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Jerome of Prague and the Foundations of the Hussite Movement$

Thomas A. Fudge

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780190498849

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190498849.001.0001

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(p.301) Appendix 1 Jerome, The Shield of the Christian Faith, 1406

(p.301) Appendix 1 Jerome, The Shield of the Christian Faith, 1406

Source:
Jerome of Prague and the Foundations of the Hussite Movement
Author(s):

Thomas A. Fudge

Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Snow, ice, rain—three names, but in spite of this only one thing: so also God is in three persons but only one, he is the Father with the Son and the Spirit who is breathed forth by them at the same time.

It is necessary to know that the aforementioned differ from each other, but also concur with each other. They differ in this way. Because in the nature of God the Father is to give birth to the Son, while the Son only has the possibility of being born. The Father is not identical with the Son. Also it is the nature of the Holy Spirit to proceed from both. Therefore God the Son is not the Holy Spirit. Similarly, the nature of the Father is not to proceed from both persons. Therefore, God the Father is not the Holy Spirit. Also, the nature of God the Father is to engender actively, which the Holy Spirit cannot. Therefore, the Holy Spirit is not God the Father, and God the Father is not the Holy Spirit, and so on.

However, they concur in one thing, in essence, which is in divinity. Because the Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God, and thus they concur in one essence, which is common to all three persons. Thus Christ correctly says: I and the Father are one, which is to say [one] in essence. He does not say “we are one” in person, because the persons are different.

Similarly, memory is not reason and so on, because memory is the capacity to memorize, reason is the capability of thinking and the will is the capacity of wanting. However, the capability of memorizing is not thinking or wanting and by this they differ from each other. However, they concur in one essence, (p.302) namely in the soul, which is common to all of them, because reason is soul, memory is soul, and the will is also soul.

In the same way, ice is not rain and rain is not snow and snow is not ice and so on. However, they concur not because their essence is water, but because water is the common nature of these concurring things. And so, in spite of the fact that all these things differ from each other, they concur in one essence.

In the same manner, creatures concur in something common, and though they differ from each other in many ways, for example a human and a donkey, they are the same thing, not in one particular thing, but in one common thing, which is as a creature. The limitation of the species can be defined by the statement, a human is a soulful substance capable of sensory perception, a donkey is a substance, and so on.

Similarly, Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine differ, because Ambrose is not Jerome, etc., but they concur in the common essence. Because it is correct to say that Jerome is human and the same about the others and that a human is a mortal creature endowed with reason, and so on. It is the common unity, because if it were a numerical unity, then Jerome would be Ambrose and so forth. But because they do not differ by number, though Jerome and Augustine are the same thing, because one and the other is a creature endowed with reason, it is possible to admit that Augustine, Ambrose, and Jerome are three human beings, as far as the persons are concerned, but not three humans as far as essence is concerned, that is to say, that there are three human natures. From this arises that there are three divine persons, but not so far as essence is concerned, which means that there are three divine essences.

The Trinity made the uncreated Trinity in its own image and likeness.

ST, vol. 3, pp. 21–23; and Šmahel/Silagi, pp. 195–197.