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Democracy in the WoodsEnvironmental Conservation and Social Justice in India, Tanzania, and Mexico$
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Prakash Kashwan

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780190637385

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190637385.001.0001

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Toward Social Justice and Enduring Nature Conservation

(p.207) Chapter 8 Conclusion
Democracy in the Woods

Prakash Kashwan

Oxford University Press

This concluding chapter summarizes the findings reported in Democracy in the Woods and offers theoretical insights and critical reflections about political mediation of the equally valued goals of social justice and environmental conservation. It examines how the supposedly neutral concept of “property rights” is applied very differently in policy contexts that favor pollution-emitting industries compared with policy contexts that favor socially and politically marginalized forest-dependent people. A key argument is that the two important goals of social justice and environmental conservation are often in conflict because of the manner in which state actors—political elites and government officials—seek to exploit forestry and wildlife conservation programs to secure political and economic goals that they value. This chapter also offers suggestions for extending the political economy of institutions framework beyond the empirical focus on environmental policy and politics to social, economic, and political questions of broader significance.

Keywords:   political mediation, environmental policy, property rights, market-based instruments, climate change mitigation, social justice, swidden, inequality, Anthropocene

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