, New York.

Dorian, P., Sellers, E.M., Kaplan, H. and Hamilton, C (1983). Evaluation of zopiclone physical dependence liability in normal volunteers. Pharmacology, 27, (Suppl. 2), 228–34.

(p.348) Dorow, R., Horowski, R., Paschelke, G., Amin, M. and Braestrup, C. (1983). Severe anxiety induced by FG 7142, a beta-carboline ligand for benzodiazepine receptors. Lancet, ii, 98–9.

Douglas, R.J. (1967). The hippocampus and behaviour. Psychol Bull., 67, 416–42.

Douglas, R.J. (1975). The development of hippocampal function; implications for theory and for therapy. In The hippocampus (ed. R.L. Isaacson and K.H. Pribram), pp. 327–57. Plenum Press, New York.

Douglas, R.J. and Pribram, K.H. (1966). Learning and limbic lesions. Neuropsychologia, 4, 197–220.

Dourish, C.T., Hutson, P.H. and Curzon, G. (1986). Putative anxiolytics 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and TVX Q 7821 are agonists at 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 7, 212–15.

Dowson, J.H. (1982). Neuronal lipofucsin accumulation in ageing and Alzheimer dementia: a pathogenic mechanism? Br. J. Psychiat., 140, 142–8.

Drachman, D. A. (1978). Central cholinergic system and memory. In Psychopharmacology a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 651–62. Raven Press, New York.

Drubach, D. A. and Kelly, M.P. (1989). Panic disorder associated with a right paralimbic lesion. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioural Neurology, 2, 282–9.

Drucker-Colin, R. (1981). Endogeneous sleep peptides. In Psychopharmacology of sleep (ed. D. Wheatly), pp. 53–71. Raven Press, New York.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1979). Triazolam (Halcion) psychological disturbances. Drug. Therap. Bull., 17, 76.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1980). The CRM on benzodiazepines. Drug Therap. Bull., 18, 97–8.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1986). Problems when withdrawing antidepressives. Drug and Therap. Bull., 24, 29–30.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1987). Stopping drug treatment in schizophrenia. Drug Therap. Bull., 25, 31–2.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1991). Shedding light on seasonal affective disorders. Drug and Therap. Bull., 29, 33–4.

Drummond, A. H. (1987). Lithium and inositol lipid-linked signal mechanisms. Trends. Pharmac. Sci., 8, 129–33.

Dudai, Y. (1989). The Neurobiology of Memory. Oxford University Press.

Duggan, A.W. (1983). Electrophysiology of opioid peptides and sensory systems. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 65–70.

Duggan, A.W. and Foong, F.W. (1985). Bicuculline and spinal inhibitors produced by dorsal column stimulation in the cat. Pain, 22, 249–59.

Duggan, A.W., Hall, J.G. and Headley, P.M. (1977a). Suppression of transmission of nociceptive impulses by morphine: selective effects of morphine administered in the region of the substantia gelatinosa. Br. J. Pharmac, 61, 65–76.

Duggan, A.W., Hall, J.G. and Headley, P.M. (1977b). Enkephalins and dorsal horn neurones of the cat: effects on responses to noxious and innocuous skin stimuli. Br. J. Pharmac., 61, 399–408.

(p.349) Dugovic, C, Wauquier, A., Leysen, J.E., Marrannes, R. and Janssen, P.A.J. (1989). Functional role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in the rat. Psychopharmacology, 97, 436–42.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1987). Stopping drug treatment in schizophrenia. Drug Therap. Bull. 25, 31–2.

Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (1991). Shedding light on seasonal affective disorders. Drug and Therap. Bull. 29, 33–4.

Dundeee, J.W., Halliday, N.J., Harper, K.W. and Brogden, R.N. (1984). Midazolam: a review. Drugs, 28, 519–43.

Dunleavy, D.L.F. and Oswald, J. (1973). Phenelzine, mood response and sleep. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 28, 353–56.

Dunn, W. L. (1978). Smoking as a possible inhibitor of arousal. In Behavioural effects of nicotine (ed. K. Battig)

S. S. Karger,Basel. Dunn A. (1980). Neurochemistry of learning and memory: an evaluation of recent data. Ann. Rev. Psychol., 31, 343–90.

Eagger, S.A., Levy, R. and Sahakian, B.J. (1991). Tacrine in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, 337, 989–92.

Eagles, J.M., Gibson, I., Bramner, M.H., Clunie, F., Ebmeier, K.P. and Smith, N. (1990). Obstetric complications in DSM-III schizophrenics and their siblings. Lancet, 335, 1139–41.

Eccles, J. C. (1977). An instruction-selection theory of learning in the cerebellar cortex. Brain Res., 127, 327–52.

Edelman, G.M. (1978). Group selection and phasic reentrant signalling: a theory of higher brain function. In The mindful brain (ed. G.M. Edelman and V.B. Mountcastle), pp. 51–100. MIT Press, Massachusetts.

Edwardson, J.A. and Candy, J.M. (1987). Neurochemical pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease: current approaches (ed. J.C. Malkin and M.N. Rossor), pp. 27–35. Duphar Laboratories Ltd., Southampton.

Eison, M.S. and Eison, A.S. (1984). Buspirone as a midbrain modulator: anxiolysis correlated to traditional benzodiazepine mechanisms. Drug Develop. Res., 4, 109–19.

Eison, A.S., Eison, M.S., Stanley, M. and Riblet, L.A. (1986). Serotonergic mechanisms in the behavioural effects of buspirone and gepirone. Pharmac. Biochem. & Behavior, 24, 701–7.

Ekstrand, B.R., Barrett, T.R., West, J.N. and Maier, W. (1977). The effect of sleep on human long term memory. In Neurobiology of sleep and memory (ed. R. Drucker-Colin and J.L. McGough), pp. 419–39. Academic Press, New York.

Elde, R., Hokfelt, T., Johansson, O. and Terenius, L. (1976). Immunohistological studies using antibodies to leucine enkephalin: initial observations on the nervous system of the rat. Neuroscience, 1, 349–52.

Ellingboe, J. (1978). Effects of alcohol on neurochemical processes. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1653–64. Raven Press, New York.

Emery, F.E., Hilgendorf, E.L. and Irving, B.L. (1968). The psychological dynamics of smoking. Tobacco Research Council. Research Paper, 10. London.

(p.350) Enna, S.J. and Eison, M.S. (1987). Second generation antidepressants. In Handbook of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 19 (ed. L.L. Iversen, S.D. Iversen, and S.H. Snyder), pp. 609–26. Plenum Press, New York.

Erickson, C.K. and Graham, D.T. (1973). Alteration of cortical and reticular acetylcholine release by ethanol in vivo. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 185, 583–93.

Eriksson, E., Eden, S. and Modigh, K. (1982). Up- and down-regulation of central postsynaptic alpha2 receptors reflected in the growth hormone response to clonidine in reserpine-pretreated rats. Psychopharmacology, 11, 327–31.

Evans, J.I., Lewis, S. A., Gibb, I. A.M. and Cheetham, M. (1968). Sleep and barbiturates: some experiments and observations. Br. Med. J., 4, 291–3.

Everitt, B.J. and Keverne, E.B. (1979). Models of depression based on behavioural observations of experimental animals. In Psychopharmacology of affective disorders (ed. E.S. Paykel and A. Coppen), pp. 41–59. Oxford University Press.

Ewusi-Mensah, F., Saunders, J.B., Wodak, A.D., Murray, R.M. and Williams, R. (1983). Psychiatric morbidity in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Br. Med. J., 287, 1417–19.

Exton-Smith, A.N. and McLean, A.E.M. (1979). Uses and abuses of chlormethiazole. Lancet, i, 1093.

Eysenck, H.J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.

Eysenck, H.J. (ed.) (1981). A model for personality. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Eysenck, H.J. (ed.) (1983). A model for intelligence. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Eysenck, H.J. and Eaves, L.J. (1980). The causes and effects of smoking. Maurice Temple Smith, London.

Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Hodder and Stoughton, Essex.

Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, S.B.G. (1976). Psychoticism as a dimension of personality. Hodder and Stoughton, London.

Fagg, G.E. (1985). L-glutamate, excitatory amino acid receptors and brain function. Trends Neurosci., 8, 207–10.

Fagg, G.E., Foster, A.C. and Ganong, A.H. (1986). Excitatory amino acid synaptic mechanisms and neurological function. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 7, 357–63.

Fairbairn, J.W. and Pickens, J.T. (1979). The oral activity of delta1tetrahydrocannabinol and its dependence on prostaglandin E2. Br. J. Pharmacol., 67, 379–85.

Fairburn, C.G. (1981). Schizophrenia. Hospital Update, 7, 1115–27.

Farde, L., Wiesel, F-A., Nordstrom, A-L and Sedvall, G. (1989) Dl- and D2-dopamine receptor occupancy during treatment with conventional and atypical neuroleptics. Psychopharmacology, 99, (Suppl.), S28.

Feighner, J. P. (1982). Benzodiazepines as antidepressants. In Modern problems of pharmacopsychiatry (ed. T. A. Ban), pp. 196–212. S. Karger, Basel.

Feinmann, C, Harris, M. and Cawley, R. (1984). Psychogenic facial pain: presentation and treatment. Br. Med. J., 288, 436–8.

Fenton, G.W. (1984). The electroencephalogram in psychiatry: clinical and research applications. Psychiatric Developments, 2, 53–75.

(p.351) Ferrier, B.M., Kennett, D. J. and Devlin, M.C. (1980). Influence of oxytocin on human memory processes. Life Sci., 27, 2311–17.

Ferrier, I.N., Eccleston, D., Moore, P.B. and Wood, K.A. (1990). Relapse in chronic depression on withdrawal of L-tryptophan. Lancet, 336, 380–1.

Feyerabend, C. and Russell, M. A. H. (1978). Effect of urinary pH and nicotine excretion on plasma nicotine during cigarette smoking and chewing nicotine gum. Br. J. clin. Pharmac, 5, 293–7.

Fibiger, H.C. and Lloyd, K.G. (1984). Neurobiological substrates of tardive dyskinesia: the GABA hypothesis. Trends Neurosci., 7, 462–4.

Fibiger, J. (1991). Cholinergic mechanisms in learning, memory and dementia: a review of recent evidence. Trends Neurosci., 14, 220–3.

Fields, H.L. (1987). Pain. McGraw Hill, New York.

Fields, H.L. (1988). Sources of variability in the sensation of pain. Pain, 33, 195–200.

Fields, H. L. and Levine J. D. (1984). Placebo analgesia—a role for endorphins? Trends Neurosci., 7, 271–3.

Fifkova, E. and Delay, R.J. (1982). Cytoplasmic action in neuronal processes as a possible mediator of synaptic plasticity. J. Cell. Biol., 95, 345–50.

File, S. and Baldwin, H. A. (1987). Flumazenil: a possible treatment for benzodiazepine withdrawal anxiety. Lancet, ii, 106–7.

File, S. and Baldwin, H.A. (1989). Changes in anxiety in rats tolerant to, and withdrawn from, benzodiazepines: behavioural and biochemical studies. In The psychopharmacology of anxiety (ed. P. Tyrer), pp. 28–51. Oxford University Press.

File, S.E. and Hitchcott, P.K. (1990). A theory of benzodiazepine dependence that can explain whether flumazenil will enhance or reverse the phenomena. Psychopharmacology, 101, 525–32.

File, S.E. and Pellow, S. (1983). RO 5–4864, a ligand for benzodiazepine micromolar and peripheral binding sites: antagonism and enhancement of behavioural effects. Psychopharmacology, 80, 166–70.

File, S.E. and Silverstone, T. (1981). Naloxone changes self-ratings but not performance in normal subjects. Psychopharmacology, 74, 353–4.

Fink, M. (1976). Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of hashish, marijuana and Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol on brain electrical activity in man: evidence for tissue tolerance. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 282, 387–98.

Fink, M. (1978). Psychoactive drugs and the waking EEG. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 691–8. Raven Press, New York.

Fischman, M. W. (1987). Cocaine and the amphetamines. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1543–53. Raven Press, New York.

Fitzgerald, M. (1986). Monoamines and descending control of nociception. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 91, 51–2.

Fitzgerald, M. (1990). c-Fos and the changing face of pain. Trends Neurosci., 13, 439–40.

Flood, J.F., Bennett, E.L., Orme, A.E., Rosenzweig, M.P. and Jarvik, M.E. (1978). Memory: modification of anisomycin-induced amnesia by stimulants and depressants. Science, 199, 324–6.

(p.352) Flor-Henry, P. (1976). Lateralised temporo-limbic dysfunction and psychopathology. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 280, 777–97.

Flor-Henry, P. (1979). Laterality, shifts of cerebral dominance, sinistrality and psychosis. In Hemisphere asymmetries of function in psychopathology. (ed. J. Gruzelier and P. Flor-Henry), pp. 3–19. Elsevier/North Hollan, Amsterdam.

Fourestie, V., Ligmeres, B. de, Roudot-Thoroval, F., Fulli-Lemaire, I., Cremniter, D., Nahoul, K., Fournier, S. and Lejone, J-L. (1986). Suicide attempts in hypo-oestrogenic phases of the menstrual cycle. Lancet, ii, 1357–9.

Fowler, C. J., O’Neill, C, Garlind, A. and Cowburn, R. (1990). Alzheimer’s disease: is there a problem beyond recognition? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 183–4.

Fozard, J.R. (1987). 5-HT: the enigma variations. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 501–6.

Fozard, J.R. and Gray, J.W. (1989). 5-HTICreceptor activation: a key step in the initiation of migraine? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 10, 307–9.

Frackowiak, R.S.J. (1987). Imaging and function. In Alzheimer’s disease: current approaches (ed. J.C. Malkin and M.N. Rossor), pp. 41–50. Duphar Laboratories Ltd., Southampton.

Franks, N.P. and Lieb, W.R. (1982). Molecular mechanisms of general anaesthesia. Nature, 300, 487–93.

Freedman, D.X. and Boggan, W.O. (1982). Biochemical pharmacology of psychotomimetics. In Psychotropic agents part III. (ed. F. Hoffmeister and S. Stille), pp. 57–88. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

Freemon, F.R. (1972). Sleep research: a critical series. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.

Frenk, H., Cannon, J.T., Lewis, J. W. and Liebeskind, J.C. (1988). Neural and neurochemical mechanisms of pain inhibition. In The psychology of pain (ed. R. A. Sternbach), pp. 25–47. Raven Press, New York.

Frid, M. and Singer, G. (1979). Hypnotic analgesia in conditions of stress is partially reversed by naloxone. Psychopharmacology, 63, 211–15.

Friedland, R.P., Brun, A. and Budinger, T.F. (1985). Pathological and positron emission tomographic correlations in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, i, 228.

Gadea-Ciria, M., Stadler, H., Lloyd, K.G. and Bartholini, G. (1973). Acetylcholine release within the cat striatum during sleep-wakefulness cycles. Nature, 243, 518–19.

Gage, F. H., Bjorklund, A., Steveni, V., Dunnet, S. B. and Kelly, P. A.T. (1984). Intrahippocampal septal grafts ameliorate learning impairment in aged rats. Science, 225, 553–6.

Galloway, M. P. (1988). Neurochemical interactions of cocaine with dopaminergic systems. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 9, 451–4.

Garcia-Arraras, J.E. (1981). Effects of sleep-promoting factor from human urine on sleep cycle of cats. Am. J. Physiol., 24, 269–74.

Garcia-Sevilla, J.A., Zis, A. P., Hollingsworth, P.J., Greden, J.F. and Smith, C.B. (1981). Platelet alpha2-adrenergic receptors in major depressive disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 38, 1327–33.

Garruto, R.M., Fukatsu, R., Yanagihava, R., Gajdusek, D.C., Hook, G. and Fiori, C.E. (1984). Imaging of calcium and aluminium in neurofibrillary (p.353) tangle bearing neurons in Parkinsonian-dementia of Guam. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 81, 1875–9.

Gash, D.M. and Thomas, G.J. (1983). What is the importance of vasopressin in memory processes? Trends Neurosci., 6, 197–8.

Gash, D.M. and Thomas, G.J. (1984). The importance of vasopressin in memory. Trends Neurosci., 7, 64–6.

Gath, D. and Iles, S. (1990). Depression and the menopause. Br. Med. J., 300, 1287–8.

Geaney, D.P., Soper, N., Shepstone, B.J. and Cowen, P.J. (1990). Effect of cholinergic stimulation on regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, 335, 1484–7.

Gelder, M.G. (1990). Psychological treatment for depressive disorder. Br. Med. J., 300, 1087–8.

Gelder, M., Gath, D. and Mayou, R. (1983). Oxford textbook of psychiatry. Oxford University Press.

Gelenberg, A.J. (1976). The catatonic syndrome. Lancet, i, 1339–41.

Gellman, R.S. and Miles, F.A. (1985). A new role for the cerebellum in conditioning? Trends Neurosci., 8, 181–2.

George, K. A. and Dundee, J. W. (1977). Relative amnestic actions of diazepam, flunitrazepam and lorazepam in man. Br. J. clin. Pharmac, 4, 45–50.

George, F.R. and Goldberg, S.R. (1989). Genetic approaches to the analysis of addiction processes. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 10, 78–83.

George, R., Haslett, W.L. and Jenden, D.J. (1964). A cholinergic mechanism in the brainstem reticular formation: induction of paradoxical sleep. Int. J. Neuropharmacol., 3, 541–52.

Gerbino, L., Oleshansky, M. and Gersham, S. (1978). Clinical use and mode of action of lithium. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Upton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam), pp. 1261–75. Raven Press, New York.

German, D.C. and Bowden, D.M. (1974). Catecholamine systems as the neural substrate for intracranial self-stimulation: a hypothesis. Brain Res., 73, 381–419.

Geschwind, N. (1975). Focal disturbances of higher nervous function. In Textbook of medicine (ed. P.B. Beeson and W. McDermott), p. 557. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Geschwind, N. (1983). Biological foundations of cerebral dominance. Trends Neurosci., 6, 354–6.

Geschwind, N. and Levitsky, W. (1968). Human brain: left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science (Wash. DC), 161, 186–7.

Ghoneim, M.M., Mewaldt, S.P., Berie, J.L. and Hinruchs, J.V. (1981). Memory and performance effects of single and 3-week administration of diazepam. Psychopharmacology, 73, 147–51.

Giardino, L., Colza, L., Piazza, P. V., Zanni, M., Sorbera, F. and Amato, G. (1990). Opiate receptor modifications in the rat brain after chronic treatment with haloperidol and sulpiride. J. Psychopharmacology, 4, 7–12.

Gilbert, P. (1984). Depression: from psychology to brain state. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Gilbert, C.D. (1985). Horizontal integration in the neocortex. TrendsNeurosci. 8, 160–5.

(p.354) Gillin, J.C. and Borbely, A. A. (1985). Sleep: a neurobiological window on affective disorders. Trends Neurosci., 8, 537–42.

Gilmartin, J. J., Corris, P. A., Stone, T.N., Veal, D. and Gibson, G.J. (1988). Effects of diazepam and chlormethiazole on ventilatory control in normal subjects. Br. J. clin. Pharmac, 25, 766–70.

Giurgea, C. (1976). Piracetam: nootropic pharmacology of neurointegrative activity. In Current developments inpsychopharmaco/ogy. (ed. W. B. Essman and L. Valzelli), Vol. 3, pp. 223–73. Spectrum Publications, New York.

Glaser, H.H., Massengale, O.H. (1962) Glue sniffing in children: deliberate inhalation of vaporized plastic cement. JAMA, 181, 300–3.

Glatt, M. A. (ed.) (1977). Drug dependence: current problems and issues. MTP Press, Lancaster.

Glennon, R.A. (1987). Psychoactive phenylisopropylamines. In Psychophar-macology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1627–34. Raven Press, New York.

Glover, V. and Sandler, M. (1989). Can the vascular and neurogenic theories of migraine finally be reconciled? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 10, 1–3.

Goadsby, P. J., Lambert, G.A. and Lance, J.W. (1982). Differential effects on the external circulation of the monkey evoked by locus coeruleus stimulation. Brain Research, 249, 247–54.

Godschalk, M., Dzoljic, M. R. and Bonta, I. L. (1977). The role of dopaminergic systems in gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced electrocorticogram hyper-synchronisation in the rat. J. Pharm. Pharmac, 29, 605–8.

Gold, P.E. and McGaugh, J.L. (1975). A single-trace, two-process view of memory storage processes. In Short-term memory (ed. D. Deutsch and J. A. Deutsch), pp. 355–78. Academic Press, New York.

Gold, M.S., Redmond, D.E. and Kleber, H.D. (1978). Clonidine blocks acute opiate-withdrawal symptoms. Lancet, ii, 599–601.

Gold, M.S., Redmond, D.E. and Kleber, H.D. (1979a). Noradrenergic hyperactivity in opiate withdrawal supported by clonidine reversal of opiate withdrawal. Am. J. Psychiat., 136, 100–2.

Gold, P. W., Weingartner, H., Ballenger, J.C., Goodwin, F.K. and Post, R.M. (1979b). Effects of l-desamo–8-D-arginine vasopressin on behaviour and cognition in primary affective disorder. Lancet, ii, 992–4.

Gold, L. H., Hubner, C. B. and Koob, G. F. (1989). A role for the mesolimbic dopamine system in the psychostimulant actions of MDMA. Psychophar-macology, 99, 40–7.

Goldberg, I.K. (1980). L-tyrosine in depression. Lancet, ii, 364.

Golding, J.F. and Cornish, A.M. (1987). Personality and life style in medical students: psychopharmacological aspects. Psychology and Health, 1, 287–301.

Golding, J.F., Harpur, T. and Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Personality and drug taking correlates of cigarette smoking. Person. Individ, Diff., 4, 703–6.

Goldstein, A., Fischli, W., Lowney, L.I., Hunkapiller, M. and Hood, L. (1981). Porcine pituitary dynorphin, complete amino and sequence of the biologically active heptadecapeptide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78, 7219–23.

Golstein, M., Engel, J., Regev, I. and Mino, S. (1983). The possible role of central epinephrine alpha2-adrenoceptors and presynaptic dopamine recep- (p.355) tors in affective disorders. In Frontiers in neuropsychiatric research (ed. E. Usdin, M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, and A. Georgatas), pp. 55–64. Macmillan, London.

Gonzales, R.A. and Hoffman, P.L. (1991) Receptor gated channels may be selective CNS targets for ethanol. Trends in Pharmac. Sci., 12, 1–3.

Goodwin, F.K. and Post, R.M. (1983). 5-Hydroxytryptamine and depression: a model for the interaction of normal variance with pathology. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 15, 393S–405S.

Goodwin, F.K., Cowdry, R.W. and Webster, M.H. (1978). Predictors of drug response in the affective disorders: towards an integrated approach. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1277–88. Raven Press, New York.

Gorman, J.M., Fyer, M.R., Liebowitz, M.R. and Klein, D.F. (1987). Pharmacological provocation of panic attacks. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 985–93. Raven Press, New York.

Gorman. J.M., Liebowitz, M.R., Fyer A. J. and Stein, J. (1989). A neuroanatomical hypothesis for panic disorder. Am. J. Psychiat., 146, 148–61.

Gottfries, C.G. (1980). Biochemistry of dementia and normal ageing. Trends Neurosci., 23, 55–7.

Goudie, A. J. and Griffiths, J. W. (1986). Behavioural factors in drug tolerance. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 7, 192–6.

Grahame-Smith, D.G. (1985). Pharmacological adaptive responses occurring during drug therapy and in disease. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 6, 38–41.

Grahame-Smith, D.G. and Orr, M.W. (1978). Clinical psychopharmacology. In Recent advances in clinical pharmacology (ed. P. Turner and D.G. Shand), pp. 163–87. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Gray, J. A. (1977). Drug effects on fear and frustration: possible limbic site of action of major tranquillisers. In Handbook of psychopharmacology (ed. L.L. Iverson, S.D. Iverson, and S.H. Snyder), Vol.8, pp. 433–529. Plenum Press, New York.

Gray, J. A. (1981a). Anxiety as a paradigm case of emotion. Br. Med. Bull. 37, 193–7.

Gray, J. A. (1981b). A critique of Eysenck’s theory of personality. In A Model for Personality (ed. H.J. Eysenck), pp. 246–76. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety. Clarendon Press, Oxford and Oxford University Press, New York.

Gray, J. A. (1985). A whole and its parts: behaviour, the brain, cognition and emotion. Bull. Br. Psychol. Soc., 38, 99–112.

Gray, J. A. (1987a). The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In ognitive neurochemistry (ed. S.M. Stahl, S.D. Iversen, and E.C. Goodman), pp. 171–90. Oxford University Press.

Gray J.A. (1987b). Interactions between drugs and behaviour therapy. In Theoretical foundations of behaviour therapy (ed. H.J. Eysenck and I. Martin), pp, 433–47. Plenum Press, New York and London.

Gray, J. A., Enz, A. and Spiegel, R. (1989). Muscarinic agonists for senile dementia: past experience and future trends. Trends Pharmac. Sci., (Suppl) 85–8.

(p.356) Greden, J.F. (1974). Anxiety or caffeinism: a diagnostic dilemma. Am. J. Psychiat., 131, 1089–92.

Greden, J. F., Fontaine, P., Lubetsky, M. and Chamberlain, K. (1978). Anxiety and depression associated with caffeinism among psychiatric in-patients. Am. J. Psychiat., 135, 963–6.

Green, P. (1978). Defective interhemispheric transfer in schizophrenia. J. Abnormal Psychol., 87, 472–80.

Greenamyre, J.T., Penney, J.B., Young, A.B., D’Amato, C.J., Hicks, S.P. and Shorlson, I. (1985). Alterations in L-glutamate binding in Alzheimer’s and Huntingdon’s disease. Science, 227, 1496–8.

Greenamyre, J.T., Penney, J.B., D’Amato, C.J. and Young, A.B. (1987). Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type: changes in hippocampal L–3H-glutamate binding. J. Neurochem., 48, 543–9.

Greenblatt, D.J., Shader, R.I., Divoll, M. and Harmatz, J.S. (1981). Benzodiazepines; a summary of pharmacokinetic properties. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 11, 11–16S.

Greenblatt, D.J., Divoll, M., Abernethy, D.R., Ochs, H.R. and Shader, R. (1983). Clinical pharmacokinetics of the newer benzodiazepines. Clin. Pharmacokinet., 8, 233–52.

Greenberg, B. D. and Segal, D. S. (1986). Evidence for multiple opiate receptor involvement in different phencyclidine-induced unconditioned behaviours in rats. Psychopharmacology, 88, 44–53.

Greene, L. A. (1984). The importance of both early and delayed responses to the biological actions of nerve growth factor. Trends Neurosci., 7, 91–4.

Greenhough, W.T. (1984). Structural correlates of information storage in the mammalian brain: a review and hypothesis. Trends Neurosci., 7, 229–35.

Griffiths, R.R. and Sannerud, C.A. (1987). Abuse of and dependence on benzodiazepines and other anxiolytic/sedative drugs. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1535–41. Raven Press, New York.

Griffiths, R. R. and Woodson, P. P. (1988). Caffeine dependence and reinforcement in humans and laboratory animals. In The psychopharmacology of addiction (ed.v. Lader), pp. 141–56. Oxford University Press.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., Stitzer, M.L. and McLeod, D.R. (1983). Behavioural effects of drugs of abuse. In Applications of behavioural pharmacology in toxicology. (ed. G. Zbinden, V. Cuomo, G. Racagini, and B. Weiss), pp. 367–82. Raven Press, New York.

Griffiths, R.R., McLeod, D.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, I.A. and Roache, J. D. (1984). Relative abuse liability of diazepam and oxazepam: behavioural and subjective dose effects. Psychopharmacology, 84, 141–54.

Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E., Liebson, LA., O’Keefe, M., O’Leary, D. and Russ, N. (1986). Human coffee drinking: manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose. J. Exp. Anal. Behav., 45, 133–48.

Gruzelier, J. and Liddiard, D. (1989). The neuropsychology of schizophrenia in the context of topographical mapping of electrocortical activity. In Topographical brain mapping of EEG and evoked potentials (ed. K. Maurer), pp. 421–37. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

(p.357) Guilleminault, C. and Tilkian, A. (1976). The sleep apnoea syndrome. Ann. Rev. Med., 27, 465–83.

Guilleminault, C., Eldridge, F. and Dement, W. (1973). Insomnia with sleep apnoea: a new syndrome. Science, 181, 856–85.

Guilleminault, C. Winkle, Winkle R. Connolly, S., Melvin, K. and Tilkian, A. (1984). Cyclical variation of the heart rate in sleep apnoea syndrome. Lancet, i, 126–31.

Guilleminault, C., Mignot, E. and Grumet, F.C. (1989). Familial patterns of narcolepsy. Lancet, 334, 1376–9.

Gur, R.E. (1978). Left hemisphere dysfunction and left hemisphere over-activation in schizophrenia. J. Abn. Psychol., 87, 226–38.

Gur, R.E. (1979a). Cognitive concomitants of hemispheric dysfunction in schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 36, 269–74.

Gur, R. (1919b). Hemispheric overactivation in schizophrenia. In Hemisphere Asymmetries of Function in Psychopathology (ed. G. Gruzelier and P. Flor-Henry), pp. 113–23. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.

Gur, R.E., Skolnick, B.E. and Gur, R.C. (1983). Brain function in psychiatric disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 40, 1250–4.

Gurling, H. M. D. (1988). Testing the retrovirus hypothesis of manic depression and schizophrenia with molecular genetic techniques. J. Roy. Soc. Med., 81, 332–4.

Gustafsson, B. and Wigstrom, H. (1988). Physiological mechanisms underlying long-term potentiation. Trends Neurosci., 11, 156–62.

Haefely, W. (1978). Behavioural and neuropharmacolgical aspects of drugs used in anxiety and related states. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam) pp. 1359–74. Raven Press, New York.

Haefely, W. (1989). Neurochemistry of benzodiazepines, barbiturates and alcohol. Paper given at Second Maudsley Conference on New Developments in Psychiatry, Waldorf Hotel, London, July 11–14 1989.

Haefely, W. (1990). Benzodiazepine receptor and ligands: structural and functional differences. In Benzodiazepinmes: current concepts (ed. I. Hindmarch, G. Beaumont, S. Brandon, and B.E. Leonard) pp. 1–18. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

Haefely, W., Pieri, L., Pole, P. and Schaffer, R. (1981). General pharmacology and neuropharmacology of benzodiazepine derivatives. In Handbook of experimental pharmacology. Vol. 55, II (ed. H. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 13–62. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Haider, I. and Oswald, I. (1970). Late brain recovery after drug overdose. Br. Med. J., 2, 318–22.

Haigh, J.R. and Feeley, M. (1988) RO 16–6028, a benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist, does not exhibit anticonvulsant tolerance in mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 147, 283–5.

Halikas, J., Kemp, K., Kuhn, K., Carlson, G. and Crea, F. (1989). Carbamazepine for cocaine addition? Lancet, i, 623–4.

Hall, G.H. (1970). Effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke on the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb. Br. J. Pharmac, 38, 271–86.

(p.358) Hall, G. H. and Morrison, C. F. (1973). New evidence for a relationship between tobacco smoking, nicotine dependence and stress. Nature, 243, 199–201.

Hall, G.H. and Turner, D.M. (1972). Effects of nicotine on the release of 3H-noradrenaline from the hypothalamus. Biochem. Pharmacol. 21, 1829–38.

Hamburger, R., Sela, A. and Belamker, R.H. (1985). Differences in learning and extinction in response to vasopressin in six inbred mouse strains. Psycho-pharmacology, 87, 124–5.

Han, J.S. and Terenius, L. (1982). Neurochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 22, 193–220.

Handler, C.E. and Perkin, G.D. (1983). Wernicke’s encephalopathy. J. Roy. Soc. Med., 76, 339–41.

Hardy, J. (1988). Molecular biology and Alzheimer’s disease: more questions than answers. Trends Neurosci., 11, 293–4.

Hardy, J. and Allsopp, D. (1991). Amyloid deposition is the central event in the aetiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 12, 383–91.

Hardy, J. and Cowburn, R. (1987). Glutamate toxicity and Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Neurosci., 10, 406.

Harper, C. G., Kril, J. J. and Holloway, R. L. (1985). Brain shrinkage in chronic alcoholics: a pathological study. Br. Med. J., 290, 501–4.

Harper, C., Kril, J. and Daly, J. (1987). Are we drinking our neurones away? Br. Med. J., 294, 534–6.

Harris, R.A. and Hood, W.F. (1980). Inhibition of synaptosomal calcium uptake by ethanol. J. Pharmac. Exper. Therap., 213, 562–8.

Harrison, P.J. (1986) Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease—beyond the cholinergic hypothesis: discussion paper. J. Roy. Soc. Med., 79, 347–52.

Harrison, N.L. and Simmonds, M.A. (1983). Two distinct interactions of barbiturates and chlormethiazole with the GABA A receptor complex in rat cuneate nucleus in vitro. Br. J. Pharmac, 80, 387–94.

Harrison-Read, P. E. (1981). Synaptic and behavioural actions of antidepressant drugs. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 4, 28–34.

Hartmann, E. (1976). Long term administration of psychotropic drugs: effects on human sleep. In Pharmacology of sleep. (ed. R.L. Williams and I. Karacan), pp. 211–24. Wiley, New York.

Hartmann, E.L. (1979). L-tryptophan and sleep. In Pharmacology of the states of alertness (ed. P. Passouant and I. Oswald), pp. 75–84. Pergamon Press Ltd., Oxford.

Hartmann, E.L. (1980). Sleep and the sleep disorders. In Handbook of biological psychiatry, part II. Brain mechanisms and abnormal behaviour—psychopharmacology. (ed. H.M. van Praag), pp. 331–57. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Hartvig, P., Gillberg, P.R., Gordh, T. and Post, C. (1989). Cholinergic mechanisms in pain and analgesia. Trends Pharmac. Sci. Suppl., 75–9.

Harvey, S.C. (1985). Hypnotics and sedatives. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, T. W. Rall, and F. Murad), pp. 339–71. Macmillan, New York.

Hatsukami, D. K., Hughes, J. R., Pickens, R. W. and Srikis, D. (1984). Tobacco withdrawal symptoms: an experimental analysis. Psychopharmacology, 84, 231–6.

(p.359) Haug, J.O. (1962). Pneumoencephalographic studies in mental disease. Acta Psychiatrica Scand., Suppl. 165, 1–114.

Hayflick, L. (1979). Cell ageing. In Physiology and cell biology of age, Vol. 8 (ed. A. Cherkin, C.E. Finch, N. Kharasch, T. Makindon, and F.L. Scott), pp. 3–9. Raven Press, New York.

Hayward, M. (1977). Headache and pain in the head and neck. In Persistent pain: modern methods of treatment, Vol. 1 (ed. S. Lipton), pp. 35–60. Academic Press, London and Grune and Stratton, New York.

Headley, P.M. and Grillner, S. (1990). Excitatory amino acids and synaptic transmission: the evidence for a physiological function. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 205–11.

Heath, R.G. (1964). Pleasure responses of human subjects to direct stimulation of the brain: physiological and psychodynamic considerations. In The role of pleasure in behaviour (ed. R.G. Heath) Harper and Row, New York.

Heath, R.G. and Walker, C. F. (1985). Correlation of deep and surface electroencephalographs with psychosis and hallucinations in schizophrenics: a report of two cases. Biol. Psychiat., 20, 669–74.

Hebb, D.O. (1949). The organisation of behaviour. Wiley, New York.

Heimstra, N. W. (1973). The effects of smoking on mood change. In Smoking behaviour: motives and incentives (ed. W.L. Dunn), pp. 197–207. Winston, Washington.

Heiss, W. D., Pawlick, G., Herholz, K., Wagner, R. and Weinhard, K. (1985). Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in man during wakefulness, sleep and dreaming. Brain Research, 327, 362–6.

Henderson, G. (1983). Electrophysiological analysis of opioid action. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 59–64.

Henderson, G. (1990). Complexity of 5-HT pharmacology compounded by electrophysiological data. Trends Pharmac. Sci. 11, 265–6.

Hendrickson, A.E (1983a). The biological basis of intelligence. Part I: theory. In A model for intelligence (ed. H.J. Eysenck), pp. 151–96. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Hendrickson, D.E. (1983b). The biological basis of intelligence. Part II: measurement. In A model for intelligence (ed. H.J. Eysenck), pp. 197–230 Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Heninger, G.R. and Charney, D.S. (1987). Mechanisms of antidepressant treatments: implications for the etiology and treatment of depressive disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 535–44. Raven Press, New York.

Hennessy, M.J., Kirkby, K.C. and Montgomery, I.M. (1991). Comparison of the amnesic effects of midazolam and diazepam. Psychopharmacology, 103, 545–50.

Henry, J.A. and Martin, A.J. (1987). The risk-benefit assessment of antidepressant drugs. Med. Toxicol., 2, 445–62.

Herberg, L.J. and Rose, I.C. (1989). The effect of MK–801 and other antagonists of NMDA-type glutamate receptors on brain-stimulation reward. Psychopharmacology, 99, 87–90.

(p.360) Herman, J.B., Brotman, A. W. and Rosenbaum, J.F. (1987). Rebound anxiety in panic disorder patients treated with shorter-acting benzodiazepines. J. clin. Psychiat., 48, (Suppl. 10), 22–6.

Herz, A. (1981). Role of endorphins in addiction. Mod. Probl. Pharmacopsychiat., 17, 175–80.

Herz, A. and Hollt, V. (1982). On the role of endorphins in addiction. In Advances in pharmacology and therapeutics II. Vol. 1. CNS pharmacology—neuropeptides (ed. H. Yoshida, Y. Hagihara, and S. Ebashi), pp. 67–76. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Herz, A., Hollt, V. and Przewlocki, R. (1980a). Endogenous opioids and addiction. In Brain and pituitary peptides, Ferring Symposium, Munich, 1979, pp. 183–9. Karger, Basel.

Herz, A., Schulz, R. and Wuster, M. (1980b). Some aspects of opiate receptors. In Receptors for Neurotransmitters and Peptide Hormones. (ed. G. Pepeu, M.J. Kuhar, and S.J. Enna), pp. 329–37. Raven Press, New York.

Herzberg, J.L. and Wolkind, S.N. (1983). Solvent sniffing in perspective. Br. J. Hosp. Med., 29, 72–6.

Heston, L.L. and Mastri, A.R. (1977). The genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 34, 976–81.

Hillyard, S. A. (1985) Electrophysiology of human selective attention. Trends Neurosci., 8, 400–5.

Hinde, R. A. (1977). Mother-infant separation and the nature of inter-individual relationships; experiments with rhesus monkeys. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. (Ser. B), 196, 29–50.

Hirsch, S.R. (1983). Psychosocial factors in the cause and prevention of schizophrenia. Br. Med. J., 286, 1600–1.

Hoffman, B.B. and Lefkowitz, R.J. (1980). Radioligand binding studies of adrenergic receptors: new insights into molecular and physiological regulations. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 20, 581–608.

Hoffman, D., Adams, J.D., LaVoie, E.J. and Hecht, S.S. (1988). Biochemistry, pharmacokinetics and carcinogenicity of nicotine-derived nitro-samines. In The pharmacology of nicotine (ed. M.R. Rand and K. Thurau), pp. 43–60. IRL Press, Oxford.

Hoke, M., Lehnhertz, B., Lutkenhoner, B. and Pantec, V. (1989). Cortical auditory evoked magnetic fields: mapping of time and frequency domain aspects. In Topographic brain mapping of EEG and evoked potentials (ed. K. Maurer), pp. 537–64. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Holaday, J.W. and Faden, A.I. (1982). Endorphins and thyrotropin releasing hormone in shock and trauma. In CNS pharmacology of neuropeptides (ed. H. Yoshida, Y. Hagihara, and S. Ebashi), pp. 45–56. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Hollister, L.E. (1982). Pharmacology and toxicology of psychotomimetics. In Psychotropic agents part III. Alcohol and psychotomimetics, psychotropic effects of central acting drugs (ed. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 321–44. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Holmes, S.W. and Sugden, D. (1982). Effects of melanotonin on sleep and neurochemistry in the rat. Br. J. Pharmac, 76, 95–101.

Hore, B.D. and Ritson, E.B. (1982). Alcohol and health. Medical Council on Alcoholism, London.

(p.361) Horn, G., Bradley, P. and McCabe, B.J. (1985). Changes in the structure of synapses associated with learning. J. Neurosci., 5, 3161–8.

Home, J. A. (1976). Hail slow wave sleep: goodbye REM. Bull. Br. Psychiat. Soc, 29, 74–9.

Home, J. A. (1979). Restitution and human sleep: a critical review. Physiol. Psychol., 7, 115–25.

Home, J. (1988). Why we sleep. Oxford University Press.

Home, J.A. and Wilkinson, S. (1985). Chronic sleep reduction: daytime vigilance, performance and EEG measures of sleepiness, with particular reference to ‘practice’ effects. Psychophysiology, 22, 69–78.

Horrobin, D.F. (1979). Schizophrenia: reconciliation of the dopamine, prostaglandin, and opioid concepts and the role of the pineal. Lancet, i, 529–31.

Houde, R.W. (1979). Systemic analgesics and related drugs: narcotic analgesics. In Advances in pain research and therapy (ed. J.J. Bonica and V. Ventafridda), Vol. 2, pp. 263–73. Raven Press, New York.

Howlett, A.C., Bidant-Russell, M., Devane, W.A., Melvin, L.S., Johnson. M.R. and Herkenham, M. (1990). The cannabinoid receptor: biochemical, anatomical and behavioral characterization. Trends Neurosci., 13, 420–3.

Hu, H-Y.Y., Davis, J.M. and Pandey, G.N. (1981). Characterisation of alpha-adrenergic receptors in guinea pig cerebral cortex: effect of chronic antidepressant treatments. Psychopharmacology, 74, 201–3.

Hubel, D.H. and Wiesel, T.N. (1977). Ferrier Lecture: Functional architecture of macaque monkey visual cortex. Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. B., 198, 1–59.

Hughes, J. (1983). Biogenesis, release and inactivation of enkephalins and dynorphins. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 17–24.

Hughes, J. and Kosterlitz, H. W. (1983). Introduction. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 1–3.

Human Toxicology (1989), 8, 255–334. (Special issue on volatile substance abuse).

Hunkeler, W., Mohler, H., Pieri, L., Pole, P., Bonetti, E.P., Cumin, R., Schaffner, R. and Haefely, W. (1981). Selective antagonists of benzodiazepines. Nature, 290, 514–6.

Hutchison, R.R. and Emley, G.S. (1973). Effects of nicotine on avoidance, conditioned suppression and aggression response measures in animals and man. In Smoking behaviour: motives and incentives. (ed. W.L. Dunn), pp. 171–96. Winston, Washington.

Idzikowski, C, Mills, F. J. and Glennard, R. (1986). 5-Hydroxytryptamine–2 antagonist increases human slow wave sleep. Brain Research, 378, 164–86.

Idzikowski, C, Cowen, P.J., Nutt, D. and Mills, F.J. (1987). The effects of chronic ritanserin treatment on sleep and the neuroendocrine response to L-tryptophan. Psychopharmacology, 93, 416–20.

Illis, L.S. (1990). Central pain: much can be offered from a methodological approach. Br. Med. J., 300, 1284–6.

Ingvar, D.H. (1979). Cerebral circulation and metabolism in sleep. In Sleep research (ed. R.G. Priest, A. Pletscher, and J. Ward), pp. 13–18. MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster.

Ingvar, D.H. (1982). Mental illness and regional brain metabolism. Trends Neurosci., 5, 199–203.

(p.362) Inque, S., Uchizono, K. and Nagasaki, H. (1982). Endogenous sleep-promoting factors. Trends Neurosci., 5, 218–20.

International Association for the Study of Pain: Subcommittee on Taxonomy (1986). Classification of chronic pain. Pain, Suppl. 3, S1-S225.

Introini-Collison, I.B. and McGaugh, J.L. (1987). Naloxone and ß-endorphin alter the effects of post-training epinephrine on memory. Psychophar-macology, 92, 229–35.

Isaacson, R.L. (1974). The limbic system. Plenum Press, New York.

Isaacson, R.L. (1982). The limbic system (2nd edn). Plenum Press, New York.

Itil, T.M. and Soldatos, C. (1980). Clinical neurophysiological properties of antidepressants. In Psychotropic agents part I: antipsychotics and antidepressants (ed. F. Hoffmeister, and G. Stille), pp. 437–69. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Itil, T.M., Shapiro, D.M., Eralp, E., Akman, A., Itil, K.Z. and Garbizu, C. (1985). A new brain function diagnostic unit, including the dynamic brain mapping of computer analysed EEG, evoked potential and sleep (a new hardware/software system and its application in psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology). New Trends in Experimental and Clinical Psychiatry, 1, 107–77.

Iversen, S. D. (1977). Temporal lobe amnesia. In Amnesia (ed. C. W. M. Whitty and O.L. Zangwill), pp. 136–82. Butterworth, London and Boston.

Iversen, S.D. and Iversen, L.L. (1981). Behavioural pharmacology. Oxford University Press, New York.

Iversen, L.L. and McKay, A.V.P. (1979). Pharmacodynamics of antidepressants and antimanic drugs. In Psychopharmacology of affective disorders (ed. E.S. Paykel and A. Coppen), pp. 60–90. Oxford University Press.

Izquierdo, I. (1982a). Beta-endorphin and forgetting. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 3, 455–547.

Izquierdo, I. (1982b). Memory modulation, the sympathoadrenal system and the effect of drugs. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 3, 352–3.

Izquierdo, I. (1983). Naloxone facilitation of memory. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 4, 410.

Izquierdo, I. (1990a). Acetylcholine release is modulated by different opioid receptor types in different brain regions and species. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 179–80.

Izquierdo, I. (1990b). Nimodipine and the recovery of memory. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11 309–10.

Jacobs, B.L. (1984). Single unit activity of brain monoaminergic neurons in freely moving animals: a brief review. In Modulation of sensorimotor activity during alterations in behavioural states (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 99–120. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Jaffe, J.H. (1980). Drug addiction and drug abuse. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 535–607. Macmillan, New York.

Jaffe, J.H. and Martin, W.R. (1980). Opioid analgesics and antagonists. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 494–534. Macmillan, New York.

James, I.M., Griffith, D.N.W., Pearson, R.M. and Newberry, P. (1977). Effect of oxprenolol on stage-fright in musicians. Lancet, ii, 952–4.

(p.363) Janig, W. (1985). Causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy: in which way is the sympathetic nervous system involved? Trends Neurosci. 8, 471–7.

Janke, W. (1980). Psychometric and psychophysiological actions of antipsychotics in man. In Psychotropic agents. Part I: antipsychotics and antidepressants (ed. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 305–36. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Jansen, K. (1989). Near death experience and the NMDA receptor. Br. Med. J., 298, 1708.

Jarvik, M.E. (1967). Tobacco smoking in monkeys. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 142, 280–94.

Jasinski, D.R., Johnson, R.E. and Henningfield, J.E. (1984). Abuse liability assessment in human subjects. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 5, 196–200.

Jasper, H.H. and Tessier, J. (1971). Acetylcholine liberation from cerebral cortex during paradoxical (REM) sleep. Science, 172, 601–2.

Jasper, H.H., Khan, R.T. and Elliott, K.A.C. (1965). Amino acids released from cerebral cortex in relation to its state of activation. Science, 147, 1448–51.

Jeffcoate, W. J., Herbert, M., Cullen, M. H., Hastings, A.G. and Walder, C. P.(1979). Prevention of effects of alcohol intoxication by naloxone. Lancet, i, 1157–9.

Jeffreys, D.B., Flanagan, R. J. and Volans, G.N. (1980). Reversal of ethanol-induced coma with naloxone. Lancet, i, 308–9.

Jenkins, W.J., Cakebread, K. and Palmer, K.R. (1982). Hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcoholism. Lancet, ii, 1275.

Jensen, H.H., Hutchings, B. and Poulsen, J.C. (1989). Conditioned emotional responding under diazepam: a psychophysiological study of state dependent learning. Psychopharmacology, 98, 392–7.

Jeste, D.V., Lohr, J.B. and Goodwin, F.K. (1988). Neuroanatomical studies of major affective disorders: a review and suggestions for further research. Br. J. Psychiat., 153, 444–59.

Jhamandas, K. and Sutak, M. (1976). Morphine-naloxone interaction in the central cholinergic system: the influence of subcortical lesioning and electrical stimulation. Br. J. Pharmac, 58, 101–7.

Jimerson, D.C. (1987). Role of dopaminergic mechanisms in the affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 505–11.

Johansson, F. and Knorring, L. von (1979). A double blind controlled study of a serotonin uptake inhibitor (zimelidine) versus placebo in chronic pain. Pain, 7, 69–78.

Johnson, L.C., Naitoh, P., Moses, J.M. and Lubin, A. (1974). Interaction of REM deprivation and stage 4 deprivation with total sleep loss. Psychophysiology, 11, 147–59.

Johnstone, E.C., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., Husband, J. and Kreel, L. (1976). Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet, ii, 924–6.

Johnstone, E.C., Crow, T.J., Frith, C. D., Carney, M.W.P. and Price, J.S. (1978). Mechanism of the antipsychotic effect in the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Lancet, i, 848–51.

(p.364) Jonas, J.M. and Gold, M.S. (1986). Cocaine abuse and eating disorders. Lancet, i, 390–1.

Jones, B.J. (1988). 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in anxiety and schizophrenia. In Serotonin explored, paper presented at conference 27th/28th June, 1988, London Marriott Hotel, London W 1. IBC Technical Services Ltd.

Jones, H.S. and Oswald, I. (1968). Two cases of healthy insomnia. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol., 24, 378–80.

Jones, K.L., Lacro, R.V., Johnson, K.A. and Adams, J. (1989). Pattern of malformations in the children of women treated with carbamazepine during pregnancy. New Eng. J. Med., 320, 1661–6.

Jones, K.L., Smith, D.W. and Myrianthopoulos, N.C. (1974). Outcome of offspring of chronic alcoholic women. Lancet, i, 1076–8.

Jouvet, M. (1967). Neurophysiology of states of sleep. Physiol. Rev., 47, 117–77.

Jouvet, M. (1969). Biogenic amines and the states of sleep. Science, 163, 32–41.

Jouvet, M. (1972). The role of monoamines and acetylcholine containing neurons on the regulation of the sleep-waking cycle. Ergebrisse der Physiologic, 64, 166–307.

Jouvet, M. (1973). Telencephalic and rhombencephalic sleep in the cat. In Sleep: an active process; research and commentary (ed. W.B. Webb), pp. 12–32. Scott Foresman, Glenview, Illinois.

Jouvet, M. (1977). Neuropharmacology of the sleep-waking cycle. In Handbook of psychopharmacology Vol. 8 Drugs, neurotransmitters and behaviour. (ed. L.L. Iverson, S.D. Iverson, and S.H. Snyder), pp. 233–93. Plenum Press, New York.

Joyce, E.M., Moodley, P., Keshaven, M.S. and Lader, M.H. (1990). Failure of clonidine treatment in benzodiazepine withdrawal. J. Psychopharmacology, 4, 42–5.

Judd, L.L., Squire, L.R., Butters, N., Salmon, D.P. and Paller, K. A. (1987). Effects of psychotropic drugs on cognition and memory in normal humans and animals. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 1467–75. Raven Press, New York.

Kahn, R.S., Wetzler, S., Asnis, CM., Kling, M.A., Suckow, R. F. and van Praag, H. M. (1990). Effects of m-chlorophenylpiperazine in normal subjects: a dose-response study. Psychopharmacology, 100, 339–44.

Kales, A., Tan, T., Kollar, E.J., Naitoh, P., Preston, T. and Malstrom, E.J. (1970). Sleep patterns following 205 hours of sleep deprivation. Psychosom. Med., 32, 189–200.

Kales, A., Scharf, M.B. and Kales, J.D. (1978). Rebound insomnia: a new clinical syndrome. Science, 201, 1039–41.

Kalin, N.H. and Dawson, G. (1986). Neuroendocrine dysfunction in depression: hypothalamic-anterior pituitary systems. Trends Neurosci., 9, 261–6.

Kametani, H., Nomura, S. and Shimizu, J. (1983). The reversal effect of antidepressants on the escape deficit induced by inescapable shock in rats. Psychopharmacology, 80, 206–8.

Kandel, E.R. (1978). Environmental determinants of brain architecture and of behaviour: early experience and learning. In Principles of neural sciences. (ed. E.R. Kandel and J.H. Schwartz), pp.620–32. Edward Arnold, London.

Kandel, E.R. (1979). Small systems of neurones. Scientific Am., 241, 61–70.

(p.365) Kandel, E.R. and Schwartz, H. (1982). Molecular biology of an elementary form of learning: modulation of transmitter release. Science, 218, 433–43.

Kane, J.M. and Lieberman, J. A. (1987). Maintenance pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 1103–9. Raven Press, New York.

Kanno, O. and Clarenbach, P. (1985). Effect of clonidine and yohimbine on sleep in man: polygraphic study and EEG analysis by normalised slope descriptors. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol., 60, 478–84.

Kapp, B.S. and Gallagher, M. (1979). Opiates and memory. Trends Neurosci., 2, 172–80.

Karli, P. (1984). Complex dynamic interrelations between sensorimotor activities and so-called behavioural states. In Modulation of sensorimotor activity during alterations in behavioural states. (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 1–21. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Karras, A. and Kane, J.M. (1980). Naloxone reduces cigarette consumption. Life Science, 27, 1541–5.

Katz, R.J. (1980). Behavioural effects of dynorphin—a novel opioid neuropeptide. Neuropharmacol., 19, 801–3.

Katzman, R. (1986). Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Neurosci., 9, 522–5.

Kaufmann, C.A., Weinberger, D.R., Yolken, R.N., Torrey, E.F. and Potkin, S.G. (1983). Viruses and schizophrenia. Lancet, ii, 1136–7.

Kay, D.C., Blackburn, A.B., Buckingham, J.A. and Karacan, J. (1976). Human pharmacology of sleep. In Pharmacology of sleep. (ed. R. L. Williams and I. Karacan), pp. 83–210., New York.

Kaye, W.H., Siturnam, N. and Weingartner, H. (1982).Modest facilitation of memory in dementia with combined lecithin and anticholinesterase treatment. Biol. Psychiat., 17, 275–80.

Kaymakcalan, S. (1979). Pharmacological similarities and interactions between cannabis and opioids. In Marihuana: biological effects. (ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton), pp. 591–605. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Kebabian, J.W. and Calne, D.F. (1979). Multiple receptors for dopamine. Nature, 277, 93–6.

Kellett, J.M., Taylor, A. and Oram, J.J. (1986). Aluminosilicates and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, i, 682.

Kemperman, C.J.F. (1982). Salsolinol in the brain. Lancet, i, 927.

Kemperman, C.J.F. (1983). Beta-carbolines, alcohol and depression. Lancet, i, 124–5.

Kendall, MS. (1987). Review of treatment in Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease: current approaches (ed. J.C. Malkin and MN. Rossor), pp. 65–74. Duphar Laboratories Ltd., Southampton.

Kendler, K.S. (1987) The genetics of schizophrenia: a current perspective. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 705–13. Raven Press, New York.

Kerwin, R.W., Patel, S., Meldrum, B.S., Czudek, C. and Reynolds, G.P. (1988). Asymmetrical loss of glutamate receptor subtypes in left hippocampus in schizophrenia. Lancet, i, 583–4.

Keshavan, M.S. and Crammer, J.L. (1985). Clonidine in benzodiazepine withdrawal. Lancet, i, 1325–6.

(p.366) Kesner, R.P. and Hardy, J.D. (1983). Long-term memory for contextual attributes: dissociation of amygdala and hippocampus. Behav. Brain Res., 8, 139–42.

Khachaturian, H., Lewis, M.E., Schafer, M.K-H. and Watson, S.J. (1985). Anatomy of the CNS opioid systems. Trends Neurosci., 8, 111–9.

Kiianmaa, K., Hoffman, P.L. and Tabakoff, B. (1983). Antagonism of the behavioural effects of ethanol by naltrexone in BALB/C, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Psychopharmacology, 79, 291–4.

Killam, E. K. and Killam, K. F. (1956). A comparison of the effects of reserpine and chlorpromazine to those of barbiturates on central afferent systems in the cat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap., 116, 35–41.

Kiloh, L.G., Andrews, G. and Neilson, M. (1988). The long-term outcome of depressive illness. Br. J. Psychiat., 153, 752–7.

King, M.D., Day, R.E., Oliver, J.S., Lush, M. and Watson, J.M. (1981). Solvent encephalopathy. Br. Med. J., 283, 663–5.

Kirkegaard, C. (1981). The thyrotropin response to TRH in endogenous depression. Psychopharmacology, 6, 189–212.

Klein, D. F. and Davis, J.M. (1969). Diagnosis and drug treatment of psychiatric disorder. Williams and Williams, Baltimore.

Kline, N.S. and Cooper, T.B. (1980). Monmoamine oxidase inhibitors as antidepressants. In Psychotropic agents part I: antipsychotics and antidepressants (ed. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 369–97.Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Klockgether, T., Turski, L. and Sontag, K-H. (1987). Towards an understanding of the physiological role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: a more expansive interpretation. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 20.

Knight, J.G. (1982). Dopamine receptor-stimulating autoantibodies; a possible cause of schizophrenia. Lancet, ii, 1073–6.

Knorring, L. von., Almay, B.G.L., Johansson, F. and Terenius, L. (1978). Pain perception and endorphin levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Pain, 5, 359–65.

Knott, V.J. (1989). Brain event-related potentials (ERPs) in smoking performance research. In Smoking and human behaviour (ed. T. Ney and A. Gale), pp. 93–114. Wiley, Chichester.

Knott, V.J. and Venables, P.H. (1977). EEG alpha correlates of non-smokers, smokers, smoking and smoking deprivation. Psychophysiology, 14, 150–6.

Koch, C. and Poggio, T. (1983). Electrical properties of dendritic spines. Trends Neurosci., 6, 80–3.

Koe, B.K. (1983). A common mechanism of action for antidepressant drugs? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 6, 110.

Koehler, P.J. and Mirandolle, J.F. (1988). Neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome and lithium. Lancet, ii, 1499–500.

Koella, W.P. (1981). Neurotransmitters and sleep. In Psychopharmacology of sleep (ed. D. Wheatley), pp. 19–51. Raven Press, New York.

Koella, W.P. (1983). Polypeptides and sleep. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 4, 210–11.

Koob, G.F. and Bloom, F.E. (1983). Behavioural effects of opioid peptides. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 89–94.

Kornetsky, C., Esposito, R.U., McLean, S. and Jacobson, O. (1979). Intracranial self-stimulation threshold. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 36, 289–92.

(p.367) Koslow, S.H. (1974). 5-Methoxytryptamine: a possible central nervous system transmitter. In Serotonin—new vistas. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol, Vol. II (ed. E. Costa, G. L. Gessa, and M. Sandler), pp. 95–101. Raven Press, New York.

Kosten, T. A. and Kosten, T.R. (1989). Cocaine abuse and opioid withdrawal. Lancet, ii, 165–6.

Kosterlitz, H. (1979). Endogenous peptides and the control of pain. Psych. Med., 9, 1–4.

Kostowski, W. (1975) Brain serotonergic and catecholaminergic system: facts and hypothesis. In Current developments in psychopharmacology, Vol. I (ed. W.B. Essman and L. Valzelli), pp. 39–64. Spectrum Publications Inc., New York.

Kostowski, W. (1985). Desipramine—correlation of receptor changes with function. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 6, 393–4.

Kovacs, G.L., Bohus, B.E., Versteeg, D.H.G., Telegdy, G. and Weid, D. de (1982). Neurohypophyseal hormones and memory. In Advances in pharmacology and therapeutics II, Vol. I, CNS pharmacology-neuropeptides (ed. H. Yoshida, Y. Hagihara, and S. Ebashi), pp. 175–87. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Krause, D.N. and Dubocovich, M. L. (1990). Regulatory sites in the melatonin system of mammals. Trends Neurosci., 13, 464–70.

Kreek, M.J. (1987). Multiple drug abuse patterns and medical consequences. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1597–604. Raven Press, New York.

Kretschmer, E. (1936). Physique and character (2nd edn) (trans. W. J.H. Sproff and K.P. Trench). Trubner, New York.

Krueger, J., Walter, J. and Levin, C. (1985). Factor S and related somnogens: an immune theory for slow wave sleep. In Brain mechanisms of sleep (ed. D.J. McGinty, R. Drucker-Colin, A. Morrison, and P-L. Parmeggiani), pp. 253–69. Raven Press, New York.

Kruk, Z.L. and Pycock, C.J. (1979). Neurotransmitters and drugs. Croom Helm, London.

Kuhar, M.J. (1986). Neuroanatomical substrates of anxiety: a brief survey. Trends Neurosci., 97, 307–11.

Kupferman, I. (1978). Learning. In Principles of neural science. (ed. E.R. Kandel and J.H. Schwartz), pp. 570–9. Edward Arnold, London.

Kutas, M. and Hillyard, S.A. (1984). Brain potentials during reading reflect work expectancy and semantic association. Nature, 307, 161–3.

Lacey, M.G., Mercuri, N.B. and North, R.A. (1990). Actions of cocaine on rat dopaminergic neurones in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol., 99, 731–5.

Lader, M. (1978). Current psychophysiological theories of anxiety. In Psycho-pharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1375–80. Raven Press, New York.

Lader, M. (1980). The psychophysiology of anxiety. In Handbook of biological psychiatry (ed. H.M. van Praag), Part II, pp. 225–47. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Lader, M.H. (1987). Long-term benzodiazepine use and psychological functioning. In The benzodiazepines in current clinical practice (ed. H. Freeman and Y. Rue), pp. 55–69. Royal Society of Medicine Services Ltd., London.

(p.368) Lader, M.H. (1989). Newer anti-anxiety drugs. In Psychopharmacology of anxiety (ed. P. Tyrer), pp. 243–54. Oxford University Press.

Lader, M.H. and Bruce, M. (1986). States of anxiety and their induction by drugs. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 22, 251–61.

Lader, M.H. and Morton, S. (1991) Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Br. J. Psychiat., 158, 435.

Lader, M. and Olajide, D. (1987). A comparison of buspirone and placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. J. Clin. Psychopharmac., 7, 11–15.

Lader, M. H. and Petursson, H. (1981). Benzodiazepine derivatives-side effects and dangers. Biol. Psychiatry., 16, 1195–212.

Lader, M.H., Ron, M. and Petursson, H. (1984). Computed axial brain tomography in long-term benzodiazepine users. Psychol. Med., 14, 203–6.

Laegreid, L., Olegard, R., Wahlstrom, J. and Conradi, N. (1987). Abnormalities in children exposed to benzodiazepines in utero. Lancet, i, 108–9.

Lake, C.R., Sternberg, D.E., Kammen, D.P. van., Ballenger, J.C., Ziegler, M.G., Post, R.M., Kopin, I. J. and Bunney, W.E. (1980). Schizophrenia: elevated cerebrospinal fluid norepinephrine. Science, 207, 331–3.

Lakosi, J.M. and Cunningham, K. A. (1988). Cocaine interaction with central monoamine systems: electrophysiological approaches. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 9, 177–80.

Lai, H. and Fielding, S. (1983). Clonidine in the treatment of narcotic addiction. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 4, 70–1.

Lambiase, M. and Serra, C. (1957). Fume a sistema nervoso. I. modificazioni dell’ attivita elettrica corticale da fumo. Acta Neurologica (Napoli)., 12, 475–93.

Lance, J.W. and McLeod, J.G. (1981). A physiological approach to clinical neurology. Butterworth, London.

Lancet (1979). Sleep apnoea syndromes. Lancet, i, 25–6.

Lancet (1980). Treatment of opiate-withdrawal symptoms. Lancet, i, 349–50.

Lancet (1981). If at first you do succeed. Lancet, 337, 650–1.

Lancet (1984a). Management of trigeminal neuralgia. Lancet, i, 662–3.

Lancet (1984b). The challenge of addiction. Lancet, ii, 1019–20.

Lancet (1985). Beta-blockers in situational anxiety. Lancet, ii, 193.

Lancet (1987a). Doubts about the value of maintenance lithium. Lancet, i, 424.

Lancet (1987b). Crack. Lancet, ii, 1061–2.

Lancet (1989). Aluminium and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, i, 82–3.

Lancet (1990a). Vasodilatation and migraine. Lancet, 335, 822–3.

Lancet (1990b). Magnetoencephalography. Lancet, 335, 576–7.

Lancet (1990c) Zopiclone: another carriage on the tranquilliser train. Lancet, 335, 507–8.

Lands, A.M., Arnold, A., McAucliff, J.P., Luduena, F.P. and Brown, T.G. (1967). Differentiation of receptor systems activated by sympathomimetic amines. Nature, 214, 597–8.

Lang, P. J., Rice, D.G. and Sternbach, R.A. (1972). The psychophysiology of emotion. In Handbook of psychophysiology. (ed. N.S. Greenfield and R.S. Sternbach), pp. 623–63. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

(p.369) Langer, G. and Karobath, M. (1980). Biochemical effects of antidepressants in man. In Psychotropic agents part I: antipsychotics and antidepressants. (ed. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 491–504. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Langer, S.Z. (1977). Presynaptic receptors and their role in the regulation of transmitter release. Br. J. Pharmac, 60, 481–97.

Langer, S.Z. (1980). Presynaptic receptors and modulation of neurotransmission: pharmacological implications and therapeutic relevance. Trends Neurosci. 3, 110–12.

Langer, S.Z. (1984). [3H]Imipramine and [3H]desipramine binding: nonspecific displaceable sites or physiologically relevant sites associated with the uptake of serotonin and noradrenaline? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 5, 51.

Langer, S. Z. and Arbilla, S. (1984). The amphetamine paradox in dopaminergic transmission. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 5, 387–90.

Langer, S.Z. and Briley, M. (1981). High-affinity 3H-imipramine binding: a new biological tool for studies in depression. Trends Neurosci., 4, 28–31.

Langer, S.Z., Briley, M.S. and Raisman, M. (1980). Regulation of neurotransmission through presynaptic receptors and other mechanisms: possible clinical relevance and therapeutic potential. In Receptors for neurotransmitters and Peptides (ed. G. Pepeu, and M.J. Kuhar), pp. 203–12. Raven Press, New York.

Largen, J.W., Calderon, M. and Smith, R.C. (1983). Asymmetries in the densities of white and grey matter in the brains of schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiat., 140, 1060–2.

Larson, P.S. and Silvette, H. (1975). Tobacco: experimental and clinical studies, Suppl. III. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.

Lashley, K.S. (1950). In search of the engram. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., 4, 454–82.

Lauritzen, M. (1987). Cortical spreading depression as a putative migraine mechanism. Trends Neurosci., 10, 8–13.

LeBoeuf, A., Lodge, J. and Eames, P.G. (1978). Vasopressin and memory in Korsakoff’s Syndrome. Lancet, ii, 1370.

Lecrubier, Y., Puech, A. J., Jouvent, R., Simon, P. and Widlocher, D. (1980). A beta adrenergic stimulant (salbutamol) versus clomipramine in depression: a controlled study. Br. J. Psychiat., 136, 354–8.

Lederhendler, I.I., Gart, S. and Alkon, D.L. (1986). Classical conditioning of Hermissenda: origin of a new response. J. Neurosci., 6, 1325–31.

Lee, A.S. and Murray, R.M. (1988). The long-term outcome of Maudsley depressives. Br. J. Psychiat., 153, 741–51.

Lee, T. and Seeman, P. (1980). Elevation of brain neuroleptic/dopamine receptors in schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiat., 137, 191–7.

Lee, K., Moller, L., Hardt, F., Haubek, A. and Jenson, E. (1979). Alcohol-induced brain damage and liver damage in young males. Lancet, ii, 759–61.

Lee, M.A., Cameron, O.G. and Greden, J.F. (1985). Anxiety and caffeine consumption in people with anxiety disorders. Psychiat. Res., 15, 211–17.

Lees, A.J. (1985). Parkinson’s disease and dementia. Lancet, i, 43–4.

Leff, J. P. (1978). Social and psychological causes of the acute attack. In Schizophrenia: towards a new synthesis. (ed. J.K. Wing), Academic Press, London.

Legros, J.J., Gilot, P., Seron, X., Claessens, J., Adam, A., Moeglin, J.M., Audibert, A. and Berchier, P. (1978). Influence of vasopressin on learning and memory. Lancet, i, 41–2

(p.370) Leith, N.J. and Barrett, R.J. (1981). Self-stimulation and amphetamine: tolerance to d and l isomers and cross tolerance to cocaine and methylphenidate. Psychopharmacology, 74, 23–8.

LeMay, M. (1982). Morphological aspects of human brain asymmetry: an evolutionary perspective. Trends Neurosci., 5, 273–5.

Lenard, H. G. and Schulte, F. J. (1972). Polygraphic sleep study in craniophagus twins (where is the sleep transmitter?). J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 35, 756–62.

Leonard, B.E. (1985). New antidepressants and the biology of depression. Stress Medicine, 1, 9–16.

Lerer, B. (1987). Neurochemical and other neurobiological consequences of ECT: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 577–88. Raven Press, New York.

Lerer, B., Ebstein, R.P. and Belmaker, R.H. (1981). Subsensitivity of human beta-adrenergic adenylate cyclase after salbutamol treatment of depression. Psychopharmacology, 75, 169–72.

Levi-Montalcini, R. and Calissano, P. (1986). Nerve growth factor as a paradigm for other polypeptide growth factors. Trends Neurosci., 9, 473–6.

Levine, S. (1988). Buspirone: clinical studies in psychiatry. In Buspirone: a new introduction to the treatment of anxiety (ed. M. Lader), pp. 43–9. Royal Society of Medicine Services, London.

Levine, J.P., Gordon, N.O. and Fields, H.L. (1978). The mechanisms of placebo analgesia. Lancet, ii, 654–7.

Levine, J.D., Gordon, N.C., Jones, R.T. and Fields, H.L. (1978). The narcotic antagonist naloxone enhances clinical pain. Nature, 272, 826–7.

Levison, P.K. (1981). An analysis of commonalities in substance abuse and habitual behaviour. In Behavioural pharmacology of human drug dependence. (ed. T. Thompson and C.E. Johansson), N.I.D.A. Research Monograph 37. National Institute of Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland.

Levy, J. (1979). Human cognition and lateralisation of cerebral function. Trends Neurosci., 2, 222–5.

Levy, R., Little, A., Chuaqui, P. and Reith, M. (1983). Early results from double blind, placebo controlled trial of high doses phosphatidylcholine in Alzheimer’s Disease. Lancet, i, 987–8.

Lewis, J.W. and Liebeskind, J.C. (1983). Pain suppressive systems of the brain. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 4, 73–5.

Lewis, S.W. and Murray, R.M. (1987). Obstetric complications, neurodevelopmental deviance and risk of schizophrenia. J. Psychiat. Res., 21, 413–21.

Lewis, S.A., Oswald, I. and Dunleavy, D.L.F. (1971). Chronic fenfluramine administration: some cerebral effects. Br. Med. J., 2, 67–70.

Lieberman, J., Johns, C, Cooper, T., Pollack, S. and Kane, J. (1989). Clozapine pharmacology and tardive dyskinesia. Psychopharmacoloy, 99, (Suppl.), S54–9.

Liljequist, R., Linnoila, M. and Mattila, M.J. (1978). Effect of diazepam and chlorpromazine on memory functions in man. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmac. 13, 339–43.

(p.371) Lindstrom, L.H., Widerlov, E. and Gunne, L. (1978). Endorphins in human cerebrospinal fluid: clinical correlations to some psychotic states. Acta Psychiat. Scand., 57, 153–64.

Lipman, J.L., Miller, B.E., Mays, K.S., Miller, M.N., North, W.C. and Byrne, W.L. (1990). Peak ß endorphin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid: reduced in chronic pain patients and increased during the placebo response. Psychopharmacology, 102, 112–16.

Littleton, J., Harper, J., Hudspith, M., Pagonis, C., Dolin, S. and Little, H. (1988). Adaptation in neuronal Ca2+-channels may cause alcohol physical dependence. In The psychopharmacology of addiction (ed. M. Lader), pp. 60–72. Oxford University Press.

Llinas, R. (1987). ‘Mindness’ as a functional state of the brain. In Mindwaves (ed. C. Blakemore and S. Greenfield), pp. 339–60. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Lloyd, K. J., Farley, I. J., Deck, J.H.N. and Hornykiewicz, O. (1974). Serotonin and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid in discrete areas of the brainstem of suicide victims and control patients. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol., 11, 387–97.

Lorens, S. A. (1976). Comparison of the effects of morphine on hypothalamic and medial frontal cortex self-stimulation in the rat. Psychopharmacology, 48, 217–24.

Lorig, T.S. and Schwartz, G.E. (1989). Factor analysis of the EEG indicates inconsistencies in traditional frequency bands. J. Psychophysiol., 3, 369–75.

Losonczy, M.F., Davidson, M. and Davis, K.L. (1987). The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer) pp. 715–26. Raven Press, New York.

Lovick, T.A. (1987). Tonic GABAergic and cholinergic influences on pain control and cardiovascular control neurones in nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis in the rat. Pain, 31, 401–9.

Lowenstein, L.F. (1982). Glue sniffing: background features and treatment by aversion methods and group therapy. Practitioner, 226, 1113–16.

Lukin, P.R. and Ray, A.B. (1982). Personality correlates of pain perception and tolerance. J. Clin. Psychol., 38, 317–20.

Lundberg, J.M. and Hokfelt, T. (1983). Coexistence of peptides and classical neurotransmitters. Trends Neurosci., 6, 325–33.

Lundberg, T., Lindstrom, L.H., Hartig, P., Eckernas, S-A, Ekblom, B., Lundqvist, H. Fasth, K. J., Gullbery, P. and Langstrom, B. (1989). Striatal and frontal cortex binding of 11-C-labelled clozapine visualised by positron emission tomography (PET) in drug-free schizophrenics and healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 99, 8–12.

Luttinger, D., Burgess, S.K., Nemeroff, C.B. and Prange, A.J. (1983). The effects of chronic morphine treatment on neurotensin-induced antinocicep-tion. Psychopharmacology, 81, 10–3.

Lynch, G. and Baudry, M. (1984). The biochemistry of memory: a new and specific hypothesis. Science, 224, 1057–63.

Lynch, M., Errington, M.L. and Bliss, T.V.P. (1985). Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus: increased release of [14C] glutamate without increase in receptor binding. Neurosci. Lett., 62, 123–9.

(p.372) Lyon, L.J. and Anthony, J. (1982). Reversal of alcoholic coma by naloxone. Ann. Int. Med., 96, 464–5.

Maas, J.W. (1979). Neurotransmitters in depression: too much, too little or too unstable? Trends Neurosci., 2, 306–8.

MacDonald, J.F. and Nowak, L.M. (1990). Mechanism of blockade of excitatory amino acid receptor channels. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 167–71.

MacKay, A. V. P., Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G., Rossor, M., Iversen, L. L., Creese, I. and Snyder, S.H. (1980). Dopamine receptors and schizophrenia: drug effect or illness? Lancet, ii, 915–16.

Mackenzie, A.I. (1979). Naloxone in alcohol intoxication. Lancet, i, 733–4.

MacLean, P.D. (1949). Psychosomatic disease and the ‘visual brain’. Psychosomatic Med., 11, 338–53.

MacLean, P.D. (1969). The hypothalamus and emotional behaviour. In The hypothalamus (ed. E. Anderson and W. J. H. Nauta). pp. 659–72. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.

MacLennan, J. A., Drugan, R.C. and Maier, S.F. (1983). Long-term stress analgesia blocked by scopolamine. Psychopharmacology, 80, 267–8.

Madden, J.S. (1979). Alcohol and drug dependence. Wright, Bristol.

Madsen, J. A. (1974). Depressive illness and oral contraceptives. A study of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleactetic acid excretion. In Serotonin—new vistas, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. Vol. II. (ed. E. Costa, G.L. Gessa, and M. Sandler), pp. 249–53. Raven Press, New York.

Magni, G. (1987). On the relationship between chronic pain and depression where there is no organic lesion. Pain, 31, 1–21.

Mair, W. G. P., Warrington, E. K. and Weiskrantz, L. (1979). Memory disorder in Korsakoff’s psychosis. Brain, 102, 749–83.

Maj, M., Pirozzi, R. and Kemali, D. (1989). Long-term outcome of lithium prophylaxis in patients initially classified as complete responders. Psycho-pharmacology, 98, 535–8.

Manallack, D.T., Beart, P.M. and Gundlach, A.L. (1986). Psychotomimetic sigma-opiates and PCP. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 7, 448–51.

Mangan, G.L. and Golding, J.F. (1978). An ‘enhancement’ model of smoking maintenance. In Smoking behaviour: physiological and psychological influences (ed. R.E. Thornton), pp. 87–114. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Mangan, G.L. and Golding, J.F. (1983). The effects of smoking on memory consolidation. J. Psychol., 115, 65–77.

Mansour, A., Khachaturian, H., Lewis, M.E., Akil, H. and Watson, S.J. (1988). Anatomy of CNS opioid receptors. Trends Neurosci., 11, 308–14.

Maragos, W.F., Greenamyre, J.T., Penney, J.B. and Young, A.B. (1987). Glutamate dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease: an hypothesis. Trends Neurosci., 10, 65–8.

Marcusson, J.O. and Ross, S.B. (1990). Binding of some antidepressants to the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter in brain and platelets. Psycho-pharmacology, 102, 145–55.

Mark, R.F. (1978). The developmental view of memory. In Studies in neurophysiology (ed. R. Porter), pp. 301–8. Cambridge University Press.

Marks, J. (1978). The benzodiazepines: use, overuse, misuse, abuse. MTP Press, Lancaster.

(p.373) Marks, J. (1988). Techniques of benzodiazepine withdrawal in clinical practice. Medical Toxicology, 3, 324–33.

Marks, J. and Nicholson, A.N. (1984). Drugs and insomnia. Br. Med. J., 288, 261.

Marr, D. (1969). A theory of cerebellar cortex. J. Physiol. (Lond.), 202, 437–70.

Marsden, C.D. (1976). Cerebral atrophy and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet, ii, 1079.

Marsden, C.D., Mindham, R.H.S. and Mackay, A.V.P. (1986). Extrapyramidal movement disorders produced by antipsychotic drugs. In The psychopharmacology and treatment of schizophrenia (ed. P.B. Bradley and S.R. Hirsch), pp. 340–402. Oxford University Press.

Marshall, B.E. and Wollman, H. (1980). General Anaesthetics. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and G. Gilman). pp. 276–98. Macmillan Co., New York.

Martyn, C.N., Barker, D.J.P., Osmond, C, Harris, E.C, Edwardson, J.A. and Lacey, R.F. (1989). Geographical relation between Alzheimer’s disease and aluminium in drinking water. Lancet, i, 59–62.

Mason, J. W. (1972). Organisation of psychoendocrine mechanisms. In Hand-book of psychophysiology (ed. N.S. Greenfield, and R.S. Sternbach), pp. 3–91. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Mason, S.T. (1979). Noradrenaline and behaviour. Trends Neurosci., 2, 82–4.

Mason, S.T. (1980). Noradrenaline and selective attention: a review of the model and the evidence. Life Sci., 27, 617–31.

Mason, S.T. and Fibiger, H.C. (1979). Possible behavioural function for noradrenaline-acetycholine interaction in brain. Nature, 277, 396–97.

Mathew, R.J., Meyer, J.S., Semchuk, K.M., Francis, D.M., Mortel, K. and Claghorn, J.L. (1980). Cerebral blood flow in depression. Lancet, i, 1308.

Mathies, H. (1980). Pharmacology of learning and memory. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 1, 333–6.

Matsuda, L. A., Lolait, S. J., Brownstein, M. J., Young, A.C. and Bonner, T. I. (1990). Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Nature, 346, 561–4.

Matus, A., Ackerman, M., Pehling, G., Byers, H.R. and Fujiwara, K. (1982). High actin concentrations in brain dendritic spines and postsynaptic densities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 79, 7590–4.

Maurier, K., Dierks, T., Ihl, R. and Laux, G. (1989). Mapping of evoked potentials in normals and patients with psychiatric diseases. In Topographic brain mapping of EEG and evoked potentials (ed. K. Maurier), pp. 458–73. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Mayer-Gross, W., Slater, E. and Roth, M. (1954). Clinical Psychiatry, Cassell and Co. Ltd., London.

Mayes, A. (1983). The development and course of long-term memory. In Memory in Animals and Humans (ed. A. Mayes), pp. 133–76. Van Nostrand Reinhold (UK) Co. Ltd.

McCabe, B.J. and Horn, G. (1988). Learning and memory: regional changes in N-methyl-D-Aspartate receptors in the chick brain after imprinting. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 85, 2849–53.

(p.374) McClelland, H. (1985). Psychiatric disorders. In Textbook of adverse drug reactions (ed. D.M. Davies), pp. 549–77. Oxford University Press.

McClelland, H.A. (1986). Psychiatric reactions to psychotropic drugs. Adv. Reaction Bull., 119, 444–7.

McDonald, R.J. (1982). Drug treatment of senile dementia. In Psychophar-macology of old age (ed. D. Wheatley), pp. 113–38. Oxford University Press.

McEntee, W.J. and Mair, R.G. (1990). The Korsakoff syndrome: a neurochemical perspective. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 13, 340–4.

McGuffin, P. (1988). Major genes for major affective disorder? Br. J. Psychiat., 153, 591–6.

McGuffin, P., Katz, R. and Bebbington, P. (1988). The Camberwell Collaborative Study III: depression and adversity in the relatives of depressed probands. Br. J. Psychiat., 152, 775–82.

Mclsaac, W.M., Fritchie, G.E., Idanpaan-Heikkila, J.E., Ho, B.T. and Englert, L.F. (1971). Distribution of marihuana in monkey brain and concomitant behavioural effects. Nature, 230, 593–5.

McLachlan, D.C.R., Dalton, A.J., Kruck, T.P.A., Bell, M. Y., Smith, W.L., Kalow, W. and Andrews, D.F. (1991). Intramuscular desferrioxamine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, 337, 1304–8.

Meier-Ruge, W., Enz, A., Gygax, P., Hunziker, O., Iwangoff, P. and Reichlmeier, K. (1975). Genesis and treatment of psychologic disorders in the elderly. In Ageing (ed. S. Gershon and A. Rashin), pp. 55–126. Raven Press, New York.

Meldrum, B. and Garthwaite, J. (1990). Excitatory amino acids and neurodegenerative disease. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 379–87.

Mellerup, E.T. and Rafaelson, O.J. (1979). Circadian rhythms in manic-melancholic disorders. In Current developments in psychopharmacology (ed. W.B. Essman and W.B. Valzelli), Vol. 5., pp. 51–66. Spectrum Publications, New York.

Mello, N.K. (1987). Alcohol abuse and alcoholism: 1978–1987. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1515–20. Raven Press, New York.

Mello, N.K. and Griffiths, R.R. (1987). Alcoholism and drug abuse: an overview. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 1511–14. Raven Press, New York.

Mellsop, G.W., Hutton, J.D. and Delahunt, J.W. (1985). Dexamethasone suppression test as a simple measure of stress? Br. Med. J., 290, 1804–6.

Meltzer, H.Y. (1980). Relevance of dopamine autoreceptors for psychiatry: preclinical and clinical studies. Schizophrenia Bull., 6, 456–74.

Meltzer, H. Y. (1989). Clinical studies in the mechanism of action of clozapine: the dopamine-serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology, 99 (Suppl.), S18–27.

Meltzer, H. Y. and Fang, V. S. (1976). Serum prolactin levels in schizophrenia—effect of antipsychotic drugs: a preliminary report. In Hormones, behaviour and psychopathology (ed. E.J. Sachar), pp. 178–91. Raven Press, New York.

Meltzer, H. Y. and Lowy, M.T. (1987). The serotonin hypothesis of depression. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 513–33. Raven Press, New York.

(p.375) Melzack, R. (1986). Neurophysiological foundations of pain. In The psychology of pain (ed. R. A. Sternbach), pp. 1–24. Raven Press, New York.

Melzack, R. (1990). Phantom limbs and the concept of a neuromatrix. Trends Neurosci., 13, 88–92.

Melzack, R. and Wall, P.D. (1965). Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science, N.Y., 150, 971–80.

Melzack, R. and Wall, P. (1988). The challenge of pain Penguin Books, London.

Mendelson, J. H. (1987). Marijuana. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1565–71. Raven Press, New York.

Menon, P., Evans, R. and Madden, J.S. (1986). Methadone withdrawal regime for heroin misusers: short-term outcome and effect of parental involvement. Br, J. Addiction, 81, 123–6.

Merskey, H. (1986). Psychiatry and pain. In The psychology of pain (ed. R.A. Sternbach), pp. 97–120. Raven Press, New York.

Mesulam, M-M. (1983). The functional anatomy and hemispheric specialisation for directed attention: the role of the parietal lobe and its connections. Trends Neurosci., 6, 384–7.

Metz, A., Stump, K., Cowen, P. J., Elliott, J.M., Gelder, M.G. and Grahame-Smith, D.G. (1983). Changes in platelet alpha2-adrenoceptor binding postpartum: possible relation to maternity blues. Lancet, i, 495–8.

Meyer, D.R. and Beattie, M.S. (1977). Some properties of substrates of memory. In Neuropeptide influences on the brain and behaviour (ed. L.H. Miller, C.A. Sandman, and A.J. Kastin), pp. 145–62. Raven Press, New York.

Mikkelson, E.J. (1978). Caffeine and schizophrenia. J. Clin. Psychiat., 39, 732–6.

Miles, J. (1977). Surgery for the relief of pain. In Persistent pain (ed. S. Lipton), Vol. 1, pp. 129–48. Academic Press, London, and Grune and Stratton, New York.

Miller, J.G. (1989). Phenylpropanolamine: a controversy unresolved. J. Clin. Psychopharm., 9, 1–2.

Miller, C., Haugh, M., Kahn, J. and Anderton, B. (1986). The cytoskeleton and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Neurosci., 9, 76–81.

Mills, I.H. (1977). Noradrenaline and the coping process in the brain. In Depression—the biochemical and physiological role of ludiomil (ed. A. Jukes), pp. 53–8. Ciba Laboratories, Horsham.

Milner, B. (1970). Memory and the medial temporal lobes of the brain. In Biology of memory (ed. K.H. Pribram and D.E. Broadbent), pp. 29–50 Academic Press, New York.

Mindham, R.H.S. (1979). Tricyclic antidepressants and amine precursors. In Psychopharmacology of affective disorders (ed. E.S. Paykel and A. Coppen), pp. 123–58. Oxford University Press.

Mishkin, M. and Appenzeller, T. (1987). The anatomy of memory. Scientific American, 256, 62–71.

Mogenson, G.L. (1984). Limbic-motor integration—with emphasis on initiation of exploratory and goal-directed locomotion. In Modulation of sensorimotor activity during alterations in behavioural states (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 121–37. Alan R. Liss, New York.

(p.376) Mohler, H. and Okada, T. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptor: demonstration in the central nervous system. Science, 198, 849–51.

Mohler, H. and Okada, T. (1978). The benzodiazepine receptor in normal and pathological human brain. Br. J. Psychiat., 133, 261–8.

Mohs, R. C. and Davis, K. L. (1987) Experimental pharmacology of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 921–8. Raven Press, New York.

Moiseeva, N.I. (1979). Sleep as a regulator of brain electrical activity. Human Physiology, 4, 283–8.

Moldofsky, H. (1982). Rheumatic pain modulation syndrome: the interrelationships between sleep, central nervous system serotonin, and pain. Adv. Neurol., 33, 51–7.

Mondadori, C. (1981). Pharmacological modulation of memory: trends and problems. Acta Neurol. Scand., Suppl. 89, 64, 129–40.

Monnier, M. and Gaillard, J.M. (1981). Biochemical regulation of sleep. Experimentia, 36, 21–4.

Monro, J., Carini, C. and Brostoff, J. (1984). Migraine as a food-allergic disease. Lancet, ii, 719–21.

Montgomery, S. A. (1982). The non-selective effect of selective antidepressants. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol., 31, 49–56.

Montgomery, S. A. and Pinder, R. H. (1987). Do some antidepressants promote suicide? Psychopharmacology, 92, 265–6.

Moreau, J-L., Pieri, L. and Prud’hon, B. (1989). Convulsions induced by centrally administered NMDA in mice: effects of NMDA antagonists, benzodiazepines, minor tranquillisers and anticonvulsants. Br. J. Pharmacol., 98, 1050–4.

Morley, J.S. (1983). Chemistry of opioid peptides. Br. Med. Bull., 39, 5–10.

Morrison, C.F. and Armitage, A.K. (1967). Effects of nicotine upon the free operant behaviour of rats and spontaneous motor activity of mice. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 142, 268–76.

Moruzzi, G. and Magoun, H.W. (1949). Brain stem reticular formation and evolution of the EEG. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 1, 455–73.

Mountcastle, V.B. (1974). Sleep wakefulness and the conscious state: intrinsic regulatory mechanisms of the brain. In Medical physiology (ed. V.B. Mountcastle), pp. 254–81. The C.V. Mosby Company, Saint Louis.

Mountcastle, V. B. (1978). An organising principle for cerebral function: the unit module and the distributed system. In The mindful brain, cortical organisation and the group-selective theory of higher brain function (ed. G. M. Edel-man and V. B. Mountcastle), pp. 7–50. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Muhlethaler, M., Dreifuss, J.J. and Gohwiler, B.H. (1982). Vasopressin excites hippocampal neurones. Nature, 296, 749–51.

Mullaney, D.J., Kripke, D.F., Fleck, P.A. and Johnson, L.C. (1983). Sleep loss and nap effects on sustained continuous performance. Psychphysiol., 20, 643–51.

Mullen, A. and Wilson, C. W.M. (1974). Fenfluramine and dreaming. Lancet, ii, 594.

Mullin, M.J. and Ferko, A.P. (1983). Alterations in dopaminergic function after subacute ethanol administration. J. Pharmac. Exp. Therap., 225, 694–98.

(p.377) Murphree, H.B., Pfeiffer, C.C. and Price, L.M. (1967). Electroencephalographic changes in man following smoking. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 142, 245–60.

Murphy, S.M., Owen, R.T. and Tyrer, P.J. (1984). Withdrawal symptoms after six week’s treatment with diazepam. Lancet, ii, 1389.

Murphy, D.L., Aulakh, C.S., Garrick, N.A. and Sunderland, T. (1987) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors as antidepressants: Implications for the mechanism of action of antidepressants and the psychobiology of the affective disorders and some related disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 545–52. Raven Press, New York.

Murphy, S.M., Owen, R. and Tyrer, P. (1989). Comparative assessment of efficacy and withdrawal symptoms after six and twelve weeks treatment with diazepam or buspirone. Br. J. Psychiat., 154, 529–34.

Murray, S.M. and Lewis, S. W. (1988). Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder? Br. Med. J., 296, 63.

Murray, R.M., Lewis, S.W. and Reveley, A.M. (1985). Towards an aetiological classification of schizophrenia. Lancet, i, 1023–6.

Myers, R.D. (1978). Psychopharmacology of alcohol. Ann. Rev. Pharmac. Toxicol., 18, 125–44.

Nahas, G.G. and Paton, W.D.M. (1979). Marihuana: biological effects. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Nathan, R.S. and Kammon, D.P. van (1985). Neuroendocrine effects of antipsychotic drugs. In Drugs in psychiatry, Vol.3, antipsychotics (ed. G.D. Burrows, T. R. Norman, and B. Davies), pp. 11–26. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Navaratnam, V. and Foong, K. (1990). Opiate dependence—the role of benzodiazepines. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 11, 620–30.

Nelsen, J.M. (1978). Psychological consequences of chronic nicotinisation: a focus on arousal. In Behavioural effects of nicotine (ed. K. Battig), pp. 1–17. S. Karger, Basel.

Nelson, W. T., Steiner, S.S., Brutus, M., Farrell, R. and Ellman, S.J. (1981). Brain site variation in effects of morphine on electrical self-stimulation. Psychopharmacology, 74, 58–65.

Nemeroff, C.B., Berger P. A. and Bissette, G. (1987). Peptides in schizophrenia. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer) pp. 727–43. Raven Press, New York.

Nestoros, J.N. (1980). Ethanol selectively potentiates GABA-mediated inhibition of single feline cortical neurons. Life Sci., 26, 519–23.

Neville, H.J. (1985). Brain potentials reflect meaning in language. Trends Neurosci., 8, 91–2.

Newlin, D.B. (1986). Conditional compensatory response to alcohol placebo in humans. Psychopharmacology, 88, 247–51.

Newnham, J.P., Tomlin, S., Ratter, S.J., Bourne, G.L. and Rees, L.H. (1983). Endogenous opioids in pregnancy. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 90, 535–8.

Ney, T.N., Gale, A. and Morris, H. (1989). A critical evaluation of laboratory studies of the effects of smoking on learning and memory. In Smoking and human behaviour (ed. T. Ney and A. Gale), pp. 239–59. Wiley, Chichester.

(p.378) Nicholson, A.N. (1980a). Hypnotics: rebound insomnia and residual sequelae. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 9, 223–5.

Nicholson, A. N. (1980b). The use of short and long-acting hypnotics in clinical medicine. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 11, Suppl. 1, 61S–9S.

Nicholson, A.N. (1987). New antihistamines free of sedative side effects. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 247–8.

Nicholson, C.D. (1990). Pharmacology of nootropics and metabolically active compounds in relation to their use in dementia. Psychopharmacology, 101, 147–59.

Nielsen, M., Braestrup, C. and Squires, R.F. (1978). Evidence for a late evolutionary appearance of brain-specific benzodiazepine receptors: an investigation of 18 vertebrate and 5 invertebrate species. Brain Res., 141, 342–6.

Nilsson, J.L. and Carlsson, A. (1982). Dopamine-receptor agonist with apparent selectivity for autoreceptors: a new principle for antipsychotic action? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 3, 322–5.

Norman, T. R. and Burrows, G.D. (1983). Plasma concentrations of antidepressant drugs and clinical responses. In Antidepressants (ed. G.D. Burrows, T. R. Norman, and R. Davies), pp. 111–20. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

North, R. A. and Williams, J.T. (1983). How do opiates inhibit neurotransmitter release? Trends Neurosci., 6, 337–9.

Norton, A. (1981). Old men forget. Br. Med. J., 283, 1201–2.

Nuotto, E., Palva, E.S. and Lahdenranta, U. (1983). Naloxone fails to counteract heavy alcohol intoxication. Lancet, ii, 167.

Nutt, D. (1990a). Specific anatomy, non-specific drugs: the present state of schizophrenia. 5th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia. J. Psycho-pharmacol., 4, 171–5.

Nutt, D.J. (1990b). Benzodiazepine dependence: new insights from basic research. In Benzodiazepines: current concepts, (ed. I. Hindmarch, G. Beaumont, S. Brandon, and B.E. Leonard), pp. 19–35. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Nutt, D.J. and Cowen, P.J. (1987). Benzodiazepine-serotonin interactions in man. Psychopharmacol. Ser., 3, 72–6.

Oakley, D. A. (1979). Neocortex and learning. Trends Neurosci., 2, 149–52.

Oakley, D.A. (1981). Brain mechanisms of mammalian memory. Br. Med. Bull., 37, 175–80.

O’Boyle, C.A., Harris, D., Barry, H. and Cullen, J.H. (1986). Differential effects of benzodiazepine sedation in high and low anxious patients in ‘real life’ stress setting. Psychopharmacology, 88, 266–9.

O’Connor, D. (1982). The use of suggestion techniques with adolescents in the treatment of glue sniffing and solvent abuse. Human Toxicol., 1, 313–20.

O’Connor, D. (1984). Glue Sniffing and Volatile Substance Abuse. Gower, Aldershot.

Oehme, P. and Krivoy, W.A. (1983). Substance P: a peptide with unusual features. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 4, 521–3.

Offermeier, J. and Rooyen, J.H. van. (1982). Is it possible to integrate dopamine receptor terminology? In More about receptors (ed. J. W. Lamble), pp. 93–7. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

(p.379) Ogren, S-O., Fuxe, K., Berge, O.G. and Agnati, L.F. (1983). Effects of chronic administration of antidepressant drugs on central serotonergic receptor mechanisms. In Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Research (ed. E. Usdin, M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, and A. Georgatas), pp. 93–108. Macmillan, London.

Ogunremi, O.O., Adamson, L., Brezinova, V., Hunter, W.M., Maclean, A.W., Oswald, I. and Percy-Robb, I.W. (1973). Two antianxiety drugs: a psychoendocrine study. Br. Med. J., 2, 202–7.

Ojemann, G. A. (1983). The intrahemispheric organisation of human language, derived with electrical stimulation techniques. Trends Neurosci., 6, 184–9.

Okamoto, M. (1978). Barbiturates and alcohol: Comparative overviews on neurophysiology and neurochemistry. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1575–90. Raven Press, New York.

O’Keefe, J. and Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

O’Keefe, J. and Speakman, A. (1987). Single unit activity in the rat hippocampus during a spatial memory task. Exp. Brain Res., 68, 1–27.

Olds, J. (1956). Pleasure centres in the brain. Scientific Am., 195, 105–17.

Olds, J. (1977). Drives and reinforcements: behavioural studies of hypothalamic functions. Raven Press, New York.

Olds, J. and Milner, P. (1954). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 47, 419–27.

Olds, J. and Travis, R.P. (1960). Effects of chlorpromazine, meprobamate, pentobarbital and morphine on self-stimulation. J. Pharmac. Exp. Therap., 128, 397–404.

Olds, M.E. and Olds, J. (1963). Approach avoidance analysis of the rat diencephalon. J. Comp. Neurol., 120, 259–62.

Oliveros, J.C., Jandali, M.K., Timsit-Berthier, M., Remy, R., Benghezal, A., Audibert, P. and Moeglen, P. (1978). Vasopressin in amnesia. Lancet, i, 42.

Orton, D.I. and Gruzelier, J.H. (1989). Adverse changes in mood and cognitive performance of house officers after night duty. Br. Med. J., 298, 21–3.

Oswald, I. (1976). The function of sleep. Postgrad. Med. J., 52, 15–18.

Oswald, I. (1980). Sleep. Penguin Books, Middlesex.

Oswald, I. (1989). Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs. Br. Med. J., 298, 456.

Oswald, I., Lewis, S.A., Dunleavy, D.L.F., Brezinova, V. and Briggs, M. (1971). Drugs of dependence though not of abuse: fenfluramine and imipramine. Br. Med. J., 2 70–3.

Oswald, I., Brezinova, V. and Dunleavy, D.L.F. (1972). On the slowness of action of tricyclic antidepressant drugs. Br. J. Psychiat., 120, 673–7.

Oswald, I., French, C., Adam, K. and Gilham, J. (1982). Benzodiazepine hypnotics remain effective for 24 weeks. Br. Med. J., 284, 860–3.

Otero Losada, M.E. (1988). Changes in central GABAergic function following acute and repeated stress. Br. J. Pharmacol., 93, 483–90.

Otero Losada, M.E. (1989). Acute stress and GABAergic function in the rat brain. Br. J. Pharmacol., 96, 507–12.

(p.380) Otsuka, M. and Yanagisawa, M. (1987). Does substance P act as a pain transmitter? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 506–10.

Owen, F. and Crow, T.J. (1987). Neurotransmitters and psychosis. Br. Med. Bull., 43, 651–71.

Owen, F., Cross, A. J., Crow, T.J., Lofthouse, R. and Poulter, M. (1981). Neurotransmitter receptors in brain in schizophrenia. Acta. Psychial. Scand., 63, Suppl. 289, 20–6.

Owen, M.J. and Mullan, M.J. (1990). Molecular genetic studies of manic-depression and schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci., 13, 29–31.

Owen, M.J. and Murray, R.M. (1988). Blue genes: three genes linked to bipolar affective disorder. Br. Med. J., 297, 871–2.

Owen, R.T. and Tyrer, P. (1983). Benzodiazepine dependence: a review of the evidence. Drugs, 25, 385–98.

Oyama, T., Jin, T., Yamaya, R., Ling, N. and Guillemin, R. (1980) Profound analgesic effects of beta-endorphin in man. Lancet, i, 122–4.

Oyama, T., Jin, T., Yamaya, R., Matsuki, A., Ling, N. and Guillemin, R. (1982). Intrathecal use of beta-endorphin as a powerful analgesic agent in man. In Advances in pharmacology and therapeutics II. Vol. 1. CNS pharmacology–neuropeptides (ed. H. Yoshida, Y. Hagihara, and S. Ebashi), pp. 39–43. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Paiva, T., Arnaga, F., Nauguier, A., Lara, E., Largo, R. and Leitao, J.N. (1988). Effects of ritanserin on sleep disturbance of dysthymic patients. Psychopharmacology, 96, 395–9.

Panksepp, J. (1981). Brain opioids–a neurochemical substrate for narcotic and social dependence. In Theory in psychopharmacology Vol. 1 (ed. S.J. Cooper), pp. 149–76. Academic Press, London.

Papez, J. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat., 38, 725–43.

Pappenheimer, J.R., Miller, T.B. and Goodrich, C.A. (1967). Sleep-promoting effects of cerebrospinal fluid from sleep-deprived goats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 58, 513–17.

Pare, C.M., Yeung, D.P., Price, K. and Stacey, R.S. (1969). 5-hydroxytryptophan, noradrenaline, and dopamine in brainstem, hypothalamus and caudate nucleus of controls and of patients committing suicide by gas poisoning. Lancet, ii, 133–5.

Parkes, J.D. (1981). Day-time drowsiness. Lancet, ii, 1213–7.

Parkes, J.D. (1986). The parasomnias. Lancet, ii, 1021–4.

Parkes, J. D., Langdon, N. and Lock, C. (1986). Narcolepsy and immunity. Br. Med. J., 292, 359–60.

Parrott, A.C. and Davies, S. (1983). Effects of a 1–5 benzodiazepine derivative upon performance in an experimental stress situation. Psychopharmacology, 79, 367–9.

Parrott, A.C. and Kentridge, R. (1982). Personal constructs of anxiety under the 1, 5 benzodiazepine derivative clobazam related to trait-anxiety levels of the personality. Psychopharmacology, 75, 353–7.

Pasternak, G.N. (1987). Opioid receptors. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 281–8. Raven Press, New York.

(p.381) Paton, A. (1985). The politics of alcohol. Br. Med. J., 290, 1–2.

Paton, J.A. and Nottebohm, F.N. (1984). Neurons generated in the adult brain are recruited into functional circuits. Science, 225,1046–8.

Paton, W.D.M. (1979). Concluding summary. Jn Marihuana: biological effects (ed. G.G. Nahas and W.D.M. Paton), pp. 735–8. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Paton, W.D.M. and Crown J. (ed.) (1972). Cannabis and its derivatives. Pharmacology and experimental psychology. Oxford University Press.

Paton W.D.M., Pertwee, R.G. and Tylden, E. (1973). Clinical aspects of cannabis action. In Marihuana, (ed. R. Mechoulam), pp. 335–65. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Pavlov, I.P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes: an investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. Oxford University Press.

Paykel, E.S. (1974). Recent life events and clinical depression. In: Life stress and illness, (ed. E.G. Gunderson and R.H. Rahe), pp. 134–63. Thomas Springfield, Illinois.

Paykel, E.S. (1983). The classification of depression. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac., 15, 155–9.

Paykel, E.S., West, P.S., Rowan, P.R. and Parker, R.R. (1982). Influence of acetylator phenotype on antidepressant effects of phenelzine. Br. J. Psychiat., 141, 243–8.

Pearce, J.M.S. (1984a). Migraine: a cerebral disorder. Lancet, ii, 86–9.

Pearce, J.M.S. (1984b). Boxer’s brains. Br. Med. J., 288, 933–4.

Pearce, J.M.S. (1985). Is migraine explained by Leao’s spreading depression? Lancet, ii, 763–6.

Pearce, J.M.S. (1988). Exploding head syndrome. Lancet, ii, 270–1.

Peet, M. and Coppen, A. (1979). The pharmacokinetics of antidepressant drugs: relevance to their therapeutic effect. In Psychopharmacology of affective disorders (ed. E.S. Paykel and A. Coppen), pp. 9–107. Oxford University Press.

Pellow, S. and File, S.E. (1984). Multiple sites of action for anxiogenic drugs. Psychopharmacology, 83, 304–15.

Pellow, S. and File, S. (1986). Anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects in exploratory activity in an elevated plus-maze: a novel test of anxiety in the rat. Pharmacol. Biochem. and Behaviour, 24, 525–9.

Penfield, W. and Perot, P. (1963). The brain’s record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86, 595–9.

Perera, K.M.H., Powell, T. and Jenner, F.A. (1987). Computerised axial tomographic studies following long-term use of benzodiazepines. Psycholog. Med., 17, 775–7.

Perkins, J. P. (1982). Catecholamine-induced modification of the functional state of beta-adrenergic receptors. In More about receptors, (ed. J.W. Lamble), pp. 48–53. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Peroutka, S.J. (1988). 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor subtypes: molecular, biochemical and physiological characterisation. Trends Neurosci., 11, 496–500.

Perry, E.K. and Perry, R.H. (1985). New insights into the nature of senile (Alzheimer-type) plaques. Trends Neurosci., 8, 301–3.

(p.382) Perry, R.H., Irving, D., Blessed, G., Perry, E.K. and Fairbairn, A.F. (1989). Clinically and neuropathologically distinct form of dementia in the elderly. Lancet, i, 166.

Peters, T.J. (1983). Aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcoholism. Lancet, i, 364.

Peters, A., Palay, S.L. and Webster, H. de F. (1976). The Fine Structure of the Nervous System. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Petrie, A. (1967). Individuality in pain and suffering, University of Chicago Press.

Petrie, K., Conaglen, J.V., Thompson, L. and Chamberlain, K. (1989). Effect of melatonin on jet lag after long haul flights. Br. Med. J., 298, 705–7.

Pettigrew, J.D. (1978). The locus coeruleus and cortical plasticity. Trends Neurosci., 1, 73–4.

Pettit, H-O., Ettenberg, A., Bloom, F.E. and Koob, G.F. (1984). Destruction of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens selectively attenuates cocaine but not heroin self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology, 84, 167–73.

Petursson, H. and Lader, M.H. (1981a). Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. Br. Med. J., 283, 643–5.

Petursson, H. and Lader, M.H. (1981b). Benzodiazepine dependence. Br. J. Addiction, 76, 133–45.

Petursson, H. and Lssader, M.H. (1984). Dependence on tranquillisers. Oxford University Press.

Petursson, H., Shur, E., Checkley, S., Slade, A. and Lader, M.H. (1981). A neuroendocrine approach to benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence. Br. J. clin. Pharmac, 11, 526–8.

Phillips, A.G., Blaha, C.D. and Fibiger, H.C. (1989). Neurochemical correlates of brain-stimulation reward measured by ex-vivo and in-vivo analyses. Neurosci. and Biobehav. Rev., 13, 99–104.

Phillips, A.G. and Fibiger, H.C. (1989). Neuroanatomical bases of intracranial self-stimulation: untangling the Gordian Knot. In The neuropharmacolgic basis of reward (ed. J.M. Liebermanand S. J. Cooper), pp. 66–105. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Phillis, J.W. and Jhamandas, K. (1971). The effects of chlorpromazine and ethanol on in vivo release of acteylcholine from the cerebral cortex. Comp. Gen. Pharmac., 2, 306–10.

Piaget, J. and Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. Basic Books, New York.

Pickar, D., Culter, N.R., Naber, D., Post, R.M., Pert, C.B. and Bunney, W.E. (1980). Plasma opioid activity in manic-depressive illness. Lancet, i, 937.

Piercy, M.F. (1977). Experimental studies of the organic amnesic syndrome. In Amnesia (ed. C.W.M. Whitty and O.L. Zangwill), pp. 1–51. Butterworth, London.

Piercy, M.F. and Ray, C.A. (1988). Dramatic limbic and cortical effects mediated by high affinity PCP receptors. Life Sci., 43, 379–85.

Piercy, M. F., Hoffman, W. E. and Kaczkofsky, P. (1988). Functional evidence for PCP-like effects of the anti-stroke candidate MK–801. Trends Pharmac. Sci.,9, 153–4.

(p.383) Pinder, R.M. (1988). The benefits and risks of antidepressant drugs. Human Psychopharmac. 3, 73–86.

Poirier, M-F., Benkelfat, C., Loo, H., Sechter, D., Zarifian, E., Galzin, A-M. and Langer, S.Z. (1986). Reduced Bmax of [3H]-imipramine binding to platelets of depressed patients free of previous medication with 5HT uptake inhibitors. Psychopharmacology, 89, 456–61.

Pollard, H. and Schwartz, J-C. (1987). Histamine pathways and their functions. Trends Neurosci., 10, 86–9.

Pollitt, J. (1982). Moodiness: a heavenly problem? J. Roy. Soc. Med., 75, 7–16.

Pomara, N. and Stanley, M. (1982). Cholinergic precursors in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, ii, 1049.

Pomerleau, O.F., and Pomerleau, C.S. (ed.) (1988). Nicotine replacement: a clinical evaluation. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Pomerleau, O.F. and Pomerleau, C.S. (1989). A biobehavioural perspective on smoking. In Smoking and human behaviour (ed. T. Ney and A. Gale), pp. 69–90. Wiley, Chichester.

Pomerleau, O.F., Fertig, J.B., Seyler, L.E. and Jaffe, J. (1983). Neuroendocrine reactivity to nicotine in smokers. Psychopharmacology, 81, 61–7.

Pomerleau, O. F., Turk, D. C and Fertig, J. B. (1984). The effects of smoking on pain and anxiety. Addictive Behaviours, 9, 265–71.

Posner, M.I. and Prestie, D.E. (1987). Selective attention and cognitive control. Trends Neurosci., 10, 13–16.

Post, R.M. (1978). Frontiers in affective disorder research: new pharmacological agents and new methodologies. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1323–36. Raven Press, New York.

Post, R. M. and Uhde, T. W. (1983). Biochemical and physiological mechanisms of action of carbamazepine in affective illness. In Frontiers in neuropsychiatry research (ed. E. Usdin, M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, and A. Georgatas), pp. 175–91. Macmillan, London.

Post, R.M., Rubinow, D.R., Uhde, T.W., Ballenger, J.C., Lake, C.R., Linnoila, M. Jimerson, D.C. and Reus, V. (1985). Effects of carbamazepine on noradrenergic mechanisms in affectively ill patients. Psychopharmacology, 87, 59–63.

Praag, H.M. van. (1980). Central monoamine metabolism in depression. I Serotonin and related compounds. Comp. Psychiat., 21, 30–43.

Praag, H.M. van. (1982). Neurotransmitters and CNS disease. Lancet, ii, 1259–63.

Prange, A.J., Garbutt, J.C. and Loosen, P.T. (1987). The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 629–38. Raven Press, New York.

Price, D.L., Whitehouse, P.J. and Struble, R.G. (1986). Cellular pathology in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Trends Neurosci., 9, 29–33.

Price, L.H., Charney, D.S., Delgado, P.L. and Heninger, G.R. (1990). Lithium and serotonin function: implications for the serotonin hypothesis of depression. Psychopharmacology, 100, 3–12.

(p.384) Proudfoot, A. (1982). Diagnosis and management of acute poisoning. Black well Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Prunell, M., Boada, M., Feria, M. and Benitez, M.A. (1987). Antagonism of the stimulant and depressant effects of ethanol in rats by naloxone. Psychopharmacology, 92, 215–18.

Psychopharmacology. (1989). Clozapine (Leponex(R)/Clozaril(R)). Scientific update meeting, Montreux, Switzerland, 1988. Psychopharmacology, 99 (Suppl.).

Quirion, R., Aubert, I., Lapchak, A., Schaum, R.P., Teolis, S., Gauthier, S. and Araujo, D.M. (1989). Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human neurodegenerative disorders: focus on Alzheimer’s disease. Trends Pharmac. Sci., December Suppl., 80–4.

Quirion, R., Chicheportiche, P.C., Conteras, K.M., Johnson, D.L., Tarn, S.W., Woods, J.H. and Zukin, S.P. (1987). Classification and nomenclature of phencyclidine and sigma receptor sites. Trends Neurosci.y 11, 444–6.

Quitkin, F., Rifkin, A. and Klein, D.F. (1976). Neurologic soft signs in schizophrenia and character disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 33, 845–53.

Racagni, G. and Brunello, N. (1984). Transynaptic mechanisms in the action of antidepressant drugs. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 5, 527–31.

Rago, L.K., Allikonets, L.H. and Zarkovsky, A.M. (1981). Effects of pira- cetam on the central dopaminergic transmission. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol., 318, 36–7.

Rail, T. W. (1980). Central nervous system stimulants. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 592–607. Macmillan, New York.

Rall, T.W. and Schleifer, S. (1980). Drugs effective in the therapy of the epilepsies. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp.448–74. Macmillan, New York.

Ramsay, J., Anderson, H.R., Bloor, K. and Flanegan, R.J. (1989). An introduction to the practice, prevalence and chemical toxicology of volatile substance abuse. Hum. Toxicol., 8, 261–9.

Ranee, M.J. (1983). The antagonist analgesics: actions at multiple opiate receptors. In Persistent pain (ed. S. Lipton and J. Miles), Vol. 4, pp. 21–40. Grune and Stratton, London.

Ravard, S. and Dourish, C.T. (1990). Cholecystokinin and anxiety. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 271–3.

Rawlins, J.N.P. (1984). Some neurophysiological properties of the septo-hippocampal system. In Psychopharmacology of the limbic system (ed. M. R. Trimble and E. Zarifian), pp. 17–50. Oxford University Press.

Reavill, C. (1990). Actions of nicotine on dopaminergic pathways and implications for Parkinson’s disease. In Nicotine pharmacology: molecular, cellular and behavioural aspects (ed. S. Wonacott, M.A.H. Russell, and I.P. Stoler-man), pp. 307–40. Oxford University Press.

Redgrave, P. and Dean, P. (1981). Intracranial self-stimulation. Br. Med. Bull., 37, 141–6.

Redmond, D.E. (1987). Studies of the nucleus locus coeruleus in monkeys and hypotheses for neuropharmacology. In Psychopharmacology: the third (p.385) generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 967–75. Raven Press, New York.

Reich, W. (1975). The spectrum concept of schizophrenia; problems for diagnostic practice. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 32, 489–98.

Reiman, E.M. (1987). The study of panic disorder using positron emission tomography. Psychiatric Developments, 1, 63–78.

Reiman, E.M., Fusselman, M.J., Fox, P.T. and Raichle, M.E. (1989a). Neuroanatomical correlates of anticipatory anxiety. Science, 243, 1071–4.

Reiman, E.M., Raichle, M.E., Robins, E., Mintun, M.A., Fusselman, M.J., Fox, P.R., Price, J.L. and Hackman, K.A. (1989b). Neuroanatomical correlates of a lactate-induced anxiety attack. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 46, 493–500.

Reisberg, B., Ferris, S.H., Anand, R., Mir, P., Geibel, V., DeLeon, M. J. and Roberts, E. (1983). Effects of naloxone in senile dementia: a double blind trial. New Engl. J. Med., 308, 721–2.

Revely, A.M., Revely, M.A. and Murray, R.M. (1983). Enlargement of cerebral ventricles in schizophrenics is confined to those without genetic prodisposition. Lancet, ii, 525.

Reveley, M. A. and Trimble, M.R. (1987). Application of imaging techniques. Br. Med. Bull., 43, 616–33.

Reynolds, G.P. (1983). Increased concentrations and lateral asymmetry of amygdala dopamine in schizophrenia. Nature, 305, 527–9.

Reynolds, G.P., Reynolds, L.M., Reiderer, P., Jellinger, K. and Gabriel, E. (1980). Dopamine receptors and schizophrenia; drug effect or illness? Lancet, ii, 1251.

Reynolds, G.P., Riederer, P., Jellinger, K. and Gabriel, E. (1981). Dopamine receptors and schizophrenia: the neuroleptic drug problem. Neurophar- macol., 20, 1319–20.

Reyntjens, A., Gelders, Y.G., Hoppenbrouwers, M-L.J.A. and Bussche, G. (1988). Thymostenic effects of ritanserin (R55667), a centrally acting serotonin-S2 receptor blocker. Drug Dev. Res., 8, 205–11.

Richardson, B. P. and Engel, G. (1986). The pharmacology of 5-HT3 receptors. Trends Neurosci., 9, 424–8.

Richelson, E. (1981). Pharmacology and clinical considerations of the neuroleptics. In Neuropharmacology of central nervous system and behavioural disorders (ed. G.C. Palmer), pp. 125–46. Academic Press, New York.

Rifkin, A. and Siris, S. (1984). Sodium lactate response as a model for panic disorders. Trends Neurosci., 7, 188–9.

Rigter, H. and Riezen, H. van. (1978). Hormones and Memory. In Psycho-pharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 677–89. Raven Press, New York.

Ritchie, J.M. (1980). The aliphatic alcohols. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 376–90. Macmillan, New York.

Ritchie, J.M. and Greene, N.B. (1980). Local anaesthetics. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 300–20. Macmillan, New York.

(p.386) Roberts, G.W. (1990). Schizophrenia: the cellular biology of a functional psychosis. Trends Neurosci., 13, 207–11.

Roberts, G.W. and Crow, T.J. (1987). The neuropathology of schizophrenia—a progress report. Br. Med. Bull., 43, 599–615.

Robertson, G. and Taylor, P.J. (1987). Laterality and psychosis: neuropsychological evidence. Br. Med. Bull., 43, 634–50.

Robertson, D., Frohlich, J.C. and Carr, R.K. (1978). Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. N. Eng. J. Med., 298, 181–6.

Robinson, J. H. and Wang, S. C. (1979). Unit activity of limbic system neurones: effects of morphine, diazepam and neuroleptic agents. Brain Res., 166, 149–59.

Rogers, H. J., Spector, R.G. and Trounce, J.R. (1981). A textbook of clinical pharmacology. Hodder and Stoughton, Kent.

Roland, P. (1991). Cortical representation of pain. Trends Neurosci., 15, 3–5.

Rolls, T., Caan, A.W., Perrett, D.I. and Wilson, F.A.W. (1981). Neuronal activity related to long term memory. Acta neurol. Scand. Suppl. 89, 64, 121–4.

Roper, P. (1989). Bulimia while sleepwalking, a rebuttal for sane automatism? Lancet, 334, 769.

Ross, E. D. (1982). Disorders of recent memory in humans. Trends Neurosci., 5, 170–3.

Ross, E.D. (1984). Right hemisphere’s role in language, affective behaviour and emotion. Trends Neurosci., 7, 342–6.

Rossor, M.N. (1982). Neurotransmitters and CNS disease: dementia. Lancet, ii, 1200–4.

Rossor, M.N., Iversen, L.L., Reynolds, G.P., Mountjoy, C.Q. and Roth, M. (1984). Neurochemical characteristics of early and late onset types of Alzheimer’s disease. Br. Med. J., 288, 961–4.

Roth, M. (1984). Agoraphobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder: some implications of recent advances. Psychiat. Devel., 2, 31–52.

Roth, M. (1988). The relationship between anxiety and depression. In Emotion and emotional disorders, Reports on First Maudsley Conference on New Developments in Psychiatry (ed. B. Beakon), pp. 29–30. Hoffman-La Roche, Basle.

Roth, W.T. (1987). Electrical brain activity in psychiatric disorders. In Psy∼ chopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 793–801. Raven Press, New York.

Rothman, S. J. and Olney, J. W. (1987) Excitotoxicity and the NMDA receptor. Trends Neurosci., 10, 299–302.

Routtenberg, A. (1968). The two arousal hypothesis: reticular formation and limbic system. Psychol. Rev., 75, 51–80.

Routtenberg, A. (1978). Reward systems of the brain. Scientific Am., 239, 125–31.

Routtenberg, A. and Santos-Anderson, R. (1977). The role of prefrontal cortex in intracranial self-stimulation. In Handbook of psychopharmacology (ed.L.L. Iverson, S.D. Iverson, and S.H. Snyder), pp. 1–24. Plenum Press, New York.

(p.387) Royall, D. R. and Klemm, W.R. (1981). Dopaminergic mediation of reward: evidence gained using a natural reinforcer in a behavioural contrast paradigm. Neurosci. Lett., 21, 223–9.

Russell, M.A.H. (1978a). Cigarette smoking: a dependence on high nicotine boli. Drug Metabolism Reviews., 8, 29–57.

Russell, M.A.H., Raw, M. and Jarvis, M.J. (1980). Clinical use of nicotine chewing gum. Br. Med. J., 280, 1599.

Sack, D.A., Rosenthal, N.E., Parry, B.L. and Wehr, T.A. (1987). Biological rhythms in psychiatry. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 669–85. Raven Press, New York.

Sadzot, B., Baraban, J.M., Glennon, R.A., Lyon, R.A., Leonhardt, S., Jan, C-R. and Titeler, M. (1989). Hallucinogenic drug interactions at human brain 5-HT2 receptors: implications for treating LSD-induced hallucino- genesis. Psychopharmacology, 98, 495–9.

Sahakian, B., Jones, G., Levy, R., Gray, J. and Warburton, P. (1988). The effects of nicotine on attention, information processing, and short-term memory in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Br. J. Psychiat., 154, 797–800.

Sahgal, A. (1984). A critique of the vasopressin-memory hypothesis. Psycho-pharmacology, 83, 215–28.

Sahgal, A., Wright, C and Ferrier, I.N. (1986). Desamino-D-arg8-vasopressin (DDAVP), unlike ethanol, has no effect on a boring vigilance task in humans. Psychopharmacology, 90, 58–63.

Salamy, J.G. (1976). Sleep: some concepts and constructs. In Pharmacology of sleep (ed. R.L. Williams and I. Karacan), pp. 53–82., New York.

Saletu, B. (1980). Central measures in schizophrenia. In Biological psychiatry part II. Brain mechanisms and abnormal behaviour–psychophysiology (ed. M.H. van Praag, M.H. Lader, O.J. Rafaelson, and E.J. Sachar), pp. 97–144. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Saletu, B. (1989). EEG imaging of brain activity in clinical psychopharmacology. In Topographic brain mapping of EEG and evoked potentials (ed. K. Maurer), pp. 482–506. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Sandler, M. (1982). The emergence of tribulin. Trends Neurosci., 5, 471–2.

Sandoz (1977). Hydergine. Sandoz Information Service, Sandoz Products Ltd., Middlesex.

Saper, C.B. (1987). Function of the locus coeruleus. Trends Neurosci., 10, 343–4.

Sara, S. J., David-Remacle, M., Weyers, M. and Giurgea, C. (1979). Piracetam facilitates retrieval but does not impair extinction of bar-pressing in rats. Psychopharmacology, 61, 71–5.

Sarter, M., Bruno, J. P. and Dudchenko, P. (1990). Activating damaged basal forebrain cholinergic system: tonic stimulation versus signal amplification. Psychopharmacology, 101, 1–17.

Sarter, M., Schneider, H.H. and Stephens, D.N. (1988). Treatment strategies for senile dementia: antagonist B-carbolines. Trends Neurosci., 11, 13–16.

Saunders, J.B. (1982). Alcoholic liver disease. Hospital Update, 8, 905–14.

Schachter, S. (1971). Emotion, obesity and crime. Academic Press, New York.

(p.388) Schachter, S., Silverstein, B., Kozlowski, L.T., Herman, C.P. and Liebling, B. (1977). Effects of stress on cigarette smoking and urinary pH. 7. Exp. Psychol: Gen., 106, 24–30.

Schaefer, G.J. and Michael, R.P. (1990). Interactions of naloxone with morphine, amphetamine and phencyclidine on fixed interval responding for intracranial self-stimulation in rats. Psychopharmacology, 102, 263–8.

Schildkraut, J.J. (1965). The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: a review of supporting evidence. Am. J. Psychiat., 122, 509–22.

Schildkraut, J.J. (1978). Current status of the catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Upton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam), pp. 1223–34. Raven Press, New York.

Schmiterlow, C.G., Hansson, E., Andersson, G., Applegren, L.E. and Hoffman, P.C. (1967). Distribution of nicotine in the central nervous system. An. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 142, 2–14.

Schmitt, P., Di Scala, G., Jenck, F. and Sander, G. (1984). Periventricular structures, elaboration of aversive effects and processing of sensory information. In Modulation of sensorimotor activity during alterations in behavioural states (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 393–414. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Schuckit, M.A. (1987). The natural history of opiate addiction. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1527–33. Raven Press, New York.

Schulsinger, F. (1985). Schizophrenia: genetics and environment. In Psycho-pharmacology. Recent advances and future prospects, (ed. S.D. Iverson), pp. 185–95. Oxford University Press.

Schultz, H., Lund, R. and Doerr, P. (1978). The measurement of change in sleep during depression and remission. Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 225, 233–41.

Schultz, R., Wuster, M., Duka, T. and Herz, A. (1980). Acute and chronic ethanol treatment changes endorphin levels in brain and pituitary. Psycho-pharmacology, 68, 221–7.

Schulz, S.C., Roller, M.M., Kishore, P.R., Hamer, R.M., Gehl, J.J. and Friedel, R. O. (1983). Ventricular enlargement in teenage patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorder. Am. J. Psychiat., 140, 1592–5.

Schulz, H., Geisber, P., Pollmaecher, T., Andreas-Zietz, A., Keller, E., Scholz, S. and Albert, E.D. (1986). HLA-DRZ correlates with rapid-eye-movement sleep latency in normal human subjects. Lancet, ii, 803.

Schwartz, J.C., Arrang, J.M. and Garbarg, M. (1986). Three classes of histamine receptors in brain. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 7, 24–8.

Scott, D.F. (1981). Other sleep disorders and their treatments. In Psychopharmacology of sleep, (ed. D. Wheatley), pp. 214–31. Raven Press, New York.

Scott, F. L. (1979). A review of some current drugs used in the pharmacotherapy of organic brain syndromes. In Physiology of cell biology of ageing. Ageing vol. 8 (ed. A. Cherkin, C. E. Finch, N. Kharasch, T. Makinodam, F. L. Scott, and B. Strehler), pp. 151–84. Raven Press, New York.

Scoville, W.B. and Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. J.Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 20, 11–21.

Sedvall, G. (1990). PET imaging of dopamine receptors in human basal ganglia: relevance to mental illness. Trends Neurosci., 13, 302–8.

(p.389) Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: on depression, development and death. Freeman, San Francisco.

Selkoe, D.J. (1982). Molecular pathology of the aging human brain. Trends Neurosci., 5, 332–6.

Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. McGraw Hill, New York.

Sepinwall, J. and Cook, L. (1979). Mechanism of action of the benzodiazepines: behavioural aspects. Fed. Proc, 39, 3024–31.

Sergent, J. (1990). Furtive incursions into bicameral mind: integrative and co-ordinating role of subcortical structures. Brain, 113, 537–68.

Shader, R.I., Goodman, M. and Gever, J. (1982). Panic disorders: current perspectives. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 2, Suppl. 6, 2–10.

Shagass, C. (1977). Twisted thoughts, twisted brainwaves? In Psychopathology and brain dysfunction (ed. C. Shagass, S. Gershon, and A.J. Friedhoff), pp. 353–78. Raven Press, New York.

Shagass, C. and Straumenis, J.J. (1978). Drugs and human sensory evoked potentials. In: Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress, (eds M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp,. 699–709. Raven Press, New York

Shagass, C, Ornitz, E.M., Sutton, S. and Tueting, P. (1978). Event related potentials and psychopathology. In event-related brain potentials in man (ed. E. Callaway, P. Tueting, and S.H. Koslow), pp. 443–95. Academic Press, New York.

Shagass, C, Roemer, R.A., Straumenis, J.J. and Josiassen, R.C. (1985). Combinations of evoked potential amplitude measurements in relation to psychiatric diagnosis. Biol. Psychiat., 20, 701–22.

Shapiro, A.P. and Nathan, P.E. (1986). Human tolerance to alcohol: the role of Pavlovian conditioning processes. Psychopharmcology, 88, 90–5.

Sharav, Y., Singer, E., Schmidt, E., Dionne, R.A. and Dubner, R. (1987). The analgesic effect of amitriptyline on chronic facial pain. Pain, 31, 199–209.

Sharpless, S.K. (1970). Hypnotics and sedatives. I. The barbiturates. In: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, (ed. L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 98–120. Macmillan, London.

Shea, V.T.(1982). State-dependent learning in children receiving methyl phenidate. Psychopharmacology, 78, 266–70.

Shelton, R.C. and Weinberger, D.R. (1987). Brain morphology in schizophrenia. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. HY. Meltzer) pp. 773–81. Raven Press, New York.

Sherlock, S.(ed.) (1982). Alcohol and disease. Br. Med. Bull., 38.

Sherman, G. F., Galaburda, A. M. and Geschwind, N. (1982). Neuroanatomical asymmetries in non-human species. Trends Neurosci., 5, 429–31.

Shinoto, H., Iyo, M., Yamada, T., Inone, O., Suzaki, K., Itoh, T., Fukuda, H., Yamasaki, T., Tateno, Y. and Hirayama, K. (1989). Detection of benzodiazepine receptor occupancy in the human brain by positron emission tomography. Psychopharmacology, 99, 202–7.

Sicuteri, F. (1981). Persistent non-organic central pain: headache and central panalgesia. In Persistent pain. (ed. S. Lipton and J. Miles), Vol. 3, pp. 119–40. Academic Press, London, and Grune and Stratton, New York.

(p.390) Siegel, S. (1983). Classical conditioning, drug tolerance and drug dependence. In Research advances in alcohol and drug problems (ed. Y. Israel, F.B. Glaser, H. Kalant, R.E. Popham, W. Schmidt, and R.G. Smart), Vol. 7, pp. 207–46. Plenum Press, New York.

Siegel, A. (1984). Anatomical and functional differentiation within the amygdala-behavioural state modulation. In Modulation of sensorimotor activity during alterations in behavioural states (ed. R. Bandler), pp. 299–303. Alan R. Liss, New York.

Siegel, S. (1988). Drug anticipation and drug tolerance. In Psychopharmacology of addiction, (ed. M. Lader), pp. 73–96. Oxford University Press.

Sieghart, W. (1989). Multiplicity of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptors. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 10, 407–11.

Siever, L.J. (1987). Role of noradrenergic mechanisms in the etiology of the affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 493–504. Raven Press, New York.

Siman, R., Baudry, M. and Lynch, G. (1985). Regulation of glutamate receptor binding by the cytoskeletal protein fodrin. Nature, 313, 225–8.

Singh, S.M., George, C.F.P., Kryger, M.H. and Jung, J.H. (1990). Genetic heterogeneity in narcolepsy. Lancet, 335, 726–7.

Singh, S. and Mirkin, B.L. (1973). Drug effects on the foetus. New Ethicals., 10, 150–66.

Sjoquist, B., Eriksson, A. and Winblad, B. (1982). Brain salsolinol levels in alcoholism. Lancet, i, 675–6.

Skegg, D.C.G., Richards, S.M. and Doll, R. (1979). Minor tranquillisers and road accidents. Br. Med. J., 1, 917–9.

Skjelbred, P. and Lokken, P. (1983). Effects of naloxone on post-operative pain and steroid-induced analgesia. Br. J. Clin. Pharmac, 15, 221–6.

Small, G. and Jarvik, L.F. (1982). The dementia syndrome. Lancet, ii, 1443–5.

Smith, C.B., Garcia-Savilla, J.A. and Hollingworth, P.J. (1981). Alpha2-Adrenoceptors in rat brain are decreased after long-term tricycline antidepressant drug treatment. Brain Res., 210, 413–18.

Smith, G.C. and Copolov, D. (1979). Brain amines and peptides—their relevance to psychiatry. Aust. N.Z. J. Psychiat., 13, 283–91.

Smith, M.E., Holgren, E., Sokolik, M., Baudena, P., Musolino, A. and Liegeois-Chauvel, P. (1990). The intracranial topography of the P3 event-related potential elicited during auditory oddball. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 76, 233–48.

Smith, S.E. and Rawlins, M.D. (1973). Variability in human drug response. Butterworth, London.

Smythies, J.R. (1984). The transmethylation hypotheses of schizophrenia re-evaluated. Trends Neurosci., 7, 45–7.

Snel, J., Taylor, J. and Wegman, M. (1987). Does DGAVP influence memory, attention and mood in young healthy men? Psychopharmacology, 92, 224–8.

Snyder, S.H. (1981). Adenosine receptors and the actions of methylxanthines. Trends Neurosci., 4, 242–4.

Snyder, S.H. (1990). Planning for serendipity. Nature, 346, 508.

(p.391) Sokoloff, P., Giros, B., Martres, M.P., Bouthenet, M.L. and Schwartz, J.C. (1990). Molecular cloning of a novel dopamine receptor (D3) as a target for neuroleptics. Nature, 347, 146–51.

Sonders. M.S., Keana, F.W. and Webber, E. (1988). Phencyclidine and psychomimetic sigma opiates: recent insights into their biochemical and physiological sites of action. Trends Neurosci., 11, 37–40.

Sovner, R. and DiMascio, A. (1978). Extrapyramidal syndromes and other neurological side effects of psychotropic drugs. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress, (ed. M.a. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 1021–32. Raven Press, New York.

Spealman, R.D. and Goldberg, S.R. (1982). Maintenance of schedule-controlled behaviour by intravenous injection of nicotine in squirrel monkeys. J. Pharm. Exp. Therap., 223, 402–8.

Sperry, R.W. (1973). Lateral specialisation of cerebral function in the surgically separated hemispheres. In The psychophysiology of thinking (ed. F.J. McGuigan and R.A. Schoonover). Academic Press, New York.

Sperry, R. W. (1974). Lateral specialisation in surgically separated hemispheres. In The neurosciences; third study program (ed. F.O. Schmitt and F.G. Worden). MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Sperry, R.W. (1976). Mental phenomenona as causal determinants in brain function. In Consciousness and the brain: a scientific and philosophic enquiry (ed. G.G. Globus, G. Maxwell, and I. Savodnik). Plenum Press, New York.

Speth, R.C., Guidotti, A. and Yamamura, H. (1980). The pharmacology of the benzodiazepines. In Neuropharmacology of central nervous system and behavioural disorders (ed. G.C. Palmer), pp. 243–83. Academic Press, New York.

Spitzer, R.L., Endicott, J. and Gibbon, M. (1979). Crossing the border into borderline personality and borderline schizophrenia; the development criteria. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 39, 17–24.

Squire, L.R. and Davis, H.P. (1981). The pharmacology of memory: a neurobiological perspective. Ann. Rev. Pharmac. Toxicol., 21, 323–56.

Squires, R.F. and Braestrup, C. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. Nature, 266, 732–4.

Standing Medical Advisory Committe, The (1989). Drinking problems. HMSO.

Stanley, M. and Mann, J.J. (1983). Increased serotonin–2 binding sites in frontal cortex of suicide victims. Lancet, i, 214–16.

Stanley, M. and Mann, J.J. (1984). Suicide and serotonin receptors. Lancet, i, 349.

Stanley, M., Virgilio, J. and Gershon, S. (1982). Tritiated imipramine binding sites are decreased in the frontal cortex of suicide victims. Science, 216, 1337–9.

Stein, J.F. (1982). An introduction to neurophysiology Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Stein, J.F. (1985). The control of movement. In The functions of the brain (ed. C.W. Coen) pp. 67–97. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Stein, L. (1968). Chemistry of reward and punishment. In Psychopharmacology-a review of progress 1957–1967. (ed. D.H. Efron), Publ. No. 1836, pp. 105–23. US Government Printing Office, Washington DC.

(p.392) Stein, L. (1971). Neurochemistry of reward and punishment. Some implications for the etiology of schizophrenia. J. Psychiat. Res., 8, 345–61.

Stein, L. (1978). Reward transmitters: catecholamines and opioid peptides. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress, (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 569–81. Raven Press, New York.

Stein, L. (1989). Neurochemistry of opiates and stimulants. (Abstract) Drug Dependence: clinical phenomena and basic mechanisms, Second Maudsley Conference on New Developments in Psychiatry, Waldorf Hotel, London, July 11–14, 1989.

Stein, L. and Belluzi, J. D. (1987). Reward transmitters and drugs of abuse. In Brain reward systems and abuse (ed. J. Engel and L. Oreland), pp. 19–33. Raven Press, New York.

Stein, L. and Belluzi, J. D. (1988). Operant conditioning of individual neurons. In Quantitative analysis of behavior, Vol. 7, Biological determinants of reinforcement and memory (ed. M.L. Commons, R.M. Church, J.R. Stellar, and A.R. Wagner), pp. 249–64. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey.

Stein, L. and Belluzi, J. D. (1989). Cellular investigations of behavioural reinforcement. Neurosci. and Biobehav. Rev., 13, 69–80.

Stein, L. and Wise, C. D. (1969). Release of norepinephrine from hypothalamus and amygdala by rewarding median forebrain bundle stimulation and amphetamine. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 67, 189–98.

Stein, L. and Wise, C. D. (1974). Serotonin and behavioural inhibition. Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol., 11, 281–91.

Stein, L., Wise, C. D. and Belluzzi, J. D. (1977). Neuropharmacology of reward and punishment. In Handbook of psychopharmacology, 8 (ed. L.L. Iverson, S. D. Iverson and S. H. Snyder), pp. 23–53. Plenum Press, New York.

Stephens, D. N., Meldrum, B. S., Weidmann, R., Schneider, C and Grutzner, M. (1986). Does the excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist 2-APH exhibit anxiolytic activity? Psychopharmacology, 90, 166–9.

Stephenson, F. A. (1987a). Benzodiazepines in the brain. Trends Neurosci., 10, 185–6.

Stephenson, F. A. (1987b). Understanding the GABAA receptor: a chemically gated ion channel. Biochem. J., 249, 21–32.

Stern, W. C. and Morgane, P. J. (1977). Sleep and memory: effects of growth hormone on sleep, brain neurochemistry and behaviour. In Neurobiology of sleep and memory (ed. R. R. Drucker-Colin, and J. L. McGaugh), pp. 373–401. Academic Press, New York.

Sternbach, R. A. (1981). Chronic pain as a disease entity. Triangle (Sandoz)., 20, 27–32.

Stevens, J. R. (1979). Schizophrenia and dopamine regulation in the mesolimbic system. Trends Neurosci., 2, 102–5.

Stinus, L., Kelley, A. E. and Winnock, M. (1984). Neuropeptides and limbic system function. In Psychopharmacology of the limbic system (ed. M. R. Trimble and E. Zarifian), pp. 209–25. Oxford University Press.

Stirrat, G. M. and Beard, R. W. (1973). Drugs to be avoided or given with caution in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Prescrib. J., 13, 135–9.

(p.393) Stokes, P. E. and Sikes, C. R. (1987). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in affective disorders. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 589–608. Raven Press, New York.

Strang, J. and Edwards, G. (1989). Cocaine and Crack. Br. Med. J., 299, 337–8.

Strange, P.O. (1988). The structure and mechanism of neurotransmitter receptors. Biochem. J., 249, 309–18.

Stutzman, J-M., Cintrat, P., Laduron, P. M. and Blanchard, J-C (1989). Riluzole antagonises the anxiogenic properties of the beta-carboline FG 7142 in rats. Psychopharmacology, 99, 515–19.

Sugrue, M. F. (1980). Effects of acutely and chronically administered antidepressants on the clonidine-induced decrease in rat brain of 3-methoxy–4-hydroxy phenethyleneglycol sulphate. Life Sci., 28, 377–84.

Sugrue, M. F. (1981). Effect of chronic antidepressant administration on rat frontal cortex alpha2 and beta-adrenoceptor binding Br. J. Pharmac, 74, 760P.

Sulser, F. (1981). Perspectives on the mode of action of antidepressant drugs. In Towards understanding receptors (ed. J. W. Lamble), pp. 99–104. Elsevier/ North Holland, Amsterdam.

Sulser, F. and Mobley, P. L. (1980). Biochemical effects of antidepressants in animals. In Psychotropic agents part I: antipsychotics and antidepressants (ed. E. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), pp. 471–90. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Sulser, S., Okada, F., Manier, D. H., Gillespie, D. D., Janowsky, A. and Mishra, R. (1983). Noradrenergic signal transfer as a target of antidepressant therapy. In Frontiers in neuropsychiatric research (ed. E. Usdin, M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, and A. Georgatas), pp. 3–17. Macmillan, London.

Summers, W. K., Majovski, L. V., Marsh, G. M., Tachiki, K. and Kling, A. (1986). Oral tetra-hydroaminoacridine in long-term treatment of senile dementia. New Engl. J. Med., 315, 124, 111–5.

Svensson, T. H. and Usdin, T. (1978). Feedback inhibition of brain noradrenaline neurones by tricyclics: alpha-receptor mediation after acute and chronic treatment. Science, 202, 1081–91.

Svensson, T. H., Dahlhof, C, Engberg, G. and Hallberg, H. (1981). Central pre- and postsynaptic monoamine receptors in antidepressant therapy. Acta. Psychiat. Scand., 63, Suppl. 289, pp 67–78.

Tabakoff, B. and Hoffman, P.L. (1987). Biochemical pharmacology of alcohol. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 1521–6. Raven Press, New York.

Taggart, P., Carruthers, M. and Somerville, W. (1973). Electrocardiogram, plasma catecholamines and lipids, and their modification by oxprenolol when speaking before an audience. Lancet, ii, 341–5.

Tagliavini, F. and Pilleri, G. (1983). Neuronal counts in basal nucleus of Meynert in Alzheimer Disease and in simple senile dementia. Lancet, i, 469–70

Taha, A. and Ball, K. (1980). Smoking and Africa; the coming epidemic. Br. Med. J., 280, 991–3.

Tamminga, C. A. and Gerlach, J. (1987). New neuroleptics and experimental antipsychotics in schizophrenia. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H.Y. Meltzer), pp. 1129–40. Raven Press, New York.

(p.394) Taylor, P. (1980). Ganglion stimulating and blocking agents. In The Pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A.G. Gilman, L.S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 211–19. Macmillan, New York.

Taylor, D. (1987). Current usage of benzodiazepines in Britain. In The benzodiazepines in current clinical practice (ed. H. Freeman, and Y. Rue), pp. 13–17. Royal Society of Medicine Services Ltd., London.

Tecce, J. J., Savingnano-Bowman, J. and Cole, J. O. (1978). Drug effects on contingent negative variation and eyeblinks: the distraction-arousal hypothesis. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M.A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K.F. Killam), pp. 745–58. Raven Press, New York.

Tennakone, K. and Wickramanayake, S. (1987). Aluminium leaching from cooking utensils. Nature, 325, 202.

Teoh, R. (1988). Tardive dyskinesia. Adv. Drug Reaction Bull., 132, 496–9.

Tepper, J.M., Groves, PM. and Young, S. J. (1985). The neuropharmacology of the autoinhibition of monoamine release. Trends Pharmac. Sc, 6, 251–6.

Terenius, L. (1977). Physiological and clinical relevance of endorphins. Communication to symposium on Centrally Acting Peptides. Biological Council, April 4/5 1977, Middlesex Hospital Medical School, London.

Terenius, L. (1981). Biochemical mediators of pain. Triangle (Sandoz), 20, 19–26.

Terenius, L. (1982). Endorhphins—clinical relevance in neurology. In Advances in pharmacology and therapeutics II Vol. 1. CNS pharmacology—neuropeptides (ed. H. Yoshida, Y. Hagihara, and S. Ebashi), pp 57–65. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Thoenen, H. (1991). The changing scene of neurotrophic factors. Trends Neurosci., 14, 165–70.

Thomas, C. B. (1973). The relationship of smoking and habits of nervous tension. In Smoking behaviour: motives and incentives, (ed. W.L. Dunn), pp. 157–70. Winston and Sons, Washington DC.

Thomas, C.S. (1987). HIV and schizophrenia. Lancet, ii, 101.

Thomas, M., Halsall, S. and Peters, T.J. (1982). Role of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase in alcoholism: demonstration of persistent reduction of cytosolic activity in abstaining patients. Lancet, ii, 1057–9.

Thompson, C, Stinson, D. and Smith, A. (1990) Seasonal affective disorder and season-dependent abnormalities of melatonin suppression by light. Lancet, 336, 703–6.

Thompson, J.W. (1984a). Pain: mechanisms and principles of management. In Advanced geriatric medicine (ed. J. Grimley Evans and F. I. Caird), Vol. 4, pp. 3–16 Pitman Publishing Ltd.

Thompson, J.W. (1984b). Opioid peptides. Br. Med. J., 288 259–61.

Thorndike, E.L. (1911). Animal Intelligence. Macmillan, New York.

Ticku, M.K. (1983). Benzodiazepine-GABA receptor-ionophore complex: current concepts. Neuropharmacol., 22, 1459–70.

Timsit-Berthier, M. (1981). A propos de l’interpretation de la variation contin-gente negative en psychiatric Rev. EEG Neurophysiol., 11, 236–44.

Timsit-Berthier, M., Mantanus, H., Ansseau, M., Devoitille, J-M., Mas, A. D. and Legras, J-J. (1987). Contingent negative variation in major depressive disorders. In Current trends in event-related research (EEG Suppl. 40) (p.395) (ed. R. Johnson J. W. Rohrbangh and R. Parasuraman), pp. 762–71. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Traber, J. and Glaser, J. (1987). 5-HT1A receptor-related anxiolytics. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 432–7.

Tranel, D. T. (1983). The effects of monetary incentive and frustrative non-reward on heart rate and electrodermal activity. Psychophysiology, 20, 652–7.

Traskman, L., Asberg, M., Bartilsson, L. and Sjostrand, L. (1981). Monoamine metabolites in CSF and suicidal behaviour. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 38, 631–6.

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (1990). Receptor nomenclature supplement. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11 (Suppl.), 1–29.

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (1991). Receptor nomenclature supplement. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 12 (Suppl.), 1–35.

Tricklebank, M. D. (1989). Interactions between dopamine and 5-HT3 receptors suggest new treatments for psychosis and drug addiction. Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 10, 127–8.

Triggle, D.J. (1981). Desensitization. In Towards understanding receptors (ed. J.W. Lamble), pp. 28–33. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.

Trimble, M. R. (1981). Visual and auditory hallucinations. Trends Neurosci.,4, I-IV.

Trullas, R., Havoundjian, H., Zamir, N., Paul, S. and Skolnick, P. (1987). Environmentally-induced modification of the benzodiazepine GABA receptor coupled chloride ionophore. Psychopharmacology, 91, 384–90.

Tsuang, M. T. (1982). Long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Trends Neurosci. 5, 203–5.

Tsuchiya, T. and Kitagawa, S. (1976). Effects of benzodiazepines and pentobarbital on the evoked potentials in the cat brain. Japan. J. Pharmacol., 26, 411–18.

Tsukahara, N. (1981). Sprouting and the neuronal basis of learning. Trends Neurosci., 4, 234–7.

Tucker, D. M., Antes, J. R., Stenslie, C. E. and Barnhardt, T. M. (1978). Anxiety and lateral cerebral function. J. Abn. Psychol., 87, 380–3.

Tucker, D. M., Roth, R. S., Arneson, B. A. and Buckingham, V. (1977). Right hemisphere activation during stress. Neuropsychologic, 15, 697–700.

Turner, P. (1976). Beta-adrenoceptor blockade in hyperthyroidism and anxiety. Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 69, 375–7.

Twycross, R. G. and Lack, S. A. (1983). Symptom control in far advanced cancer: pain relief. Pitman Publishing Ltd., London.

Tyrer, P. J. (1982). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and amine precursors. In Drugs in psychiatric practice (ed. P.J. Tyrer), pp. 249–79. Butterworth, London.

Tyrer, P. J. (1984). Clinical effects of abrupt withdrawal from tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors after long-term treatment. J. Affect. Dis., 6, 1–7.

Tyrer, P.J. (1985). Neurosis divisible? Lancet, i, 685–8.

Tyrer, S.P. (1986). Learned pain behaviour. Br. Med. J., 292, 1.

Tyrer, P. (1989). Choice of treatment in anxiety. In Psychopharmacology of anxiety (ed. P. Tyrer), pp. 255–82. Oxford University Press.

(p.396) Tyrer, P. J. and Lader, M. H. (1974). Response to propranolol and diazepam in somatic and psychic anxiety. Br. Med. J., 2, 14–16.

Tyrer, P., Owen, R. and Dawling, S. (1983). Gradual withdrawal of diazepam after long-term therapy. Lancet, i, 1402–6.

Tyrer, S. and Shaw, D. M. (1982). Lithium carbonate. In Drugs in psychiatric practice (ed. P. J. Tyrer), pp. 280–312. Butterworth, London.

Tyrer, S. and Shopsin, B. (1980). Neural and Neuromuscular side-effects of lithium. In Handbook of lithium therapy (ed. F. N. Johnson), pp. 289–309. MTP Press, Lancaster.

Tyrer, S. P., Capon, M. N., Peterson, D. M., Charlton, J. E. and Thompson, J. W. (1989). The detection of psychiatric illness and psychological handicaps in a British pain clinic population. Pain, 36, 63–74.

Uchimura, N. and North, A. R. (1990). Actions of cocaine on rat nucleus accumbens neurons in vitro. Br. J. Pharmac, 99, 736–40.

Ugedo, L., Grenhoff, J. and Svensson, T. H. (1989) Ritanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, activates midbrain dopamine neurons by blocking serotonergic inhibition. Psychopharmacology, 98, 45–50.

Uhde, T. A. and Tancer, M. E. (1989) Chemical models of panic: a review and critique: In Psychopharmacology of anxiety (ed. P. Tyrer), pp. 108–31. Oxford University Press.

Uhlenuth, E. H., Baiter, M. B., Mellinger, G. D., Cisin, I. H. and Clinthorne, J. (1983). Symptom checklist syndromes in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiat., 40, 1167–73.

Vanderwolf, C. H. and Robinson, T. E. (1981). Reticulo-cortical activity and behaviour: a critique of the arousal theory and a new synthesis. Behav. Brain Sci., 4,459–514.

Van Kammen, D. P. and Gelernter, J. (1987a). Biochemical instability in schizophrenia I. The norepinephrine system. In Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer) pp. 745–51. Raven Press, New York.

Van Kammen, D. P. and Gelernter, J. (1987b). Biochemical instability in schizophrenia II. the serotonin and aminobutyric acid systems. In Psycho-pharmacology: the third generation of progress (ed. H. Y. Meltzer), pp. 753–8. Raven Press, New York.

Venables, P. H. (1980). Peripheral measures of schizophrenia. In Handbook of biological psychiatry part II. Brain mechanisms and abnormal behaviour—psychophysiology (ed. H. M. van Praag, M. A. Lader, O. J. Rafaelson, and E. J. Sachar), pp. 79–96. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Venables, P.H. (1981). Psychophysiology of abnormal behaviour. Br. Med. Bull., 37, 199–203.

Venables, N and Kelly, P.H. (1990). Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on passive avoidance learning and retrieval in rats and mice. Psychopharmacology, 100, 215–21.

Vestergaard, P., Amdisen, A. and Schou, M. (1980). Clinically significant side effects of lithium treatment. A survey of 237 patients in long-term treatment. Acta Psychiat. Scand., 62, 193–200.

Villarreal, J. E. and Salazar, L. A. (1981). The dependence-producing properties of psychomotor stimulants. In Psychotropic agents part II. (ed. F. Hoffmeister and S. Stille), pp. 607–35. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

(p.397) Vogel, G. W. (1975). A review of REM sleep deprivation. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 32,749–61.

Vogel, G. W. (1978). An alternative view of the neurobiology of dreaming. Am. J. Psychiat., 135, 1531–5.

Volicer, L. and Biagioni, T. M. (1982). Effect of ethanol administration and withdrawal on benzodiazepine receptor binding in the rat brain. Neuropharmacol., 21, 283–6.

Waddington, J. L. (1986). Behavioural correlates of the actions of selective dopamine D-l receptor agonists: impact of SCH 23390 and SKT 83566, and functionally interactive D-l: D–2 receptor systems. Biochem. Pharmacol., 35, 3611–67.

Waddington, J.L. (1989). Functional interactions between D-l and D–2 dopamine receptor systems: their role in the regulation of psychomotor behaviour, putative mechanisms, and clinical relevance. J. Psychophar-macol., 3, 54–63.

Waldhauser, F., Saletu, B. and Trinchard-Lugan, J. (1990). Sleep laboratory investigations on hypnotic properties of melatonin. Psychopharmacology, 100, 222–6.

Waldron, H. A. (1981). Effects of organic solvents. Br. J. Hosp. Med., 26, 645–9.

Wall, J. T. (1988a). Variable organisation in cortical maps of the skin as an indication of the lifelong adaptive capacities of circuits in the mammalian brain. Trends Neurosci., 11, 549–57.

Wall, P. D. (1988b). Stability and instability of central pain mechanisms. In Proceedings of the Vth World Congress on Pain (ed. R. Dubner, G. F. Gebart, and M. R. Bond), pp. 13–24. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

Wall, P. D. and McMahon, S. B. (1986). The relationship of perceived pain to afferent nerve impulses. Trends Neurosci., 96, 254–5.

Wall, R., Linford, S. M. J. and Akhter, M. (1980). Addiction to Distalgesic (dextropropoxyphene). Br. Med. J., 280, 1213–14.

Walter, W. G. (1964). Slow potential waves in the human brain associated with expectancy, attention and decision. Arch. Psychiat. Nervenkr., 206, 309–22.

Walton, J. M. (1977). Brain’s diseases of the nervous system (8th edn, revised by J.M. Walton). Oxford University Press.

Warburton, D. M. and Walters, A. C. (1989). Attentional processing. In Smoking and human behaviour (ed. T. Ney and A. Gale), pp. 223–7. Wiley, Chichester.

Warrington, E. K. (1981). Neuropsychological evidence for multiple memory systems. Acta Neurol. Scand., 64, Suppl. 89, 13–19.

Warrington, E. K. and Weiskrantz, L. (1970). Amnesic syndrome: consolidation or retrieval? Nature (Lond.), 228, 628–30.

Warrington, S. J., Turner, P., Mant, T. G. K., Morrison, P., Haywood, G., Glover, V., Goodwin, B. L., Sandler, M., John-Smith, P. St. and McClelland, G. R. (1991). Clinical pharmacology of moclobemide, a new reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor. J. Psychopharmac. 5, 82–91.

Watchell, H. and Turski, L. (1990). Glutamate: a new target in schizophrenia? Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 219–20.

(p.398) Watkins, J. C., Krogsgaard-Larson, P. and Honore, R. (1990). Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 11, 25–33.

Wauquier, A. (1984). Effect of calcium entry blockers in models of brain hypoxia. Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine, 40, 241–54.

Way, E. L. and Glasgow, C. (1978). Recent developments in morphine analgesia: tolerance and dependence. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam), pp. 1535–56. Raven Press, New York.

Webster, K. E. (1978). The brainstem reticular formation. In The biological basis of schizophrenia (ed. G. Hemmings and W. A. Hemmings), pp. 3–27. MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster.

Webster, P. A. C. (1973). Withdrawal symptoms in neonates associated with maternal antidepressant therapy. Lancet, ii, 318.

Wehr, T. A., Jacobsen, F. M. and Sack, D. A. (1986). Timing of phototherapy and its effect on melatonin secretion do not appear to be critical for its antidepressant effect in seasonal affective disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 43, 870–5.

Weinberger, D. R. (1988). Schizophrenia and the frontal lobe. Trends Neurosci., 11, 367–70.

Weinberger, D. R., Torrey, E. F., Neophytides, A. N. and Wyatt, R. J. (1979). Lateral cerebral ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 36, 735–9.

Weiner, N. (1980a). Atropine, scopolamine and related antimuscarinic drugs. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 120–37. Macmillan, New York.

Weiner, N. (1980b). Norepinephrine, epinephrine and the sympathomimetic amines. In The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (ed. A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, and A. Gilman), pp. 138–75. Macmillan, New York.

Weingartner, H., Gold, P., Ballenger, J. C., Smallberg, S. A., Summers, R., Rubinow, D. R., Post, R. M. and Goodwin, F. K. (1981). Effects of vasopressin on human memory functions. Science, 211, 601–3.

Weiskrantz, L. (1977). Trying to bridge some neurophysiological gaps between monkey and man. Br. J. Psychol. 66, 431–45.

Wen, H. L. and Cheung, S. Y. C. (1973). Treatment of drug addiction by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Asian J. Med., 9, 138–41.

Wesnes, K. and Warburton, D. M. (1978). The effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine tablets upon human attention. In Smoking behaviour: physiological and psychological influences (ed. R.E. Thornton), pp. 131–47. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

Westenberg, H. G. M. and Verhoeven, W. M. A. (1988). CSF monoamine metabolites in patients and controls: support for a bimodal distribution in major affective disorders. Acta psychiat. Scand., 78, 541–9.

Wexler, B. E. (1980). Cerebral laterality and psychiatry: a review of the literature. Am. J. Psychiat., 137, 279–91.

Wexler, B. E. and Heminger, G. R. (1979). Alterations in cerebral laterality during acute psychotic illness. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 36, 278–84.

(p.399) Whalley, L. J. (1987). Causal models of Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease: current approaches (ed. J. C. Malkin and M. N. Rossor), pp. 1–26. Duphar Laboratories Ltd., Southampton.

Whalley, L. J., Christie, J. E., Bennie, J., Dick, H., Blackburn, I. M., Blackwood, D., Sanchez Watts, G. and Fink, G. (1985). Selective increase in plasma luteinising hormone in drug free young men with mania. Br. Med. J., 290, 99–102.

Wheatley, D. (1981). Effects of drugs on sleep. In Psychopharmacology of sleep (ed. D. Wheatley), pp. 153–76. Raven Press, New York.

White, F. J. and Wang, R. Y. (1983). Differential effects of classical and atypical antipsychotic drugs on A9 and A,10 dopamine neurones. Science, 221, 1054–7.

Whitehouse, P. J., Price, D. L., Struble, R. G., Clark, A. W., Coyle, J. T. and DeLong, M. R. (1982). Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: loss of neurones in the basal forebrain, Science, 215, 1237–9.

Whitehouse, A. (1987). Should sympathomimetics be available over the counter? Br. Med. J., 295, 1308.

Whitty, C. W. M., Stores, G. and Lishman, W. A. (1977). Amnesia in cerebral disease. In Amnesia (ed. C. W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill), pp. 52–92. Butterworth, London.

Whitty, C. W. M. and Zangwill, O. L. (1977). Traumatic amnesia. In Amnesia (ed. C. W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill), pp. 118–35. Butterworth, London.

Widerlov, E., Heilig, M., Ekman, R. and Wahlstedt, C. (1989). Neuropeptide Y—possible involvement in depression and anxiety. In Neuropeptide-Y (ed. V. Mutt, T. Hokfelt, K. Fuxe, and J. Lundberg), pp. 331–42. Raven Press, New York.

Wied, D. de. (1974). Pituitary-adrenal system hormones and behaviour. In The neurosciences. Third Study Program (ed. F. O. Schmitt, and F. G. Worden), pp. 653–66. MIT Press, Cambridge. Mass.

Wied, D. de. (1984a). The importance of vasopressin in memory. Trends Neurosci., 7, 63–4.

Wied, D. de. (1984b). The importance of vasopressin in memory. Trends Neurosci., 7, 109.

Wied, D. de. and Gispen, W. H. (1977). Behavioural effects of peptides. In Peptides in neurobiology, (ed. H. Gainer), pp. 397–448. Plenum Press, New York.

Wiesel, T. N. and Hubel, D. H. (1963). Single cell response in striate cortex of kittens deprived of vision in one eye. J. Neurophysiol., 26, 1003–17.

Wiesnieski, H. M. and Iqbal, K. (1980). Ageing of the brain and dementia. Trends Neurosci., 3, 226–8.

Wilcock, G. K. and Esiri, M. M. (1983). Age and Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet, ii, 346.

Wilkins, A. J., Jenkins, W. J. and Steiner, J. A. (1983). Efficacy of clonidine in treatment of alcohol withdrawal state. Psychopharmacology, 81, 78–80.

Wilkinson, R. T. (1965). Sleep deprivation. In The physiology of human survival (ed. O. G. Edholm and A. L. Bacharach), pp. 399–430. Academic Press, London.

(p.400) Williams, M. (1977). Memory disorders associated with electroconvulsive therapy. In Amnesia (ed. C. W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill), pp. 183–98. Butterworth, London.

Williams, D. G. (1980). Effects of cigarette smoking on immediate memory and performance in different kinds of smoker. Br. J. Psychol., 71, 83–90.

Williams, M. (1984). Adenosine—a selective neuromodulator in mammalian CNS? Trends Neurosci., 7, 164–8.

Willner, P. (1984). The validity of animal models of depression. Psycho-pharmacology, 83, 1–16.

Willner, P. and Montgomery, T. (1980). Neurotransmitters and depression: too much, too little, too unstable—or not unstable enough? Trends Neurosci., 3, 201.

Wilson, P. R. and Yaksh, T. L. (1980). Pharmacology of pain and analgesia. Anaesth. Intens. Care., 8, 248–56.

Winger, G. (1987). PCP-NMDA connection provides hope in cerebral ischemia but new direction for antipsychotics. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 8, 321–5.

Wise, R. A. (1980). The dopamine synapse and the notion of ‘pleasure centres’ in the brain. Trends Neurosci., 3, 91–5.

Wise, R. A. and Bozarth, M. A. (1987). A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction. Psychological Review, 94, 469–92.

Wodak, A. D., Saunders, J. B., Ewusi-Mensah, I., Davis, M. and Williams, R. (1983). Severity of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Br. Med. J., 287, 1420–2.

Wood, P. L. and Stotland, L. M. (1980). Actions of enkephalin, mu and partial agonist analgesics on acetylcholine turnover in the rat brain. Neuropharmacol., 19, 975–82.

Woods, B. T. (1983). Is the left hemisphere specialised for language at birth? Trends Neurosci., 6, 115–17.

Woods, J. H. (1978). Behavioural pharmacology of drug self-administration. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam), pp. 595–607. Raven Press, New York.

Woods, J. H., Katz, J. L. and Winger, G. (1987). Abuse liability of benzodiazepines. Pharmacol. Rev., 39, 251–419.

World Health Organization (1979). Schizophrenia: an international follow-up study. Wiley, Chichester.

Wozniak, D. F., Olney, J. W., Kettinger, L., Price, M. and Miller, J. P. (1990). Behavioural effects of MK–801 in the rat. Psychopharmacology, 101, 47–56.

Wyatt, R. J. and Gillin, J. C. (1976). Biochemistry and human sleep. In Pharmacology of sleep (ed. R. L. Williams, I. Karacan, and J. H. Masserman), pp. 239–74. Wiley, New York.

Yaksh, T. L. (1982). Opioid peptides and analgesics: sites of action. In Advances in pharmacology and therapeutics II Vol. I. CNS pharmacology—neuropeptides (ed. H. Yoshida, Y. Hagihara, and S. Ebashi), pp. 29–38. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Yaksh, T. L. and Hammond, D. L. (1982). Peripheral and central substrates involved in the rostral transmission of nociceptive information. Pain, 13, 1–85.

(p.401) Yaksh, T. L. and Rudy, T. A. (1978). Narcotic analgetics: CNS sites and mechanisms of action as revealed by intracerebral injection techniques. Pain, 4, 299–359.

Yanagida, H. (1978). Congenital insensitivity and naloxone. Lancet, ii, 520–1.

Yanagita, T. (1981). Dependence-producing effects of anxiolytics. In Handbook of experimental pharmacology (ed. H. Hoffmeister and G. Stille), Vol. 55, pp. 395–408. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Yates, M. and Ferrier, I. N. (1990). 5-HT,1A receptors in major depression. J. Psychopharmacol., 4, 69–74.

Young, J. P. R., Hughes, W. C. and Lader, M. H. (1976). a controlled comparison of flupenthixol and amitriptyline in depressed outpatients. Br. Med. J., 1, 1116–18.

Young, J. Z. (1966). The memory system of the brain. Oxford University. Oxford.

Young, J. Z. (1979). Learning as a process of selection and amplification. J. Roy. Soc. Med., 72, 801–14.

Young, W. S. and Kuhar, M. J. (1980) Radiohistochemical localisation of benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 212,337–46.

Zangwill, O. L. (1977). The Amnesic Syndrome. In Amnesia (ed. C.W. M. Whitty and O. L. Zangwill), pp. 104–35. Butterworth, London and Boston.

Zeisel, S. H., Reinstein, D. K., Wurtman, R. J., Corkin, S. and Growdon, J. H. (1981). Memory disorders associated with ageing. Trends Neurosci., 4, VIII–IX.

Zelsen, C, Lee, S. J. and Casalino, M. (1973). Comparative effects of maternal intake of heroin and methadone. New Engl. J. Med., 289, 1216–19.

Zimmerman, M. (1981). Physiological mechanisms of pain and pain therapy. Triangle (Sandoz)., 20, 7–17.

Zornetzer, S. F. (1978). Neurotransmitter modulation and memory: a new neuropharmacological phrenology. In Psychopharmacology: a generation of progress (ed. M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam), pp. 637–49. Raven Press, New York.